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Title: AP U.S. Gov


1
AP U.S. Govt Review
2
A. Review coverage
  • I. Constitutional Underpinnings, Federalism,
    Checks and Balances 5-15
  • II. Political Beliefs behavior 10-20
  • III. Political Parties SIG Mass Media 10-20
  • IV. Institutions 35-45
  • V. Public Policy 5-15
  • VI. Civil Rights Civil Liberties 5-15

3
B. Exam Breakdown
  • 60 MC questions ½ of total score 45 mins
  • II. Essays 4 free response in 100 minutes
  • Each essay is worth 1/8 of total score . . .
  • Or a combined total of 50 of total.
  • Essays can cover either separate components
    outlined previously or combine elements or
    factors discussed in part A. See adjoining sheet
    for possible themes or subject matter.

4
  • Democracy
  • Who really Governs?
  • (1) Pluralist theory
  • competition among groups.
  • (2) Elite Class Theory
  • Class splits . . .Big Business rules!
  • (3) Hyperpluralism
  • Groups divide govt, making it ineffective. . .
  • (4) Bureaucratic Theory

5
C. Political theorists represent theories
  • Hume
  • Human nature that man was evil. . .Govt by the
    many with negotiation and compromise promoting a
    union eventually establishing a republic.
  • 2. Hobbes
  • one needs an inherited monarchy to promote the
    legitimacy of govt. Absolutism rules. . .Self
    interest is natl interest.
  • 3. Locke
  • 1689 - social contract theory - Life, liberty
    and property - Consent of the govt by
    Parliament( few) who had a stake in society
    because it represented people of property. .
    .poor people dont lose much when life
    deteriorates.
  • 4. Rousseau
  • Rule by all - a complete democracy --

6
  • Rousseau Hume Locke Hobbes
  • All Many Few One
  • hyperpluralism pluralism Elite/class Absolute

7
Power Distribution
  • 1. Power can be distributed four ways in a
    democracy
  • (a) power elite - (Hobbes) - Representative
    Democracy
  • (b) political elite- (Hobbes Locke) -
    Participatory democracy
  • (c) majoritarian rule- (Locke or Hume) Direct
    Democracy
  • (d) Mob rule - Rousseau
  • 2. What does one do with power? ---
  • Make Policy - Actions of Govt.

8
Revolution the 1st Constitution
  • Articles of Confederation
  • A ). What could it do And worse. . .what
    couldnt it do. . .
  • What showed the ACs true weaknesses?
  • Shays Rebellion

9
  • New Jersey Plan offered what?
  • ( representation)
  • Virginia Plan which offered?
  • (proportional representation )
  • led to which agreement?
  • Connecticut Compromise that offered
  • US Senate ( 2 Senators per state) US House -
    (Reps per population of state)

10
  • South wanted all males counted?
  • Three-fifths compromise.
  • b. Who can vote
  • Property owners vs. disenfranchised.
  • Who controlled elections?
  • Answer. States set election laws. Why?

11
d. Individual rights
  • Constitution lacked in this area- although the
    Constitution did mention six issues
  • 1) Writ of habeas corpus
  • 2) bills of attainder
  • 3) ex post facto laws
  • 4) religious preferences to hold office
  • 5) treasonous offenses
  • 6) trial by jury
  • Bill of Rights was added to protect us from
    govt. . .
  • a recollection of all the ills that the colonists
    resided under British rule.

12
  • Popular sovereignty? What is it?
  • Answergt ability to control ones destiny
  • Checks Balances? What is it?
  • Each branch oversees the other
  • Separation of Powers . . .
  • Who wrote the doctrine?
  • Montesqueiu. . .What does it mean?
  • Each branch has a certain function
  • What was the purpose of the B Of R?
  • Answer Protect one from NATIONAL govt

13
Ratification
  • States voted- -only needed ? states to ratify
  • (A of Confed needed ? approval to amend)
  • unanimous
  • Federalists v. Anti-feds -
  • fundamental liberties! Were the Bill of Rights
  • enough? States Rights 10th Amendment
  • Who ratified the constitution?
  • State special conventions would ratify, not
    state
  • legislators
  • Federalist Papers factions,
    factions,
  • factions

14
9. Changing the Constitution-
  • Amendment Process
  • a. Formal process 2 steps?
  • (1) proposal Vote
  • 2/3 of each Congress or National convention
  • (2) Ratification
  • - 3/4 of state leg or spec convention
  • (3) - 27 Amendments
  • b. informal process-
  • Federal court decisions - Marbury v. Madison

15
FEDERALISM
  • Concurrent POWERS
  • shared power.
  • i.e. taxation, Safety
  • Reserved POWERS
  • states rule - local education control, local
    govts, professional licensing.
  • Who shall rule in conflict? Where in the
    Constitution
  • Art VI- Supremacy Clause - and Implied powers
    of national govt upheld with . ..
  • McCullogh v. Maryland. Established the
    importance of which clause?
  • elastic clause that gave the Congress (implied
    powers)
  • aka Necessary and Proper Clause

16
FEDERALISM
  • If not stated- states have the rights - Which
    Amendment? 10th
  • Commerce power Court Case?
  • Gibbons v. Ogden . Interstate international
    commerce . Congress rules!
  • Full Faith and Credit clause
  • One states validity carries over state borders
    - i.e. marriage licences.

17
From Dual to cooperative federalism -
  • a. Education sets the stage for both the Feds
    states to work together in fiscal harmony
  • b. Shared Costs of Fiscal federalism-
  • c. Grant-In-Aid
  • Feds sell land to fund programs!
  • d. Categorical grants
  • specific for specific projec w/ strings
    attached. . .non-discrimatory - Cross cutting
    requirements - Offenders lose it all!
  • (1)Project grants
  • competitive requests
  • (2) Formula grant-
  • Do you meet the formula. i.e. public housing,
    employment programs

18
  • e. Block grants
  • social service endeavors w/ less strings
    attached. SIGS pursue the 350 billion
  • f. Mandates
  • Feds dictate specific guidelines. . .if dont
    comply, penalized or lose the funding. . .
  • Special ed, Disability Act, Clean Air.
  • Medicaid
  • g. unfunded mandates. . .
  • Laws w/o funding. . .

