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Westward Expansion

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Title: Westward Expansion


1
Westward Expansion
  • Chapter 13

2
The West
  • The West was anywhere between the Mississippi
    River and the Pacific Ocean-That was the Western
    Frontier
  • Because it was hard to farm in the Great Plains,
    the land was used for Transportation
  • The Northwest had fertile lands

3
The West
  • The Southwest was owned by Mexico, and was part
    of the Spanish Borderlands.
  • People in these areas were only allowed to trade
    with Spain
  • This area has a distinct culture

4
The West
  • Spanish missionaries like Junipero Serro tried to
    turn Native Americans into Catholics
  • Natives were forced to live and work at missions,
    may died from overwork or disease
  • Buildings were and are still made with a similar
    look

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The West
  • In 1821, Mexico won their independence from Spain
  • Mexico made land grants to rancheros and removed
    missionaries
  • Because the land given often belonged to the
    Natives, the Indians raided ranches

7
The West
  • America had been interested in Westward Expansion
  • They began to believe in Manifest Destiny, which
    was the idea that the country should go from the
    Atlantic to the Pacific.

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Trails to the West
  • There were many trails to the west
  • In 1821, Captain William Becknell led a wagon
    train from Missouri to New Mexico
  • This was 800 miles long and was called the Santa
    Fe Trail, it was very popular

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Trails to the West
  • John Jacob Astor established the American Fur
    Company in 1808 in Oregon after he traveled there
  • He used information the Lewis and Clark created

13
Trails to the West
  • Mountain men became famous.
  • They led isolated lives in the bitter cold,
    intense heat animal attacks
  • Trappers would bring their furs to a rendezvous
    where the mountain men would come together and
    bargain for the prices of furs

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Trails to the West
  • The first people to built permanent homes in
    Oregon were missionaries
  • Marcus and Narcissa Whitman tried to help the
    natives, but in reality land was simply stolen
    from the natives.
  • When people heard there was good land, more
    settlers came
  • This started Oregon Fever

16
Trails to the West
  • Most settlers followed the Oregon Trail
  • This trail was 2,000 miles from Missouri to
    Oregon, and it took 5 months to complete.
  • Pioneers banded together for protection-Wagons
    carried supplies while the people walked
  • People began to get rid of personal items to make
    the wagons lighter

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Trails to the West
  • Working with only hand tools, people had to clear
    land, plant crops and build shelters
  • Diseases, accidents and natural disasters were
    common.
  • Sine setters even gave up and returned east

19
Trails to the West
  • Women worked with men to make their family farms
    successful
  • Women also fought for the right to vote
  • In 1869, the Wyoming territory was the first that
    let women vote

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Trails to the West
  • Natives had an uneasy peace with the whites
  • After gold was discovered in Oregon in 1850,
    white and Chinese miners came into the area
  • War broke out with the Natives

22
Conflict with Mexico
  • Conflict between Mexico and the Americans in
    Texas
  • Americans were moving to Texas, and they were
    Protestant, not Catholic
  • The Americans were bringing slaves, which was
    outlawed in Mexico
  • The Mexican democracy was overturned by Santa
    Anna, and he turned it to a dictatorship
  • In 1836, the Texans declared independence from
    Mexico and created the Republic of Texas

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Conflict with Mexico
  • Santa Anna attacked the Alamo
  • The Americans defended it for 12 days until the
    Mexicans took over
  • A few months later, Sam Houston, led a small army
    to attack Santa Annas army
  • They captured the leader and signed a treaty that
    gave Texas independence.

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Conflict with Mexico
  • Sam Houston became the President of the Republic
    of Texas
  • He hoped that the United States would Annex Texas
  • Initially they were not annexed because there was
    no free state to balance them

27
Conflict with Mexico
  • President John Tyler asked congress to annex
    Texas 3 days before he left his presidency
  • Although Santa Anna had signed a treaty, Mexico
    claimed that it was not truly a treaty

28
Conflict with Mexico
  • President James K. Polk offered to pay Mexico for
    the border of Texas and to pay for California
  • This angered Mexico
  • This began a war with Mexico
  • This was called the Mexican American War
  • Most Americans supported the war
  • But Northerners said it was about extending
    slavery

29
Conflict with Mexico
  • Polk sent troops to New Mexico and to California
  • Settlers in California declared themselves an
    independent republic
  • They rose a grizzly bear flag
  • Although Mexico tried to defend California and
    New Mexico, they did not have the troops

30
Conflict with Mexico
  • General Zachary Taylor invaded Mexico, the
    Americans invaded and took over the capital
  • The Americans had won the war

31
Conflict with Mexico
  • The treaty that ended the war was the Treaty of
    Guadalupe Hidalgo
  • They won the Mexican Cession which included
    California, Nevada and Utah as well as part of
    Wyoming, Colorado, Arizona and New Mexico
  • They had also had the Gadsden Purchase which made
    Manifest Destiny complete

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A Rush to the West
  • People of the Mormon religion began to move west
    to Utah, eventually they founded the city of Salt
    Lake City
  • The Church was founded in 1830 by Joseph Smith
  • One thing that was controversial was that some
    people believed in polygamy
  • The Mormons moved from New York to Ohio, then to
    Missouri, then Illinois where Smith was murdered
  • Brigham Young moved the Mormons to Salt Lake City
    Utah.

35
A Rush to the West
  • Mormons and the government of the United States
    had conflict for 3 reasons
  • Mormon church controlled the election process in
    Utah
  • The Church only supported businesses for people
    that were Mormon
  • Polygamy

36
A Rush to the West
  • It took 40 years to work out these issues, Utah
    became a state in 1896
  • In 1848, James Marshall found a gold nugget in a
    ditch in California
  • 80,000 forty-niners ran to California to search
    for gold
  • There was both gold above ground and below ground
    and it the water

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A Rush to the West
  • People were fighting over water rights because
    the gold would move with the water
  • Because of the people moving west, towns sprang
    up
  • There were vigilantes in these towns
  • The women who went to California mined, ran and
    worked in boarding houses, hotels, restaurants,
    laundries and stores

39
A Rush to the West
  • There was gold found in Idaho, Montana, Colorado,
    Arizona and Nevada
  • All different types of people went to California
  • People from Europe, Asia, Australia and South
    America

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A Rush to the West
  • Men from China came to America in hopes that they
    could send home money
  • They faced prejudice
  • They could not get jobs in mines, they had to
    cook or do laundry, work on railroads or farms

44
A Rush to the West
  • Thousands of free African Americans moved to
    California
  • They had their own churches, and news papers
  • They ran their own businesses
  • But they did not have equal rights

45
A Rush to the West
  • Natives had their lands stolen
  • Nearly 2/3 of the Natives that lived in
    California died during the Gold rush
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