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Surrealism

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Title: Surrealism


1
Surrealism
  • By Megan Walsh

2
What is Surrealism?
  • Surrealism is a style of art and literature that
    focused on imagery from the subconscious mind and
    irrational significances.
  • It began in the 20th century in Europe.
  • Andre Breton pioneered the movement in 1924 when
    he wrote The Surrealist Manifesto.
  • The movement was influenced by Sigmund Freud.
  • Surrealism focused on automatism. This is the
    idea that the random and free interaction between
    artist and material produces an image of the
    artist's subconscious and inner state.

3
Artists of the Movement
  • Andre Breton
  • Salvador Dali
  • Rene Magritte
  • Giorgio De Chirico
  • Max Ernst

4
Andre Breton
  • Andre was born in 1896 in Tinchebray, France.
  • He was primarily known as a poet but became the
    Pope of Surrealism after he published The
    Manifesto of Surrealism.
  • He also Published La Revolution Surrealiste.
    It was a collection of articles on surrealist
    painters.
  • He fled to the United States during World War
    II. While he was there he continued to publish
    works on Surrealism.

5
Salvador Dali
  • Salvador was born in Catalonia, Spain in 1904.
  • His mother died of cancer when he was 17.
  • In 1928 Dali met Pablo Picasso and Joan Miro in
    France.
  • Dali also painted some historical paintings in
    his later years.
  • He is the only known artist to have 2 museums
    dedicated solely to his works within his
    lifetime.
  • His last painting is The Swallowtail
  • He died of heart failure at the age of 84.

Discovery of America By Christopher Columbus (top
right). The Swallowtail (below)
6
Rene Magritte
  • In 1898 Rene was born in Lessines, Belgium.
  • When he was 14 his mother threw herself into a
    river and committed suicide.
  • He served in the military for a while and when
    he returned home he began work as a graphic
    artist.
  • His first surrealist painting was "Le Jockey
    Perdu.
  • Magritte and Breton became friends and Magritte
    even worked on the last issue of Revolution
    Surrealiste.

Le Jockey Perdu. (bottom)
7
Giorgio De Chirico
  • Giorgio was born in Volos, Greece in 1888.
  • His first metaphysical painting was The Enigma of
    an Autumn Afternoon.
  • He designed scenery and costumes for the ballet
    Le Bal.
  • He inspired many surrealist artists including
    Rene Magritte.
  • At the end of his career he painted more
    realistic and naturalist paintings.

Enigma of an Autumn Afternoon. (bottom)
8
Max Ernst
  • Max was born in 1891 in Bruhl, Germany.
  • He never had formal training as a painter but
    after studying psychiatry and philosophy he took
    interest in painting.
  • He developed the technique of frottage. This is
    rubbing pencil shavings on canvas or paper.
  • He was sent to internment camps 3 times during
    WWII but he escaped to the U.S.

Silence (top)
Ocell De Foc
9
Conclusion
  • Surrealism is a mix of realistic painting with
    unrealistic subject matter. Surrealists are
    inspired by dreams and the subconscious mind.

10
Citations
  • http//www.surrealist.com
  • http//viggomortensen.ning.com/profiles/profile/s
    how?idJackieBaker
  • http//www.top-tour-of-spain.com/Facts-on-Salvado
    r-Dali.html
  • http//www.magritte.com/2.cfm
  • http//www.huntfor.com/absoluteig/chirico.htm
  • http//www.abcgallery.com/E/ernst/ernstbio.html
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