19
II. Political Culture
  • How does one determine the socialization of the
    American constituent?
  • Family
  • School
  • Media

20
  • WHO establishes our political values
  • system. . .Who sets the agenda?
  • a. SIGS and Parties
  • b. Political institutions
  • c. Media The New Parent
  • d. family
  • e. Social Economic Stratification (SES) as one
    grows older.

21
Americas Demographics Who are we?
  • 1. Demographics . . . Deal with what?
  • a. gender
  • b. occupation
  • c. Race
  • d. religion
  • e. Socio-Economic Status
  • 2. How does one determine demographics?
  • Census building - It will happen every 10 years.
    How does it impact us politically?
  • a. Congressional apportionment / Electoral
    College
  • b. Redistricting
  • c. Block grant distribution
  • 3) Minority/majority is influencing the great
    melting pot. by 2050 - Whites will be only 52 of
    society
  • Who is the largest minority?
  • Hispanics

22
  • GRAY POWER
  • Baby boomers graying rapidly. How has this
    impacted the political landscape?
  • Answer they wish to collect their 5 trillion
    in Social Security benefits! --
    Their SIGS possess clout - i,e, AARP,
    others.
  • Entitlements!

23
How does one gauge Americas pulse?
  • POLLING-
  • 1. Early 1950s George Gallup Polled a
    microcosm of American political thought . . .
    What scientific device?
  • - a Sample --
  • the more random the better. . .????
  • everyone has a chance of being selected. . .
  • b) Biased sample-
  • stated preference
  • c) representative sample .
  • i.e. Democrats only
  • 2. Samples are not perfect -- ???
  • sampling error . . .
  • 1-5 error rate per 1,-000- 2,000 responses. .
    .The bigger the sample. . . .the less the
    sampling error.
  • 3. random-digit dialing speeds up the process!

24
How do Polls assist politicians . . .
  • detect public preferences. . .
  • Are their shifts in thinking . . .creating
    possible shifts in policy making.
  • It has become the issue of selling policy
    instead of possibly doing whats right!
  • Avoiding compromises to appease radical shifts!.
    Politicians love them when they agree with them,
    they hate them when they disagree.
  • Bandwagon effects is . . .
  • jump on board. . .instead of doing whats right!

25
  • f. What is an Exit poll ?
  • QA voters after they vote. Whats wrong w/
    them?
  • - Can control elections, East votes earlier
    than west.
  • g. What is a push poll?
  • Answer Opponent asks a negative Q late in
    campaign and the contender doesnt have time to
    respond.
  • h. Polls can show 3 items. . .
  • relevancy, or salience of a topic intensity
  • stability
  • direction. . .positive or negative

26
Liberals conservatives?
  • Liberals Conservatives
  • Size of govt? large small
  • Change? progressive status quo
  • Foreign Pol? Coalitions Security
  • View of man Can be cured Evil,
    needs order
  • Order Relativism discipline

27
  • Reagan era shift to the right. . .Clinton era
    shift to the left, then to the middle. . .Bush
    era Right . . . Politically. . .what is this
    called?
  • Re-alignment of political ideology.

28
D. Political participation The many forms--
  • How 8 ways to participate.
  • 1. Voting. Only 50 vote in natl elections.
    Voters see a lack of political efficacy?
  • Answer not being able to politically effect
    society through the political process.
  • They have no influence. . . (T-19)
  • 2. Join SIGS
  • 3. Give to SIGS thru PACS
  • 4. Become a member of political elite
  • 5. Contacting govt officials on a regular basis
  • 6. Working on a campaign
  • 7. civil disobedience
  • 8. Violence
  • Who participates more?
  • higher SES participate more. . . and get more!

29
E. Mass Media
  • Fourth Estate (Mass Media) Power originates . .
    .
  • 1st Amendment provides the incentive to report
    the News which is . . . .
  • a timely occurence that informs the public.
  • 3. What is a Media Event. . .
  • Get your name or picture in print or on the
    tube! either through news events or paid
    advertising!
  • Often Politicians make news to get on the
    news.
  • 4. What is a Spin Master?
  • Person hired specifically to promote the image
    of the candidate! i.e. Reagan era advice

30
  • 5. Competition in the media has forced them to be
    much more aggressive and bend the journalistic
    rules of using reliable sources and the sound
    bite and great images! What is a Sound bite?
  • Answer- Short clip of a dramatic statement
    from the politician.

31
  • 6. Narrowcasting v. Broadcasting. . .
  • (focus on specific news or issues 24 hours a
    day) may fulfill political junkies or spin issues
    out of control.
  • Or one can turn to the BLOGGERS . . .
  • 7. Politicians can manipulate the press by
    sending up
  • trial balloons to see how the public will react
    to certain issues. Then back off if the response
    is negative.
  • both the political elites and the media dance to
    get the upperhand. . .and both seek the advantage
    in dispensing their agenda. . .
  • The Press wishes to inform the masses. . . vs.
    the politicians attempt to put it in a good
    light. . .
  • 8. Undoubtedly, coverage impacts public
    opinion!

32
11. 4 Mass media roles
  • a. Signaler
  • alert the public ASAP 24/7 news
  • b. Agenda setting
  • Gatekeeper
  • c. Common Carrier role
  • Open channel from politician to constituent
  • d. Watch dog role
  • Protect the public from politicians.
  • There is tension between what two roles?
  • Common carrier and watch dog
  • More of a tendency to report bad . . .than a bias
    tint.

33
criticisms of the press
  1. Not objective Biases are prevalent
  2. Only a few own a lot the big 6
  3. Sensational news more important than the real
    news.
  4. Selling image instead of the issues

34
E. Amassing public support
  • Special Interest groups (SIGS)
  • Purpose of
  • influencing the govt at all levels, all
    branches. No govt stone shall be left unturned!
  • Political parties goals are to
  • make policy. . . SIGS goal is too
  • Influence. . .

35
Types of groups
  • Biggest
  • 1. Business or economic sector heavily
    funded.
  • 2. Labor
  • 3. Single issue
  • 4. Public interest
  • 5. Smallest
  • You if you can find a friend.

