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The New Republic


The New Republic * * democratic Republic 1790-1820 (Mt. Sac: industrialism, a mid wife s tale and the sins of our mother, slavery, civil war) George ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The New Republic

The New Republic
Study Guide Identifications
  • Northwest Ordinance
  • Treaty of Fort Stanwix
  • Elitists
  • Democrats
  • Shays Rebellion
  • Annapolis Convention
  • Articles of Confederation
  • Federal Convention
  • Federalists
  • Anti-federalists
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • Benjamin Rush
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • 1790 Immigration Act
  • Buffalo Party
  • Treaty of Greenville
  • Tenskwatawa
  • Tecumseh

Study Guide Focus Questions
  • What considerations did founding fathers debate
    when deciding how to structure the new
  • What events led leadership to reconsider the
    Articles of Confederation and devise the
  • What political factions arose out of this debate
    and whose interests did they serve?

Post war Westward Expansion
  • Crisis averted- postwar coup
  • 1787 promise of life pensions to officers
  • 1783 converted to bonus, 5 yrs. of pay for
    officers, 3 months for common soldiers
  • 1784 congress extended national authority over
    the west
  • Land Ordinance 1785, 1787
  • Established governments, divided land for sale
  • Treaties of Fort Stanwix (1784) Fort McIntosh
  • divested northwestern nations of land

Local Identity
  • National government distant
  • Social political identity located in local
    communities states rather than the American
  • New Democratic ideology
  • 1774-1775 political mobilization broadened
  • Mass meetings
  • Greater numbers voted
  • Democratic position taken by farmers, artisans
    ordinary people and challenged colonial Tory
    position of the purpose of government

Who would Rule America?
  • Elitists or conservatives later the Federalists
  • Constituency Wealthier, better educated
  • Residents of Urban areas, commercially oriented
    towns, agricultural districts
  • Franchise limited to property holders/wealthy
  • Maintain power and wealth of the elite
  • Democrats or Radicals later the Democratic
    Republicans or Anti-Federalists
  • Constituency Small farmers who predominated in
  • Believed common man capable of self-government
  • The essential task of government was to preserve
    the liberties of the people from greed and
    corruption of those who wielded power

1776-77 State Constitutions
  • 1776 Constitutional Convention
  • check the power of government to ensure liberty
    safeguard against Tyranny
  • Weakened executive authority
  • Increased power of legislature
  • bill of rights to limit interference in citizens

State Constitutions
  • First post-revolution debates focused on an
    appropriate governmental structure for the new
  • Democrats believed the ideal form of government
  • community or town meeting,
  • people set their own tax rates,
  • Militia
  • schools churches
  • regulated the local economy
  • State government only needed for coordination
    among communities

Conservative/Whig position
  • Need for balanced government
  • The unthinking many should be checked by strong
    executive and an upper house
  • Insulated from popular control by property
    qualifications and long terms in office
  • Greatest danger was majority tyranny, which might
    lead to violation of property rights and

Virginia State Constitution
  • Declaration of Rights 1776
  • Written by wealthy planter, democrat political
    philosopher George Mason
  • All men are by nature equally free and
    independent, and have certain inherent rights,
    namely, the enjoyment of life and liberty, with
    the means of acquiring and possessing property
    and pursuing and obtaining happiness and safety.
  • Sovereignty resided in the people, the government
    was a servant of the people and the people had a
    right to reform, alter or abolish that government
  • Guarantees of due process, trial by jury in
    criminal prosecutions,
  • Prohibitions against excessive bail cruel and
    unusual punishment
  • People assured of the free exercise of religion,
    according to the dictates of conscience
  • Freedom of the press guaranteed as one of the
    great bulwarks of liberty

New Jersey
  • 1776 granted all inhabitants of full age, who
    resided there 12 months minimum worth 50 pounds
    the right to vote
  • Enfranchised single women who voted en massed and
    who were outspoken on political issues
  • After males protests, the legislature passed new
    law limiting the right to vote to free white male
    citizens (1807)

Articles of Confederation
  • Drafted in 1777 by the Continental Congress
  • Established a firm league of Friendship between
    and among the 13 states
  • Reflected wariness by the states of a strong
    central government
  • Vested the largest share of power in individual
  • Denied Congress the power to collect taxes,
    regulate interstate commerce and enforce laws.

