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The Early Republic, 1789-1815

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The Early Republic, 1789-1815 Federalist Era: 1789-1800 (within larger historical era) Dominated politics Hatred of political parties/ but still emerged – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Early Republic, 1789-1815


1
The Early Republic, 1789-1815
  • Federalist Era 1789-1800 (within larger
    historical era)
  • Dominated politics
  • Hatred of political parties/ but still emerged
  • Fiscal military state vs. rural agricultural
    state
  • By 1815 (historian Gordon S. Wood)
  • Culture popularized and vulgarized
  • End of slavery in North/ remained in South
  • Wanted to avoid war/ became embroiled in war

2
The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson, 1801-1809
  • Personal
  • Spoke six languages
  • Copy of Quran (1764- 2 volume)
  • Widowed
  • Conflicted about slavery
  • Opposed slave trade/only freed seven of hundreds
    of slaves/anti-Black sentiment
  • 6,487 books- sold to Library of Congress
  • 1819- Founded the University of Virginia.
  • Political Agenda Overview
  • Promotion of political democracy and expansion
  • Yeoman farmer/ artisans, tradesman
  • Political democracyeconomically independent
    citizenry
  • Decrease Executive branch
  • Legal precedent Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
    Judicial review
  • Foreign Policy
  • Impulse Expansion vs. Avoiding War
  • Haiti, Napoleon, and the Louisiana Purchase
  • Barbary States (North Africa)
  • Embargo Act (1807)

3
Social Ideologies of Thomas Jefferson
  • Social
  • Education
  • Amendment/ failed
  • Six goals of Education
  • Jeffersonian Democracy
  • Narrow interpretation of Constitution
  • Opposed Federalist Party supported
  • The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth
  • Razor and glue. New Testament
  • 1803 Letter about convo with Dr. Benjamin Rush
    (Natchez, MS)
  • Composed it for himself
  • Notes of the State of Virginia. (1785)
  • Inherent inferiority OR Decades of degrading
    enslavement.
  • Anti-Slavery Actions vs. Anti-Black Thought
  • 1778- Virginia/ prohibit importation of slaves
  • 1785-publically silent

4
A Hideous Monster of the Mind American Race
Theory in the Early Republic
  • Anti-slavery/Pro-Black Thought
  • English abolitionist- Granville Sharp
  • American abolitionist- Lemuel Haynes
  • Alaudah Equiano and John Marrant
  • Phillis Wheatley
  • Emergence of Race Theory
  • Assumptions of fundamental variations in humanity
    (physiology)
  • Protection of social institutions Exclusion from
    social contract and civil society.
  • Differences rooted in Nature. Nature itself was
    cast as the enemy of Black freedom.
  • Undid 18th century abolitionism (End of slave
    trade vs. acceptance into society)
  • Ideology- served as a way to remove Blacks from
    American society. Blackness becomes innate.
  • Development Via
  • Political thought, natural science, moral
    philosophy, responses to Haitian revolution,
    colonization to Liberia, abolitionism, and
    ethnology.

5
Setting the Precedent Judicial Review, One Big
Land Purchase, and the Corps of Discovery
  • Judicial Review
  • Marbury v. Madison
  • Problematic John Adams Federalist Midnight
    judges.
  • Federalist Judge ruled against government
  • End Result Judicial Review.
  • Prohibit actions of other two branches if
    contradict Constitution.
  • The Louisiana Purchase
  • Men of the Western Waters
  • Napoleons Plans for Louisiana
  • Jeffersons Plan to Secure Louisiana
  • The Lewis and Clark Expedition
  • Corps of Discovery
  • Sacajawea
  • Incorporating Louisiana

6
Pirates in the Mediterranean Northwest African
Berber Muslim states and the United States
  • Setting the Stage The Berbers in North Africa
  • The Barbary States Tripoli, Algiers,
    MoroccoPiracy of Mediterranean shipping
  • Extort ransom, pillage, enslavement of crews
  • U.S.- No Navy/ Tribute to Barbary states
  • Spain 1784 suggested to offer tribute
  • Envoys to Morocco and Algeria
  • Peace treaty 12 June 1786 ended all Moroccan
    piracy/ Article 6/ Morocco
  • Algeria 25 July 1785- capture of schooners Maria
    and Dauphin
  • Captive for a decade. 600,000 each state
  • 1795 release of 115 sailors, over 1 million
    dollars
  • Jefferson refusal 1801. Pasha of Tripoli,
    225,000/cut down flagstaff
  • The First Barbary War 1801-1805
  • Second Barbary War 1815. Algerian War, Ottoman
    Empire