36
  • How Influence? Six strategies or techniques. . .
  • a. Provide data to Govt agencies. Policy
    specialists ( Pol parties are party generalists)
  • b. draft legislation via the Iron Triangle
    (issue) network of
  • SIGS
  • Govt agencies
  • Congressional subcommittees
  • c. lawsuits (amicus curiae, Friend of the court)
  • class action court cases.
  • d. education
  • e. Watchdogs of govt. . .
  • f. Lobbyists- hired guns or political
    persuaders, whose job is to promote the SIGS
    interests via. . .pressure (garnering votes,
    , idealists. )

37
4. SUCCESSFUL SIGS
  • What determines success?
  • a. size of the group . . .
  • is it a potential group---
  • a mixture (consumers) of many who could
    belong,
  • vs.an actual group of hard core (NRA)
    followers.
  • Potential groups (or large groups) suffer from?
    free-rider status. i.e. all minimum wage
    earners benefit from minimum wage increases. .
    .so why work toward it. . .

38
  • b. Intensity - Single issue groups - NRA, NOW,
    Gun Control, abortion
  • c. - As of 1974, corporations and Unions can
    not directly fund political campaigns. . .BUT
    Political Action Committees (PACS) , the
    political arm of SIGS, can fund candidates
    campaigns
  • w/ what type of money?
  • Hard NOOOOT Soft! Or via. . .
  • 527s

39
  • Buckley v. Valeo?
  • extended to indirect financing (TV ads)
  • Soft Money - 1980 - Can earmark funds to a
    political party, unlimited contributions. . .
    400 million allocated in 2000 election to Dems
    Republicans.
  • Today soft money is not regulated. Citizens
    United v. FEC

40
  • d. Going Public. . .reaching out to influence
    public opinion. . Ads sell! a great form of
    propaganda!
  • Interest group participation is culmination of
    political participatory activities.

41
III. Political parties elections
  • A. . US Parties typically been two-party -
    offering American voters a choice. . .which is
    what democracy is all about!
  • 1. Historically - Federalists v. anti-federalists
  • evolved into Democrats v. Republicans although
  • 3rd parties have popped up. What are the types
  • a. ideological - Socialists, Independents
  • b. Single issue - free soilers, Greenpeace
  • c. Economic protests - greenback party
  • d. splinter - Bull Moose . . .Which 3rd party
    was MOST successful. . .
  • Bull Moose . . .How judge success?

42
  • 2. Republicans and Democrats have switched in
    ideological dominance since 1800, referred to as
    . . .
  • Re-alignment.. . .
  • Since 1968, era of one party runs the Exec
    Branch, the other controls Congress . . .which
    could create legislative gridlock. This is
    called
  • Divided govt. . .
  • 3. ALL parties promote same purpose 6 purposes
  • a. pick Candidates via a nomination
  • b. runs campaigns
  • c. establish an image. . .
  • d. articulate policies
  • e. coordinate policymaking
  • f. compete for votes

43
  • Downs Rational Choice theory states . .
  • centrist policies usually win. . .dont drift
    too far from moderate proposals.
  • 2) Many voters have moved to the middle of party
    identification gtgtgt this is called
  • Moderation . Nope. . . How about
  • a dealignment of party ID.

44
B. Party machines -
  • each ???? manages its own operation
  • The states- decentralized and fragmented system.
  • 1. What dominates - Patronage - Party regulars
    become govt appointees.
  • 2. Finding the right candidates takes parties
    through grass roots democracy all the way
    through campaigns until election day.
  • It seems to last foooooooor evvvvverrrrr!
  • How does one come across a potential party elite?
  • Be a party regular! and hold a public office at
    some level - US Congressperson or state Guv

45
  • b. Goal of a President candidate running for the
    candidacy?
  • Amass enough delegates at the natl convention to
    win the NOMINATION! All 50 states run their own
    shows! How amass delegates?
  • (1). caucus (12 states use this road) . . . What
    is it?
  • finds delegates for the next level. . . The town
    mtg.
  • First caucus?
  • IOWA and also begins platform development.
  • (2).Primaries
  • Electoral event that weeds out the candidates,
    not parties. . .you can win w/o party
    endorsement.. .but it is difficult
  • 1968 McGovern-Fraser commission set rules for
    Dems
  • - More Minority representation at DEM convention.
    But
  • The super delegates . . . .
  • Top Natl officials get delegate spots

46
  • closed primary
  • (1) only party faithful can vote
  • (b) Open primary
  • You select which camp to vote in
  • (c) Blanket
  • all parties run on one ballot. - -
  • Supreme Court said it was unconstitutional,
    violated basic function of political party - to
    choose candidates - Democratic party v. Jones.
  • (d) GOAL- you win the primary, so . . .
  • you get the number of delegates the state law
    allocates. Some are proportional, some winner
    take all. . .
  • (e) Goal during campaign
  • gtgtgtgt get the BIG MOo o o o! which gives you???
    4Ms. .
  • (1) Momentum
  • (2) After all the primaries - tally up your
    delegates and a majority gets you the . . .
  • nomination at the convention.

47
Majority vs. Plurality
  • Majority needs ____ of the vote.
  • Answer 50. . . .an example where one needs it
  • AN electoral college . . .passing legislation
  • A plurality needs _____ of the vote
  • One more than all the others. Example
  • Winning elections. . .
  • Winner take all means . . .
  • Win it and you get all the bennies
  • Proportional . . .
  • Divide up the pie based on the vote . .
    .Example
  • Some states use proportional to determine
    delegates in Primaries

48
  • (3) . . . Campaign donations flood in.
    . .
  • (4) Media attention. . .Press wants to promote
    a(n) . . . .
  • Horse race for the nomination.

49
C. Natl convention
  • 1. Natl convention what happens here?
  • select presidential VP candidates,
  • sets platform, endorses all party nominees for
    other offices! Ho Hum (T-30)
  • 2. National committee
  • 3. national chairperson
  • 4. Goal after nomination
  • form enough coalitions ( of SIGS) to win the
    election.
  • 5. Campaign highway. Goal
  • (a) dominate the media
  • (b) vanquish your opponent

50
c. Spends lots of
  • money is the mothers milk of politics
  • What was established in 1974 following H20GATE
    scandal to control flow of money to parties?
  • FEC . . .what does it do?
  • gives public financing to candidates.
  • limits presidential candidates expenditures to
    80 million per candidate
  • requires disclosure of all expenses.
  • limits an individuals candidates
    contributions to 2,300.
  • PACs can spend unlimited amounts. . .ct
    case?
  • (Buckley v. Valeo) indirectly until 2002.
    This was called?
  • soft money. Now Citizens United v. FEC
  • -Voluntary contributions
  • 6. Today- many constituents are pulling away from
    party IDs -- dealignment- - and this is leading
    to

51
Recent 3rd Party Players?
  • 1. Ralph Nader . . .stole some of Al Gores left
    wing thunder in 2000 election. . .It was that
    close! and . . .
  • 2. Ross Perot took away George Bush Srs thunder
    in 1992 when Bill Clinton won.
  • In the 04/08 elections, were 3rd parties an
    issue?
  • c. Third parties have an uphill fight. . .
  • (1) Single member plurality voting system
    (winner take all) system favors two parties. . .
  • (2) Two Big Parties have organization. . .
  • (3) Two big parties make rules.