1776 - 1780
  • 13 states adopted constitutions
  • Shaped by the debate between radicals,
    conservatives, democrats Whigs
  • Pennsylvania adopted the most radically
    democratic constitutions
  • assembly would be elected annually by all free
    male taxpayers
  • North Carolina, Georgia, Vermont followed this
  • Vermont adopted universal male suffrage
  • South Carolina Maryland created conservative
    institutions designed to maintain disparity
    between classes

Crisis of the 1780s
  • Depression that produced political protests,
  • Shays Rebellion generated a strong nationalist
    sentiment among elite circles
  • August 29, 1786
  • Revolutionary veteran, Daniel Shay led an armed
    rebellion against the harsh taxes placed upon
    farmers in which the arsenal at Springfield,
    Mass. Was threatened.
  • significance elite wanted a re-evaluation of the
    Articles of Confederation, to create a government
    that could effectively manage peoples rebellions

Replacing the Articles of Confederation
  • Powerful political movement dedicated to
    strengthening national government
  • Annapolis Convention, 1786
  • 12 Delegates, 5 of 13 States
  • No quorom
  • Called for national convention to revise articles
    of confederation
  • Federal ConventionPhiladelphia 1787
  • Centralization in favor of merchants, bankers,
    planters conservatives

The Federalist Papers
  • Written between 1787-88 by nationalists
  • James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay
  • 85 articles arguing for the ratification of the
    United States Constitution
  • Primary source for the interpretation of the
  • Outline the philosophy and motivation for the
    proposed system of government
  • Most people believed the constitution granted too
    much power to the central government, weakening
    the autonomy of local communities and states

Federalist Papers
  • Federalist No. 10
  • Advocates for a large, strong republic to guard
    against factions," groups of citizens with
    interests contrary to the rights of others or the
    interests of the whole community.
  • Federalist No. 84 opposition to Bill of Rights
  • Anti-Federalist Papers
  • Collection of articles written in opposition to
    the ratification of the 1787 Constitution of the
    United States in favor of Bill of rights

Bill of Rights 1791Legacy of Anti-federalistsRob
ert Yates
  • Freedom of religion
  • Freedom of assembly
  • Freedom of Speech
  • Freedom of the press
  • Right of Petition
  • Right to bear Arms
  • Restrain government from unreasonable searches or
  • Guaranteed traditional legal rights under common
  • Prohibition of double jeopardy
  • Right not to be compelled to testify against
  • Due process of law before life, liberty, or
    property could be taken
  • Unremunerated rights of people protects
  • Powers not delegated to federal government were
    reserved for the states

The Constitution, 1787
  • Admirers
  • Laid the foundation for the democratization and
    expansion of the Republic
  • Critics
  • Undermines democratic principles of the
    Declaration of Independence in order to safeguard
    the interests of the wealthy

The United States
  • George Washington 1789
  • New Government planters, merchants, financiers
  • Organized Americas export based on foreign trade
  • Composition of American Population
  • 9 0f 10 Americans lived on farms
  • Non Citizens
  • Lived under patriarchal government of men
  • 1/5 of Americans were African American

Post Revolution White Men
  • 60-85 White men owned land Political access
  • 25 other
  • Unskilled laborers and mariners
  • Working poor indentured servants
  • Walking poor vagrants transients
  • Jailed, confined to work houses, auctioned out
    for labor

Women Post Revolution
  • Limited gains in exchange for war time
  • Slightly less restrictive divorce laws
  • Greater access to educational business
  • Perception of womens moral status rose
  • 1787 Benjamin Rush Thoughts Upon Female
  • Birth of Republican Motherhood
  • Common law Femme Coverture
  • women surrendered all property rights at marriage
  • Economically and politically subordinate to men
    full control over women and childrens lies
  • Some protest most women socialized to accept

