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THE CONCEPT OF BEST FIT EMPLOYEE

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Title: THE CONCEPT OF BEST FIT EMPLOYEE


1
THE CONCEPT OF BEST FIT EMPLOYEE
  • Unit - II

- I. Arul Edison Anthony Raj, MBA, M.Phil.,
PGDIB, ADHRM(UK). Assistant Professor E.G.S.
Pillay Engineering College, Nagapattinam.
2
HR PLANNING
  • Human resource planning (HRP) The Process of
    systematically reviewing human resource
    requirements to ensure that the required numbers
    of employees, with the required skills, are
    available when and where they are needed.

3
Definition of HR Planning
  • According to Leon C. Megginson, human resource
    planning is an integrated approach to performing
    the planning aspects of the personnel function in
    order to have a sufficient supply of adequately
    developed and motivated people to perform the
    duties and tasks required to meet organizational
    objectives and satisfy the individual needs and
    goals of organizational members.

4
Objectives of HR Planning
  • The important obj., of manpower planning in an
    org., are
  • To recruit retain the human resources of
    required quantity and quality.
  • To foresee the employee turnover and make the
    arrangements for minimizing turnover and filling
    up of consequent vacancies.
  • To foresee the impact of technology on work,
    existing employees future human resource
    requirements.

5
Cont.,
  • To improve the standard, skill, knowledge,
    ability, discipline, etc.
  • To minimize imbalances caused due to
    non-availability of human resources of the right
    kind, right number in right time and right place.

6
HUMAN RESOURCE PLANNING PROCESS
Human Resource Planning
Forecasting Human Resource Requirements
Comparing Requirements Availability
Forecasting Human Resource Availability
Demand Supply
Surplus of Workers
Shortage of Workers
Recruitment
No Action
Restricted Hiring, Reduced Hours, Early
Retirement, Layoffs, Downsizing
Selection
7
Cont.,
  • Process of HRP consists of the following steps
  • Analyzing the corporate unit level strategies.
  • Demand Forecasting Forecasting the overall human
    resource requirements in accordance with the
    organizational plans.
  • Supply Forecasting Obtaining the data
    information about the present inventory of human
    resource and forecast the future changes in the
    human resource inventory.

8
HUMAN RESOURCE FORECASTING
  • Human resource forecasting is the process by
    which an organization estimates it future human
    resource needs.
  • Forecasting Forecasting
  • Human Resource human human
  • Forecasting resource resource
  • demands supplies

9
Ranges of HR Forecasting
  • Human resource forecasting may be categorized
    into three based on the time frame, as
  • Short range forecasting (0 2 years),
  • Intermediate range forecasting (2 5 years), and
  • Long range forecasting (beyond 5 years).

10
Human Resource Forecasting Techniques
  • Zero-base forecasting
  • A method for estimating future employment needs
    using the organizations current level of
    employment as the starting point.
  • Bottom up approach
  • A forecasting method beginning with the lowest
    organizational units and progressing upward
    through an organization ultimately to provide an
    aggregate forecast of employment needs.

11
Cont.,
  • Simulation
  • A technique for experimenting with a real world
    situation by means of a mathematical model that
    represents the actual situation.
  • What would happen if we put 10 percent of the
    present workforce on overtime?
  • What would happen if the plant utilized two
    shifts? Three shifts?

12
Forecasting Human Resource Requirements
  • An estimate of the number and kinds of employees
    an organization will need at future dates to
    realize its stated objectives.

13
Demand forecasting of the overall HR Requirements
  • Managerial Judgment
  • Under this method, managers decide the number of
    employees required future operations based on
    their past experience.

14
Cont.,
  • Statistical techniques include
  • Regression analysis, Ratio-trend analysis and
    econometric models

15
Cont.,
  • Work study techniques
  • Under this method, total production activities
    in term of clear units are estimated in a year.
  • Then man-hours required to produce each unit is
    calculated.
  • Later, the required number of employees is
    calculated.

16
SUPPLY FORECASTING
  • The future supply of human resources is to obtain
    the data and information about the present human
    resources inventory.
  • Existing Inventory The data relating to present
    human resources inventory in terms of human
    resources components, number, designation-wise
    and department-wise should be obtained.

17
Recent Trends in HRP
  • Outsourcing Most of the org., started to plan
    for outsourcing human resources rather than HRP
    in order to
  • Reduce the cost of human resources
  • Avoid the difficulties in human resources mgt.,
  • Reduce the negative implications of overstaffing.