52
E. Elections
  • Legitimizing the political process
  • 1. Elections provide for
  • a. Institutionalizing the political process. All
    forms of political participation can end here ..,
  • 2. 2000 Election was one of a kind. . . Because .
    .

53
  • a. US Supreme Ct ruled in Bush v. Gore that
    although a recount was legal, the same
    procedure had to be used in ALL counties, not
    only those in question. . .
  • AND there was not enough time to accomplish that
    mission B4 December 12, when the electoral
    college was to meet. . .soooooo Bush won Florida
    and w/ 271 electoral votes to Gores 269. . . So
    why the controversy???
  • b. only the 4th time the winner of the popular
    vote lost an election.

54
Getting Citizens to vote
  • Sufferage an issue in three constitutional
    amendments
  • 15th, 19th, 26th. Youre 18.
  • you can vote. . .but too many dont. 51 in
    2000 election. . High 50s in 04.
  • Only 30 in off year voting. Many more appeared
    in 04. MN leads in voter turnout.
  • 2. Who does vote Six characteristics
  • a. Old b. high SES c. Educated d. Gender
  • e. Married f. union membership

55
Who doesnt or cant vote? WHY?
  1. Not old enough
  2. Non-citizen
  3. Felons
  4. Too busy
  5. Lack political efficacy
  6. Not registered.

56
IV. Congress Budget
  • The Independent Politician
  • Why are congressperson so independent? 4
    reasons. . .
  • Congresspersons (represent themselves and/or
    constituents. . .not political parties
  • They do NOT have to support the govt in power.
    . .they are separate, but equal partners in the
    political system.
  • 3. A vote against the Govt, does not bring about
    a collapse of govt, i.e. GB, Italy, France,
    Germany. US Govt continues day to day operations
    even w/ gridlock. . .
  • 4. Pol parties do NOT control nominations for
    office, so they cannot control . . .
  • how a legislator votes on legislation.

57
  • B. Congressional powers
  • Powers initiate, modify, approve or reject
    legislation in a variety of political arenas,
  • they share supervision of administrative
    agencies . . .
  • 3. build consensus among legislators
    constituents.
  • 4. educate
  • 5. oversees bureaucracy
  • 4) investigates
  • 5) House-initiates bills
  • 6. Senate-confirms, ratifies executive decisions
  • a) Art.1 sect 8, clauses 1-17 expressed powers
    clause 18- implied powers (raise troops). This is
    calledgtgtgt
  • Necessary proper clause the court case is gtgtgt
  • b) McCullogh v. Maryland

58
  • c) Gibbons v. Ogden gave us gtgtgt
  • Commerce Clause
  • states cant interfere w/ Congr attempt to
    regulate interstate commerce!
  • This led to what legislation in the 1960s?
  • civil rights legislation

59
C. Constitutional Requirements
  • House Senate
  • Age
  • 25 30
  • Citizen
  • 7 9
  • Residency Yes Yes
  • (district) State
  • Native Born
  • No No
  • Members
  • 435 100
  • Occupation Business Law
  • Law Business
  • Women 78? 14?

60
  • 1. Congressional goal-
  • Get elected-- Stay elected!
  • Incumbency -- What is it?
  • 1) As party power declines. . .legislators bear
    more of the burden to getting re-elected.
  • 2. Safe districts prevail-?
  • 90 of reps in the 1980s got re-elected by 60
    of the vote. 50 for senators. Marginal districts
    claim only 55 or less of the votes. In 2004
    election, 90 of incumbents got re-elected.

61
d) What makes an incumbent so invincible?
  • 1) visibility -- contacting the constituents. .
    .somehow i.e. travel home, franking, getting on
    the news
  • 2) Casework-constituent service.
  • 3) Pork-barrel legislation-log-rolling
  • 4) position taking - meeting roll call votes.
  • 5) weak opponents - who lack the cash flow.
    opponents miss out on 1 2 above
  • 6) franking

62
e. How are incumbents vulnerable?
  • (1) Scandals
  • (2) re-apportionment
  • (3) gerrymandering - drawing districts to favor
    one party over another. State issue.
  • (4) Majority-Minority districts gives minorities
    advantage in electing minorities.
  • What court case made majority/minority
    unconstitutional .
  • Shaw v. Reno however, Supreme Ct claimed
    re-districting in North Carolina was
    unconstitutional

63
Making policy
  • A collection of generalists making policy on
    specific topics.
  • If one needs to know how to vote on a bill. .
    .who do you ask ?
  • 1. House a)Who is the traffic cop on
    legislation?
  • House Rules Committee controls the flow of
    bills - establishes a rule for each bill which
    schedules it.
  • b) Leadership Who is the top person?
  • Speaker - only office mandated by the
    Constitution Who selects?
  • c)Party Caucus(a)) Presides over the House
    ((b)) Committee assignments influence
  • ((c)) appoints Rules Committee members
  • ((d)) Influences bill assignments to Committee

64
Senate
  • a. leadership
  • 1) Vice President - President of the Senate
  • Significant power?
  • but he can break a tie vote. . .and it happens
  • 2) Majority Leader - selected by Whom?
  • Congressional Party caucus. - 3)Minority Leader
  • 4) PARTY whips-

65
Committees what types?
  • legislation and Oversight
  • a. Standing Committees
  • separate subject matter committees
  • b Joint Committees
  • Hse senate share membership i.e. taxation
  • c. Conference committees
  • Two bills need one explanation- Both houses
    compromise here.
  • d. select committees
  • for specific reason

66
  • e. committees also perform gtgtgt
  • oversight if and when a bill ever becomes law.
  • f. Committee chairpersons How selected? Party
    caucus. Seniority prevails but majority
    caucuses now can choose chairpersons. What do
    they do?
  • Manage legislation thru bill making process.
  • g. Caucuses v. party leadership-
  • legislators ban together under ideological
    flag Black caucus, pro-life, pro-choice, gun
    control