African Americans
  • Thousands of black fighters and their families
    left America and resettled
  • Samuel Johnson in 1775 asked How is it that we
    hear the loudest yelps for liberty among the
    drivers of Negroes?
  • 30,000 fled Virginia alone
  • West Indies
  • Canada
  • Liberia, Africa

Africans in the South
  • Growth of Free black communities
  • Shift in religious and intellectual climate
  • Principles of liberty and equality evangelical
    notions of human fellowship
  • Weakening of tobacco farming in the Chesapeake
  • Freedom gained
  • 200,000 free by the end of the 1700s
  • Military service
  • Fleeing north

Africans in the North
  • Gradual Emancipation Program in the North
  • 1777-1784 northern states ended slavery
  • Vermont 1777, Mass. 1780, N Hampshire 1784, Penn,
    CT, RI.
  • Children of slaves would be freed at Birth
  • 1810 30,000 remained enslaved in the North
  • Due to racism and Prejudice
  • Discrimination in housing, jobs, political system
    and education
  • Churches self-help organizations formed

African American Intellectuals
  • Benjamin Banneker
  • born free in MD most accomplished mathematician
    Astronomer of his time
  • Jupiter Hammon
  • NY Slave, took up contemporary issues in poems
    and issues
  • Address to the Negroes of the State of New York
  • Phyllis Wheatley
  • Boston Slave, Poems on Various Subjects,
    Religious and Moral
  • In every human breast God has implanted a
    principle, which we call love of freedom it is
    impatient of oppression, and pants for
    deliverance. The Same Principle lives in us
  • Written to Mohegan Indian Minister Samuel Occom
    in 1774

Who would be included?
  • Benjamin Rush Diseases of the Mind
  • Father of Psychiatry
  • Established first asylums
  • Intellectual
  • slave holder white nationalist
  • Benjamin Franklin
  • The Lovely White
  • Thomas Jefferson
  • Repatriation

Lovely White
  • Benjamin Franklin argued in Observations
    Concerning the Increase of Mankind that the
    number of purely white people in the world was
    very small and he wished there were more of them.
  • And while we arescouring our planet, by
    clearing America of woods, and so making this
    side of our globe reflect a brighter light to the
    eues of inhabitants in mars or venus, why should
    we in the sight of superior beings, darken its
    people? Why increase the sons of Africa, by
    planting them in America, where we have so fair
    an opportunity, by excluding all Blacks and
    Tawneys, of increasing the lovely white?

Jeffersons Homogenous White Society
  • Member of the House of Burgesses
  • supported an effort for the emancipation of
    slaves and in Notes on the State of Virginian
  • recommended the gradual abolition of slavery and
    the elimination of principles inconsistent with
  • During the 1780s after the enactment of the
    Virginia Manumission law, 10,000 people gained
    their freedom,
  • his 200 slaves were not among them .
  • He viewed women as breeders and children as
    profit, and would only in theory be willing to
    make the sacrifice of freeing all his slaves if
    they would be removed from the United States.

  • 25 years, during which the population would
  • 600 million dollars
  • cost of removal would be 300 million.
  • He argued for the deportation of future
  • Black infants would be taken from their mothers,
    trained in industrious occupations until they
    reached an appropriate age for deportation.
  • This would reduce the loss of revenue from 37.5
    million because infants were only worth 25.50.
  • The old stock would eventually die off until no
    blacks remained in America
  • Jefferson recommended Sierra Leone and the west
    Indies for relocation

1790 Congressional debate
  • affirmed its commitment to the pure principles
    of Republicanism and its determination to develop
    a citizenry of good and useful men, a homogenous
  • Only the worthy part of mankind should be
    encouraged to settle in the new republic and be
    eligible for citizenship.