18
JOB ANALYSIS
  • Job analysis is a systematic process of gathering
    and making certain judgments about all of the
    important information related to the nature of
    the job.
  • Job analysis is a systematic way to gather and
    analyze information about the content of jobs,
    human requirements, and the context in which job
    are performed.

19
Cont.,
Job Analysis A process for obtaining all
pertinent job facts
  • Job Description
  • A statement containing items such as
  • Job title
  • Job code
  • Location
  • Job summary
  • Job duties
  • Working conditions
  • Approvals
  • Job Specification
  • A statement of the human qualifications necessary
    to do the job. Usually contains items such as
  • Education Experience
  • Aptitudes
  • Physical efforts
  • Physical skills
  • Communication skills
  • Emotional characteristics

20
Definition
  • Job analysis may be defined as the process of
    studying and collecting information relating to
    the operations and responsibilities of a specific
    job.

21
Cont.,
  • Job analysis provides answers of the following
    aspects of the job
  • What a worker does? (Worker functions)
  • How a worker does it? (methods and techniques)
  • What aids are necessary? (machines, tools,
    equipment's)
  • What is accomplished? (products/services
    produced)
  • What knowledge, skills, abilities are involved?
    (qualifications required)

22
Job Analysis Terminology
  • Job element It is the smallest unit into which
    work can be divided.
  • Task It is a distinct work activity carried out
    for a distinct purpose.
  • Duty Its defined area of work (duty in a number
    of tasks).
  • Position It is the set of tasks duties
    performed (each person in an org., has a
    position).

23
Cont.,
  • Job Duties and responsibilities.
  • Job family A group of two or more jobs that have
    similar job duties.
  • Occupation It refers to a general class of jobs.
  • Career Sequence of jobs that an individual has
    held throughout his or her working life.
  • Job description Statement of duties
    responsibilities of a specific job.

24
Cont.,
  • Job Specification It is a statement of min
    acceptable human qualities necessary to preform a
    job properly.
  • Job Classification Specified basic such as kind
    of work or pay.
  • Job evaluation Determining the worth of a job in
    relation to other jobs.

25
Purpose of Job Analysis
  • Preparation of job descriptions
  • Writing job specification
  • Legal compliance
  • Job design
  • Recruitment

26
Cont.,
  • Selection
  • Performance appraisal
  • Training and development
  • Career planning and development
  • Compensation and benefits
  • Safety and health

27
Job Analysis Techniques
  • Observation method
  • Interview method
  • Structured questionnaires method
  • Employee diary / log method
  • Technical conference method
  • Structured analysis
  • Position analysis questionnaire (PAQ)
  • Functional job analysis (FJA)
  • Combination method.

28
JOB DESCRIPTIONS
  • Job description is a written description of what
    the job entails.
  • It is a written statement of the content of a job
    which is derived from he job analysis. It states
    what the job holder does, how it is done, under
    what conditions it is done and why it is done.

29
JOB SPECIFICATIONS
  • A job specification is a document which states
    the minimum acceptable human qualities necessary
    to perform the job successfully.
  • Actually, the job specification evolves from the
    job description.

30
RECRUITMENT
  • The process of attracting individuals on a timely
    basis, in sufficient number, and with appropriate
    qualifications, and encouraging them to apply for
    jobs with an organization.
  • Some people use the term recruitment for
    employment.

31
Definition
  • According to Edwin B. Flippo defined recruitment
    as the process of searching for prospective
    employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs
    in the organization

32
Objectives
  • To infuse fresh blood at all levels of the org.,
  • To induct outsiders with a new perspective to
    lead the company,
  • To search or head hunt / head pouch people whose
    skills fit the companys values,
  • To search for talent globally and not just within
    the company,

33
RECRUITMENT PROCESS
EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
Human Resource Planning
Alternatives to Recruitment
Recruitment
Internal Sources
External Sources
Internal Methods
External Methods
Recruited Individuals
34
ALTERNATIVES TO RECRUITMENT
  • Outsourcing Transferring responsibility for an
    area of service and its objectives to an external
    provider.
  • Contingent Workers Work as Part timers,
    temporaries, or independent contractors,
  • Professional employer organization (PEO)
    Employee Leasing

35
SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT
Sources of Recruitment
Traditional Sources
Modern Sources
Internal
Internal
External
External
Job Posting Campus Employee Walk-in
Application Job Bidding Recruitment
Referrals Consult in Re-trenched
/ Private Employment Head Hunting
Retired Employees Agencies/Consultants Body
shopping Dependents of Deceased Public
Employment Mergers and Disabled,
Retired Exchanges Acquisitions and
present Professional Tele Employees
Associations Recruitment Data
Banks Outsourcing Casual Applicants Job
Fair Similar Advertising organizations
/ Competitors Trade Unions
36
SELECTION
  • The process of choosing from a group of
    applicants those individuals best suited for a
    particular position and organization.