67
Bill gtgtgtgt LAW
  • Who can introduce a Bill
  • Only a member of Congress
  • 2. Speaker or Sen Majority leader does what?
  • titles it numbers it.
  • 3. Off to Committee action -
  • Subcommittee gtgtgtgt
  • schedule hearings, Revise it, approve it, kill it
  • b. Committee gtgtgtgt
  • schedules hearings, Revise it, approve it, kill
    it

68
  • c. House - Rules committee
  • Schedules Housse rules for floor action
  • 1) closed rule
  • limits debate, amendments
  • 2) open rule
  • amendments allowed
  • 3) restrictive rule
  • selective amendments
  • 4) A discharge petition???
  • can avoid Rules. Speaker can initiate
  • 5) Suspend the Rules . . .
  • To floor for vote.
  • d. Senate Who schedules debate?
  • House Majority leader. .
  • OOPS Senate Majority leader.
  • Amendments are open for any cause.

69
3. Floor action
  • a. Committee of the Whole Where found?
  • Hse - (100 or more members) can debate bills. No
    riders can be added. . .
  • b. Quorum call
  • 218 House members needed to vote. . .majority
    passes legislation
  • c. Senate can add What to legislation?
  • riders
  • 4. If Senate and/or House disagree, Bill goes to
  • Select committee . . .
  • Oops conference committee
  • 5. Full House Full Senate vote on conference
    committee version --
  • 6. To President for signature or his veto

70
Passing Legislation?
  • 1. Appeasing the Chief Legislator
  • 2. Party influence - 50 of the time legislators
    will vote party line. . . Hse partisanship is
    stronger than the Senate.
  • 3. Who do legislators attempt to please?
  • Constituency support - legislators are seen as
    trustees and instructed delegates politicos,
  • 4. Who else do Reps appease?
  • SIGS lobbyists - Been restricted by Congress
    in reporting who they represent and how much they
    spend. . ..

71
The Federal Budget.
  • The annual assessment of govt expenditures
    assets
  • Budget
  • Govt collects via and spends it via
    expenditures. If tax allocations are higher. .
    .its a(n)
  • entitlement . . .
  • OOPS Surplus
  • b. if expenses are higher. . .its a . . .
  • deficit gtgtgt Add them up its
  • national debt
  • c. a 11.2 trillion dollar shortfall. . .of
    which 10 of the current budget pays JUST the
    INTEREST.

72
  • 2. Federal income
  • (1) 1 source
  • Income tax which Amendment
  • 16th power to tax people via the IRS - 50
  • (2) Corporate tax- 10
  • (3) Social Insurance - FICA - 33
  • (4) Borrowing - Debt load - shifts burden to
    future tax payers. Provokes thoughts of a
    balanced budget amendment w/ certain
    provisions.
  • (5) Lost Federal income-?
  • Fed tax loopholes the Grand DEDUCTION -- Tax
    BREAKS! TAX
  • Expenditures

73
  • 3. Federal expenditures top 3
  • Uncontrollable expenditures - 2/3 of the budget
  • entitlements - You qualify, you get them, no
    matter what the cost to the govt, even if all
    the funds are depleted. . .

74
Where does the budget process Begin
  • 1. Federal agencies submit their requests to
  • OMB. . . Who consolidate requests and
    then gives them to the president who then
  • 2. Puts together the budget and delivers it via
    State Of The Union .
  • 3. Congress then holds hearings w/ the standing
    committees and finally approves the . . .
  • 4. 13 Appropriations bills. President signs it!

75
Budget Reform
  • Instead of just thinking we will only spend so
    much, Congress has established reforms to improve
    the process --1974 Act
  • (a) Fixed budget calendar
  • (b) budget committee
  • (c) CBO
  • (d) 1974 Reforms - budget resolution established
    in April sets the bottom line
  • (1) budget reconciliation- change appropriations
    to reflect proposed savings
  • (2) authorization bill ????
  • sets program spending limits.
  • (3) Appropriations bill ????? Show me the
  • funds programs based on an authorization bill.
    Cant go higher, but can give lower amounts.

76
Social Policy
  • What are the two types of social welfare?
  • 1) Social Insurance. . .
  • a. Transfer payments
  • Benefits given by the govt to individuals
  • b. Cash pay outs i.e. Social security
    payments Entitlements- also referred to as
    social insurance programs- you pay, you play!
    Also Unemployment Insurance
  • 2) In-kind transfers food stamps, low interest
    college loans.

77
  • 2. Public assistance program
  • Funded by tax revenues and available only to the
    needy through a means test?
  • One must prove they need welfare.
  • TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
    (formerly AFDC) that was put in place by the 1996
    Welfare to Work Act
  • 1)) Five year welfare status.
  • 2))Must find work w/in two years
  • 3)) unmarried teen mothers must stay in school
    and live w/ parent or guardian
  • 4)) Mothers must ID deliquent fathers

78
  • a. Which program does the public view more
    favorably Means tested or social insurance
    programs? Why?
  • Answer Social insurance programs are entitled
    because you pay into it.
  • Means tested are often viewed as throwing at
    a problem, not necessarily fixing the problem.

79
Education works . . .BUT . . .
  • Enforcement is difficult w/ the caseload and the
    thought of reducing govt costs.
  • Education . . .
  • the Horatio Alger approach of bettering oneself
    through school is a popular. . .and expensive
    notion.
  • Fact the quality of education depends
    significantly on the wealth of the community in
    which a child resides.

80
  • . Largest state budget allocation is education. .
    .but
  • Parents want results
  • School choice. . .let schools compete
  • Voucher system
  • Court ruled states can give parents vouchers for
    private access to schools gtgtgt
  • Zelman v. Simmons-Harris (02)
  • 3) Purpose of NCLB . . .
  • Integrate public schools via busing
  • Nope that was Mecklenburg . . .
  • Set Natl standards for math reading
  • 4) Race To The Top
  • President Obamas Education Initiative

81
Congress Essay
  • 2. Political scientists often note that Congress
    is too responsive to constituents, and,
    especially to organized interests. . . while
    others argue that Congress is too insulated from
    ordinary citizens.
  • a. Identify an organized interest and explain
    what characteristics the interest may possess so
    Congress would address its needs.
  • b. Describe how Congress can insulate itself
    from its constituents and provide an example to
    support your claim.
  • c. Explain how Congress can overcome organized
    interests and better meet the needs of its
    constituents

82
V. President Bureaucracy
  • Which Article sets the stage for Executive Power
    to be Vested in a president. .
  • II.
  • So What does Art VI do?
  • Supremacy Clause
  • II.
  • 1. Constitutional Requirements
  • (a) 35 or older
  • (b) natural born
  • (c) 14 years of residency
  • (d) term limits ? Which amendment?
  • 22. amendment-2 terms plus2)
  • (e) disability of president turns to . . .
  • to 25th amendment succession process. A new
    non-elected VP needs approval from both houses.
  • (f) popularly elected, sometimes (accidential
    presidents)
  • Not elected by the populace . . .