1790 Naturalization Immigration Act
  • Congress in 1790 restricted naturalization to
    White Persons
  • This racial prerequisite to citizenship endured
    until 1952
  • From 1907 1920 one million people gained
    citizenship under the racially restrictive
    naturalization laws, many more were rejected.
  • Pre-requisite cases 1878-1952 constructed race
  • Marriage to a non white alien by an American
    woman was skin to treason against the country
  • While a traitor lost his citizenship after trial,
    a woman lost it automatically

Maintaining the lovely white
  • The laws governing the racial composition of this
    countrys citizenry came bound up with and
    exacerbated by sexism
  • Women were doubly bound by racial laws,
    restricted as individuals, and less than because
    they were wives (femme coverture)

Little Turtles War1790
  • Military confederacy of Shawnee, Delaware
    others under Miami war chief Little Turtle
  • Successfully launched against General Josiah
    Harmar in 1790 and then against another American
    force in 1791 killing 900 Americans

Whiskey Rebellion
  • Congress places a tax on distillation of whiskey
    for increased revenue
  • Many farm families produced from surplus corn
  • Farmers protested internal taxes upon
    consumption are dangerous to the civil rights of
    freemen, and must in the end destroy the
    liberties of every country in which they are
  • 13,000 federal army troops ordered to occupy
    Mingo Creek, Western Pennsylvania

Indian Policy of the United States Original
Foreign Policy
  • Buffalo Party and Federal policy

American Indian Policy1780 -1820
  • Centralized control of Indian policy
  • State and local officials challenged the right of
    congress to administer Indian policy on a
    national level, often arguing that national
    politicians were too soft on former enemies of
    the united states.
  • Buffalo Party
  • Policy of extermination of all Indians.
  • greatly swayed public opinion resulting in the
    election of many more officials that hated

  • A New York editor, Brackenridge
  • rather than whites acknowledging Indian title to
    any land he believed that they had surrendered
    their claim having not made better use of it
    and by not doing so forfeited all pretense to a

Western Indian Confederacy
  • War along the Ohio continued throughout the 1780s
    and 1790s
  • Shawnee leader, Tecumseh
  • Forming diplomatic relationships among southern
  • Confederacy designed to unite several native
    nations in a political and military movement in
    an effort to drive whites from their lands.

1791-92 Indian State
Battle of Fallen Timbers, 1794
American General, Wayne Anthony
Treaty of Greenville, 1795
  • 12 nations forced to surrender a portion of
    eastern Indiana and all of Ohio
  • Opened millions of acres of land to settlement
  • Promised to end to British alliance

Rise of a Prophet
  • Lalawetheka 1805 Tenskwatawa or Open Door
  • Doctrine of active resistance against white
    expansion and institutions.
  • End alcohol consumption
  • End adoption of white culture
  • Unite people against a common foe

  • 1806 Indiana territorial governor Harrison
  • wrote to the Delaware "if he is really a prophet,
    ask him to cause the sun to stand still, the moon
    to alters its course, the rivers to cease to
  • Tenskwatawa accepted the challenge
  • Pointed out the day in which he would blot out
    the sun and assembled numerous followers on June
    16, 1806.
  • total eclipse of the sun occurred.
  • His stock as a spiritual leader soared and
    hundreds of people joined his resistance

  • Tecumseh - military and political solution to
    white expansion
  • Meeting with Governor Harrison 1810
  • No Indian or tribe has the right to sell even to
    each other much less to strangers that land was
    held in trust by all native Americans
  • This land that was sold, and the goods that
    were given for it was only done by a few
  • He was threatening Harrison not to crowd the
    people out of their country or it would produce
    trouble between them

  • 1811 Tecumseh informed Harrison of the
  • If you want to avoid war, move off Indian lands
  • Enlisting support of Shawnees, Kickapoo's,
    Cherokees, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Seminoles,
  • War now, war forever, war upon the living, war
    upon the dead
  • The only hope of the red man is a war of
    extermination against all whites
  • War of 1812
  • English Alliances

Battle of Moravian town/Thames in 1813
  • 1813 Britains betrayal ended in Tecumsehs death
    and the failure of the confederacies
  • Resistance continued, some factions of the same
    tribes that fought with the British sided with
    the Americans only to be turned on after the war.
    Some Delaware's, Shawnees, Seneca's, Wyandot,
    Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Muscogee

War of 1812
  • The war had two major causes repeated British
    violations of American sovereignty, and American
    expansionism, which was later expressed as
    manifest destiny.
  • 1812-1815
  • Ended with the
  • Treaty of Ghent