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Introduction to Biotechnology

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Introduction to Biotechnology Mr. Tsigaridis SDS-PAGE Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, is a technique used in biochemistry, genetics and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Biotechnology


1
Introduction to Biotechnology
  • Mr. Tsigaridis

2
Why use it?
  • What are some of the advantages to
    biotechnologies in genetics?
  • The offer us advances in pharmacogenomics
  • They allow individuals to identify problems early
    on
  • They allow for identification of changes at the
    genetic level

3
Why use it?
  • What are some of the disadvantages to
    biotechnologies in genetics?
  • They create ethical issues (euthanasia,
    abortions)
  • WE DONT KNOW

4
What is out there?
  • The biotechnologies that we are going to look at
    in this presentation are as follows
  • Amniocentesis
  • Fetoscopy
  • Ultra Sound
  • Chorionic Villus Sampling
  • PCR
  • SDS-PAGE
  • Adenovidus Vectoring (gene therapy)
  • DNA Micro Array

5
Amniocentesis
  • What is amniocentesis
  • It is a medical procedure used in prenatal
    diagnostics
  • A small amount of amniotic fluid is sampled
  • The fluid contains fetal tissue
  • It is extracted through the amnion (sac)
  • DNA is then examined for abnormalities

6
Amniocentesis
7
Amniocentesis Application
8
Amniocentesis Application
  • What can it be used for?
  • It can be used to identify the sex of a fetus
  • It can be used to identify genetic disorders,
    either from karyotyping or from genetic analysis
    (mapping of genome)
  • Is this good or bad (talk about it with a
    partner, and then bring your ideas back to me)

9
Some of the dangers
  • Infection can occur from the puncture
  • Incomplete healing can cause leakage and
    infection of the amniotic sac

10
Fetoscopy
  • What is a fetoscopy
  • This is an endoscopic procedure that allows the
    medical professional access to the fetus,
    amniotic cavity, the umbilical cord, and the
    fetal side of the placenta

11
Fetoscopy
  • What is it used for?
  • It allows for medical interventions such as
  • Biopsy
  • Laser occlusion of damaged blood vessels

12
Fetoscopy
13
An important use
  • It can also be used to perform blood transfusions
    of fetuses
  • It can save the fetuses life
  • It can also be a first step in identifying
    genetic disorders that a fetus may have

14
Dangers of fetoscopies
  • The incisions may become infected
  • Leakage of the amniotic fluid into the body
    cavity may occur

15
Chorionic Villus Sampling
  • Is a form of prenatal diagnostic testing
  • It is used to identify prenatal chromosomal and
    genetic disorders

16
How it is done?
  • A sample of the chorionic villus is taken and
    tested
  • What is the chorionic villus?
  • Placental Tissue

17
When it is done?
  • Its advantage comes with its timing
  • It can happen from weeks 10-13 after the last
    period
  • This is a better technique than amniocentesis
    because that can only happen from weeks 15-18

18
CSV Chorionic Villus Sampling
19
Reasons for having it done
  • Mother's age of 35 years or greater
  • Abnormal first trimester screen results
  • Increased nuchal translucency or other abnormal
    ultrasound findings
  • Family history of a chromosomal abnormalities or
    other genetic disorders
  • Parents are known carriers for a genetic disorder

20
UltraSound
  • Is cyclic sound pressure with a frequency that is
    greater than that of human hearing

21
UltraSound
  • The production of ultrasound is used in many
    different fields
  • It is used to penetrate a medium and measure the
    reflection signature
  • This reveals information about the inner
    structure of the medium

22
The old ultrasound
23
The new ultrasound
24
Other uses
  • Studying the earth
  • Cleaning teeth
  • Breaking kidney/gull stones

25
PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • It is widely used in molecular biology
  • Created by Kary Mullis
  • This allows for amplification of small amounts of
    DNA

26
The secret
  • Thermus Aquatiucs
  • AKA - TAQ

27
Why Taq?
  • The reason they wanted to use this bacteria was
    because it lives at such high temperatures
  • The Polymerase (the enzyme that lays down
    nucleotides) works at high temperature
  • Higher than that of DNAs denaturing point

28
The process
  • What goes in the tube?
  • DNA of interest
  • Primers
  • Taq Polymerase
  • Nucleotides (lots of them)
  • Water
  • Magnesium

29
Then what happens
  • They put the eppendorf tubes into the PCR cycler
  • The process is repeated many times

30
Why it works?
31
Some Math
  • 20 1
  • 21 2
  • 22 4
  • 23 8
  • 223 8,388,608
  • 236 68,719,476,736

32
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33
What are the uses
  • Studying genes
  • Forensics
  • Today basically all gene related research

34
SDS-PAGE
  • Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel
    electrophoresis, is a technique used in
    biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology to
    separate proteins according to their
    electrophoretic mobility
  • They are separated as a function of their size

35
What is it used for?
  • Genetic testing
  • Paternity testing
  • Forensics

36
The Apparatus
37
The Point
38
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39
DNA Micro Array
  • A DNA microarray is an arrayed series of
    microscopic spots of DNA Oligonucleotides
  • Each spot contains picomoles of a specific unique
    sequence, such a stretch of a gene sequence
  • What is a picomole?

40
The breakdown
  • pico p 10-12
  • nano n 10-9
  • micro µ 10-6
  • milli m 10-3
  • centi c 10-2
  • deci d 10-1
  • kilo k 103
  • mega M 106
  • giga G 109
  • tera T 1012

41
What is it used for
  • It is used to do many thousands of experiments at
    once
  • It can be used to identify if a certain gene is
    present
  • Or it can be used to identify if a gene is
    expressed, over expressed or underexpressed

42
What it looks like
43
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44
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45
Gene Therapy Adenovirus Vector
  • Viral vectors are a tool commonly used by
    molecular biologists to deliver genetic material
    into cells
  • A common virus is adenovirus, HSV

46
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