7
Gossip and Conspiracies in the Early Republic
  • The Case of Sally Hemings (The Revolutionary
    Period)
  • Biracial Enslaved Elizabeth Hemings and English
    Captain John Hemings
  • 1774 property of Thomas Jefferson
  • Paris, 1787.
  • Six children
  • Was not emancipated.
  • The Burr Conspiracy A Treasonous Cabal and Texas
    Territory
  • 1805-1806 Travels to Texas Territory (Spanish).
  • Planters, Politicians, Army Officials. Plans in
    Newspaper, August 1805.
  • Arrest 1806.
  • Trial Charge of Treason. Not Guilty
  • Lack of Evidence
  • Legacy
  • Privilege Executive and States
  • Independence of Investigation
  • Subpoenas Issue of release of papers
  • Executive independent of Judiciary
  • President Subject to Law

8
European Harassment and An Embargo
  • Harassment by Britain
  • Contest for world power 1791-1815
  • Seized American citizens and property
  • Impressment 2nd Jefferson Administration
  • 1795 Jay Treaty Did not address this issue
  • Forcibly seizing ships and sailors to work in
    Royal Navy
  • American warship the USS Chesapeake
  • Growing pressure for war
  • Embargo Act of 1807
  • Prohibited all foreign commerce/respect of
    American rights
  • Failed to compel
  • Jefferson-hypocrite- foe of excessive
    government/U.S. Navy patrols
  • Stimulated domestic manufacturing
  • Repealed Non-Intercourse Act of 1809

9
Presidency of James Madison, 1809-1817
  • Characteristics
  • 4th president War and Domestic Policy
  • Term dominated by tensions with Britain
  • Pressured towards war with Great Britain- War of
    1812
  • (Theatre of Napoleonic Wars)
  • Domestic Problems War-hawks, the Indigenous,
    Frontier
  • Era of Good Feelings
  • Indigenous Policies
  • Paternalistic
  • Protected indigenous lands (military commander
    Andrew Jackson)
  • Battle of Tippecanoe (1811)- Indiana Territory
    and Tecumseh
  • Economic Policies
  • Congress failed to re-authorize charter of first
    Bank of America
  • 1816- signed act/ federal bank supported war
  • Taxation tariffs, professional military,
    internal improvements (Henry Clay)
  • Vetoed Bonus Bill of 1817 financed roads,
    bridges, canals

10
The War of 1812
  • Causes
  • Violation of American Rights Increased British
    navy aggression
  • U.S. neutral- against international law
  • Royal Nay boarded ships/Impressed its seamen
  • Expansion
  • British armed indigenous in Northwest Territory
    to create buffer zone
  • Economic Motivations
  • Unfinished business from American Revolution
  • War or Absolute submission
  • Incidents
  • 1807 HMS Leopard boarded American warship USS
    Chesapeake
  • Leander Affair Jefferson banned ships in ports
  • Napoleons Continental System (1806) and British
    Orders in Council (1807)
  • 900 American ships seized- 1807-1812
  • 1 June 1812 Madison outlines grievances against
    Britain

11
Course of War of 1812
  • Course of War
  • Land, Coasts, and Waterways
  • The War in the South
  • Creek War Andrew Jackson (1813-1814)
  • Began as Civil War within Creek Nation
  • Red Sticks
  • Battle of Burnt Corn U.S. Involvement
  • Tecumseh
  • Red Sticks
  • Fort Mims Massacre massacre against whites and
    biracial Creeks
  • Treaty of 1814 Language. 20 million acres of
    Georgia land
  • Battle of New Orleans
  • The War in the Chesapeake
  • British response to burning of York in Upper
    Canada
  • Burned White House in 1814
  • Francis Scott Key The Star Spangled Banner

12
Dolley Madison and Washington City
  • National Capital
  • Land given by Maryland
  • Jefferson Dismal Indian swamp
  • Dolley Madison
  • 17 years younger
  • Social graces and hospitality
  • Stand-in for First Lady of Jefferson
  • Architect Benjamin Latrobe
  • Burning of Washington, 1814
  • Statue of George Washington
  • Organized enslaved to save valuables
  • Paul Jennings James Madisons personal servant
    (15 years old)
  • Purchased freedom from Dolley Madison
  • Reconstruction
  • 2009 Jennings reunion/ Enslaved Contributions/
    White House

13
Treaty of Ghent 24 December 1814
  • Key Points
  • Conditions of pre-war status
  • Arranged prior to Battle of New Orleans
  • Status quo antebellum
  • Released all prisoners
  • Restored all war lands and boats
  • British- return of freed Black slaves
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