37
Definition
  • According to P Subba Rao defines, after
    identifying the sources of human resources,
    searching for prospective employees and
    stimulating them to apply for jobs in an
    organization, the management has to perform the
    function of selecting the right employees at the
    right time. The obvious guiding policy in
    selection is the intention to choose the best
    qualified and suitable job candidate for each
    unfilled job.

38
Essentials of Selection Procedure
  • Someone should have the authority to select. This
    authority comes from the employment requisition,
    as developed by an analysis of the work-load and
    work-force.
  • There must be a sufficient number of applicants
    from whom the required number of employees may be
    selected.

39
Organization for Selection
  • The manner in which tasks responsibilities for
    accepting or rejecting candidates should be
    shared by line staff executives must be laid
    down.
  • The personnel development should eliminate
    unsuccessful candidates.

40
Cont.,
  • Line executive is ultimately vested with the
    authority either to accept or to reject a
    candidates.
  • The personnel officer has a duty to see that the
    right types of personnel are selected and
    placement is done wisely.

41
SELECTION PROCEDURE
  • Selection procedure employs several methods of
    collecting information about the candidates
    qualifications, experience, physical mental
    ability, nature and behaviour, knowledge,
    aptitude the like of judging whether a given
    applicant is suitable or not for the job.

42
Cont.,
  • The selection procedure is not a single act but
    is essentially a series of methods or stages by
    which different types of information can be
    secured through various selection techniques.

43
Steps in Scientific Selection Process
Development of Bases for Selection
Application / Resume / CV / Bio-data
Job Analysis
Written Examination
Preliminary Interview
Human Resource Plan
Business Games
Tests
Recruitment
Final Interview
Medical Examination
Reference Checks
Assess the Fit b/w the Job the Candidate
Line Managers Decision
Job Offer
Employment
44
PLACEMENT
  • When once the candidate reports for duty, the
    organization has to place him initially in that
    job for which he is selected.
  • Immediately the candidate will be trained in
    various related jobs during the period of
    probation of training or trail.

45
Cont.,
  • The organization generally decides the final
    placement after the initial training is over on
    the basis of the candidates aptitude and
    performance during the training / probation
    period.
  • Probation period generally ranges between six
    months to two years.

46
Cont.,
  • If the performance is not satisfactory, the
    organization may extend the probation or ask the
    candidate to quit the job.
  • If the employees performance during the
    probation period is satisfactory, his services
    will be regularized he will be placed
    permanently on a job.

47
Employee Placement Process
  • Collect details about the employee
  • Construct the employees profile
  • Match between sub-group profile individuals
    profile
  • Compare sub-group profile to job family profile
  • Match between job family profile and sub-group
    profile
  • Assign the individuals to the job family
  • Assign the individual to specific job after
    further counselling assessment.

48
Problems in Placement
  • Employee expectations
  • Job expectation / description
  • Change in technology
  • Change in technology
  • Changes in organizational structure
  • Social and psychological factors

49
How to Make Placement Effective
  • Job rotation
  • Teamwork
  • Training and development
  • Job enrichment
  • Empowerment

50
INDUCTION / ORIENTATION
  • Introducing the new employee who is designated as
    a probationer to the job, job location,
    surroundings, organization, organizational
    surroundings and various employees is the final
    step of employment process.

51
Cont.,
  • Induction is the process of receiving and
    welcoming an employee when he first joins a
    company and giving him the basic information he
    needs to settle down quickly and happily and
    start work.

52
Purposes of Orientation
  • To create a favorable impression
  • To reduce anxiety and hazing
  • To develop realistic job expectations
  • To reduce start-up costs
  • To save time and effort
  • To improve new worker productivity
  • To reduce turnover
  • To reduce conflict
  • To strengthen organization culture

53
Orientation Process
  • General orientation (by the staff of the HR
    department)
  • Specific orientation (by the job supervisor)
  • Follow-up orientation (by either the HR
    department or the supervisor)

54
SOCIALIZATION
  • Socialization strategies is used for orienting
    new employees
  • Orientation is a narrow term (only a small part
    of the overall socialization process).
  • Socialization may be defined as a process of
    adaptation to a new culture of the organization.

55
Cont.,
  • When one begins a new job, or accept a lateral
    transfer, or get a promotion, one is required to
    understand the new dynamics, new environment,
    different work activities, a new boss, etc., and
    adapt accordingly.
  • The socialization addresses these issues.
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