83
Formal Powers
  • Domestic
  • Power of the purse. . .
  • 1) Chief legislator-State of the Union, advises,
  • approves or vetos legislation
  • 2) Chief executive . . .
  • 3) Administrative powers - enforce the laws,
    select govt officials (w/Senate approval) run
    the bureaucracy via Executive Orders. Take
    Care clause of Article II.
  • 4) Judicial powers - reprieves, pardons, commute
    federal felons nominate federal judges w/ Senate
    majority confirmation.

84
Formal Foreign policy powers
  • 1) National Security
  • a) commander in chief
  • b) Head of State (receives ambassadors and other
    heads of state)

85
Informal powers
  • a. presidential precedent (Washington turning to
    a cabinet for advice)
  • b. Actions of Congress
  • giving president power i.e. 1965 Gulf of Tonkin
    Resolution v. War Powers Act.
  • c. Medias use of the Bully Pulpit. Prez goes
    directly to the people. i.e. Clinton in 97
    budget freeze. . .Congress lost that battle.
  • d. Executive Orders . . . Can be formal or
    informal

86
Executive Branch
  • 1. VP is a heart beat away. . . His/her
    qualifications?
  • a. Same constitutional requirements as
    president.
  • b. Political professional, eases one into the
    congressional gridlock.
  • c. faithful follower which might deter his own
    presidential ambitions. i.e., Bush Gore.
  • d. Which amendment changed how VP was selected?
  • 12th
  • 2. Cabinet positions -- How many
  • -14 secretaries and the AG
  • All must be confirmed by the
  • . . . Senate.
  • a. Responsibilities- execute presidential and
    congressional
  • b. Requirements- President supporters, usually
    partisan selections,

87
Executive Office of the Prez
  • What is its function?
  • More advisors for domestic and foreign policy. In
    theory partisan, in reality, civil servants who
    stay as presidents move on.
  • Office heads appointed confirmed by Senate
  • a. NSC - crisis mgment- liaison to military,
    CIA
  • b. CEA - economic trend management
  • c. OMB- presidential budget oversight watches
    Congress and the Bureaucracy

88
White House Office
  • Partisan followers whose sole function is to
    support the president.
  • If not, find another job. West Wing residents
    whose purpose is to oversee the political and
    policy interests of the president-
  • no Senate confirm here!

89
President Powers
  • How get others to follow -
  • 1. Act of Persuasion - Constitution is vague on
    what the PRESident can do. . .so great leaders
    get creative --
  • a. Powers enhanced by
  • 1) national constituency -
  • 2) ceremonial head of state - and party, at least
    in first term. This can erode quickly if ones
    party deserts you and others compete in the
    primaries against you! Its tough to beat an
    incumbent!

90
Who does the President have to appease?
  • a. DC political pundits - can one do the job? Can
    one possess power- (charismatic leadership)
  • One gets 100 days to show your stuff! Make it
    count because the honeymoon is over.
  • b. partisan grassroots- Chief of Party- Be a good
    Republican.
  • c. Joe Public- Use the polls to your advantage.
    TV spots are what you make them. When you are
    hot, your legislation flows, your fellow party
    people get re-elected. (coat-tail effect)

91
Chief legislator
  • in name only. . . the power is shared with
    Congress
  • a. Advises- 4 ways
  • (1) shapes policy (2) consults Congress (3)
    bargains
  • (4) appeals to partisans (friends to the party)
  • b. Disapprovals
  • Veto - It takes ____ of Hse Sen to override.
  • 2/3 of congress to override
  • ___ day limit or its law. Overrides seldom
    happen
  • Pocket veto
  • Congress adjourns After 10 days it fails
  • b) line-item veto- State guvs can eliminate
    portions of a bill . . . 96 Congress approved
    and President agreed for an enhanced rescission
    of legislation. President had 5 days to
    line-out legislation. BUT Supreme Ct ruled it
    unconstitutional (Clinton v. City of NY)

92
Party and the Presidential Agenda . .
  • 1.) party support - 2/3 of the time party
    discipline prevails. But lack of consensus on
    policies and diversity of constituents hurts.
  • Congresspersons follow constituents first. . .
  • 2). Off year elections are not popular for Prezs
  • except for Clinton in 98 GW in 02. In 06
    history prevailed.
  • 3). Public approval gives leverage, not
    commanding influence. Going Public
  • 4). Does one pursue a number of issues (Clinton)
    or just three or four (Reagan)

93
Foreign Policy
  • Some created by ones agenda. . .some inherited
    by past presidents.
  • Some domestic, some foreign. Factors that
    influence decision making
  • 1. Chief Diplomat
  • a) extend terminate diplomatic recognition
  • b) Negotiate treaties w/ . . .
  • 2/3rd Senate confirm.
  • c) executive agreements-
  • d) initiate nuclear war, the Presidents call.

94
  • 2. Commander in Chief- Cold WAR V. HOT WAR
  • Global military reach- Going to war w/o
    declaring war - police actions - KoreaVietnam,
    Panama, Grenada, Iraq
  • Foreign policy history
  • a) Isolationism Monroe Doctrine established
    the homefront The Americas
  • b) WWI we went Over there Prez Wilson wanted
    involvement in a League of Nations.
  • Senate said no.

95
  • c)) WWII Cold War Defeated Japan Germany
    and a power vacuum occurred that the USSR wished
    to fill.
  • 1)) Containment policy vs. USSRs Communist
    Expansion. . .Greece, Korea, Vietnam, Western
    Europe. NATO vs. Warsaw Pact.
  • Also McCarthyism raging at home to thwart
    commie infiltration.
  • d)) Era of Détente Lessoning of tensions. .
    .de- nuke in the 70s after the 60s madness.
  • e)) Ray Guns Star wars initiativebroke the
    Soviets. Or was it the Afganistan invasion of 81

96
  • f) USSR crumbles. . .China views a mixed economy.
    Eastern Europe throws off the yoke of Communism.
    USSR is liberated. The wall falls 1989
  • g) Terrorism is the next target. . .
  • 1) Kuwait the multi-lateral coalition vs. IRAQ
  • 2) Unilateral theory of Bush 43 to finish off
  • Iraq pursue the Axis of Evil. Any one who
    harbors or protects terrorists are against us.
  • 3) What is the difference between multilateral
    and unilateral?

97
3 Instruments of Foreign policy
  • 1. Economic sanctions, embargos, trade. .
    .Globalization prevails . . .
  • 2. Military conventional unconventional- MAD
    scenarios
  • 3. Coalition building
  • a. UN, CENTO, SEATO, OAS, EU
  • b. Multi-national Corporations
  • 4. The Players
  • a. President his major players Defense,
    State, NSC
  • b. Congress

98
War Powers Resolution of 1973
  • 1) President can dispatch troops for 60 days w/o
    Congressional approval. . .then
  • 2) War Powers resolution - Congress must allocate
    funds or troops are coming home. Gulf War
    Congress issued a resolution in support . . .
    same in war on terrorism.

99
  • 1. Domestically
  • (a) President can VETO legislation
  • (b) Congress can also prevent Presidential
    actions
  • LEGISLATIVE VETO President cant put actions
    into place until a 30-90 day waiting period. .
    .Congress submits a resolution to deny the
    Presidential action. . .
  • (1) SC (Chadha case ) ruled it
    unconstitutional,
  • Congress passes laws, Prez signs them into
    LAW. . .
  • (2) But Congress still uses the LEG VETO as a
    threat to control the bureaucracy!

100
  • (c) Congress can pull back funding if Prez
    doesnt spend the allocation. . . . What is that
    called?
  • Impoundment of funds. . (1) Budget Reform ACT of
    1974. . .Does the Prez have to spend all he gets.
    . .He cant spend what he doesnt get!!!
  • 2. Foreign Policy
  • (a) War Powers Act 1973 MUST notify Congress. .
    .but does he need their approval????

101
Impeachment
  • Reason
  • House may charge the president, by majority
    vote, for Treason, Bribery, or other high Crimes
    and Misdemeanors. Submit Articles of Impeachment
    to the
  • 2. Senate,
  • which holds the trial with the Chief Justice and
    presiding judge. 2/3 of Senate votes to convict.
    . .Thats a supermajority vote.
  • 3. Two Presidents have been impeached,
  • NONE
  • convicted. Johnson, Clinton. . . Nixon
    resigned B4 trial.

102
Federal Burocracy
  • Federal Civil Service -- powerless patronage-
    its what you can do (merit principle) instead of
    who you know( the spoils system)
  • In 1883 this established federal civil service
  • Pendelton Civil Service Act-
  • b. What prohibits civil servants from becoming
    political activists while working?
  • Hatch Act- Prohibits Political Activism
  • c. Who hires and fires. Office of Personnel
    Management (OPM)

103
Bureaucracy organization
  • Bureaucracies follow what model. . .
  • Weberian Model What makes it so unique?
  • 1) Hierarchy
  • 2) task specialization
  • 3) merit base not patronage. An assassins
    bullet changed the system.
  • 4) Impartiality
  • 5) A culture This is how it is done here
    type of attitude.
  • b. Acquisitive/Monopolistic
  • 1) Maximize ones budget-
  • 2) Only show on the block - monopoly
  • 3) fear of privatization
  • c. Garbage can - Buy something and then find a
    use for it.
  • Solutions are in search of problems.
  • d. American bureaucracies share each of the above
    theories in administering to the needs of the
    American people.

104
Federal Hierarchy
  • a. Cabinet Departments- 15 of those - although
    some have been in jeopardy - i.e. What does the
    Commerce department do? Interior
  • b. Regulatory Agencies
  • affect economy by making and enforcing rules
    designed to protect the public interest. Munn v.
    Illinois (1877) ICC followed in 1887 to regulate
    RRs
  • Small commission oversees agency. Appointed by
    president, confirmed by Senate for fixed terms -
    Oust via Just Cause!
  • SIGS attempt to impact Regulatory agencies!

105
Independent Regulatory Agencies
  • 1) The Fed (Federal reserve Board)- Regulates
    supply gt interest rates.
  • 2) NLRB (Natl Labor Relations Board)
  • 3) FCC - licensing and managing the HUGE TV,
    telephone, internet with some success.
  • 4) FTC - monopoly watch - ad accuracy
  • 5) SEC - police stock market.

106
Govt Corporations
  • like prvt corps. Provide services and charge for
    them
  • 1) TVA
  • 2) US Post Office - the largest corp.
  • 3) Amtrak
  • Independent Executive Agencies - all the rest.
    Chiefs appointed by the president
  • 1) GSA General Service Administration
  • 2) NSF - Natl Science Foundation
  • 3) NASA -

107
Policy implementation
  • Congressional laws Presidential orders
    Bureaucratic discretion Judicial decisions
    Policy
  • a) Assign (new or old) agency the task.
  • b) Set up operational rules and develop
    guidelines
  • c) Coordinate resources and personnel.

108
Problems and Pathologies
  • Waste
  • Duplication
  • 3) lack of clarity in the idea - i.e. Title IX
    equality for men and women sports. What does
    equal mean? law states reasonable provisions
    to provide equality. . .What is reasonable?
  • 4) lack of resources - - AIDS prevention, INS
    problems, DOE auditting, FAA and IRS are
    undermanned. FDA and drug testing.
  • 5) SOPs red tape

109
Controlling the Bureaucracy
  • a. Presidential
  • 1) Appointments
  • 2) issue executive orders
  • 3) Budget squeezes
  • 4) Re-organize (deregulation move)
  • b. Congress
  • 1) influence appointments
  • 2) budget influence
  • 3) hold hearings
  • 4) rewrite legislation
  • 5) Let the private sector do it- deregulate!

110
V. Judicial / Civil Lib Civil Rights
111
Constitutional courts -
  • 1) Judiciary Act of 1789 creates district courts
  • These cts have . . . ? jurisdiction
  • original jurisdiction
  • b) only cts to hold trials w/ juries (only 3
    end in ruling, the rest are plea bargained)
  • c) Who selects these judges how?
  • Answer president thru confirmation process

112
  • 2) Ct of International trade
  • 3) Court of Appeals (Circuit Courts)
  • Jurisdiction?
  • appellate jurisdiction
  • b) How many districts
  • 12 districts
  • c) Function
  • correct mistakes made in district
  • courts

113
  • 4) Supreme Ct Jurisdiction?
  • original and appellate jurisdiction
  • b) of justices
  • 9
  • c) Types of cases?
  • Constitutional issues
  • 5. Other courts
  • Special courts legislative courts (set up to
    deal w/ powers of Congress)

114
d. Jurisdiction
  • 1) original
  • trial starts here. 90 end here
  • 2) appellate
  • adverse decision from lower ct. or highest
    state supreme ct sends it up to US Supreme Ct.

115
e. Judge portfolio
  • 1) How are federal judges selected?
  • Presidential appointment w/ Senate 2/3 vote to
    confirm
  • Senatorial courtesy
  • home state senator can immediately VETO a
    confirmation w/o discussion.
  • 2) Term
  • Lifetime appointments for all fed judges. Why is
    that so special?
  • Can enhance a presidents legacy
  • 3) impeachment
  • Yes - (7 in US history) is available for
    unacceptable behavior.

116
  • 4) Judge must meet the litmus test? - -
    ideological purity is critical
  • What make appointments more difficult? Divided
    Govt makes it more difficult to select and
    confirm judges.
  • 5) Confirmation could go badly if
  • a) you have the minority party in Senate
  • b) Pres is in the late term selections
  • c) Judge has ethics violations, can nix
    nomination. i.e. Clarence Thomas survived,
    Robert Bork did not.

117
f. Qualifications
  • 1) Most are Lawyers
  • 2) White males have dominated the court but
  • 3) Party favorites - only 13 of 108 SC judges
    non-partisan selections. 90 partisan selections.
  • 4) IDEOLOGY is the KEY factor

118
g. Case work
  • What gives the Courts their power over Leg
    Executive decisions?
  • Judicial review gives fed cts power to hear
    federal questions and overrule Leg Exec
    branches -- overturned 100 rulings
  • The court case?
  • Marbury v. Madison 1803 provided right of
    Judicial Review. .
  • Rule of 4
  • Of 7500 cases they select about about 100.
  • Solicitor General
  • assists in Appellate ct case load possibilities.
    . .
  • a) writ of mandamus
  • Court demands ACTION
  • b) writ of certiorari-
  • Certificate FROM SC requesting a case be sent
    up.
  • c) Writ of Habeas Corpus
  • Jailers must explain why holding a suspect.

119
Deliberations opinions
  • Chief justice delegates authority to writing WHY
    we (the SC) voted. Only 1/3 of decisions have
    been unanimous.
  • concurring
  • We agree and here is why
  • OR-could stress a different constitutional or
    legal foundation for the opinion
  • b) dissenting
  • we disagree
  • c) stare decisis
  • decision stands -
  • d) How many judges does one need to vote?
  • SIX judges to vote
  • How many to decide a case?
  • MAJORITY. Tie votes retains lower Ct decision.
  • Need five votes to set a . . .

120
  • Most liberal court?
  • Warren Court set liberal precedents in
    education, civil liberties, re-apportionment,
    1960s
  • b) Burger Court (a Minnesotan selected by Nixon
    was more conservative although it set precedent
    w/ Wade v. Roe.
  • c) Rehnquist Court - limited rights established
    by Warren Ct, not reversed affirmative action
    policies severely scrutinized.

121
C. Civil Rights -
  • 1 Govt does not discriminate against us
  • 2 Govt protects us from interference by private
    individuals.
  • 3. Framers referred to these rights as NATURAL
    RIGHTS, rights of all people to dignity and
    worth.
  • Today they are called HUMAN RIGHTS.

122
  • a) 1st mention of equality is
  • 14th Amendment - All will have equal
    protection unless there is a compelling public
    interest to discriminate.
  • b) Burden of proof is on the state. THEREFORE . .
    . to right a past wrong, I may have to
    discriminate to RIGHT past ills for a period of
    time!

123
Race issues
  • a. although the 13th Amendment prohibits . . .
  • slavery 1865 Overturned
  • Dred Scott v. Sanford
  • b. 14th Amendment
  • Equal protection - 1868
  • c. 15th Amendment
  • Right to vote (1870)
  • e. Segregation and White Supremacy prevailed.
  • Jim Crow Laws that preached a separate society.
  • What court case established this behavior?
  • Plessy v. ferguson.
  • Separate but equal

124
  • 1) voting
  • 2) Housing
  • 3) Job procurement
  • 4) accessibility to public accommodations
  • f. What was formed in 1910?
  • NAACP.
  • (1) President Truman and Eisenhower integrated
    the military and Fed Bureaucracy

125
  • 2) As Congress dragged its feet w/ a Southern
    Senatorial block, the executive and judicial
    branches responded.
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
  • Ended segregation
  • Segregation by law
  • de jure segregation was unconstitutional. But
    de facto segregation-
  • segregation by choice or reality- still
    prevailed
  • until Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenburg Board of
    Education 1971?.
  • the SC ruled that schools will re-district to
    end segregation via busing, a very unpopular
    device to integrate.

126
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965
  • b) 24th Amendment ended what? (3)
  • Poll taxes, White primaries, gerrymandered
    districts, all were thrown out.
  • c) This has also established minority/majority
    districts that promoted minority electorates . .
    . What ct case ended that?
  • but Shaw v. Reno and other cases has condemned
    the design of districts using race as the
    predominant factor.

127
Womens issues
  • Women in the work force have provided economic
    equality (by some measurements). Political
    equality came with which Amendment ?
  • 19th (1920) but ERA fell short in 1987.

128
Gender discrimination status
  • Rational base test - Is it reasonable to have
    boys compete VS girls in hockey The court case?
  • Reed v. Reed 1971 1st discrimination ruling
    based on gender.
  • 2) Heightened/medium scrutiny- Important govt
    objectives exist for gender based law.
  • Orr v. Orr. Alimony only to women.
  • 3) Strict Scrutiny standard.
  • A Man gets the raise because he is the major
    wage earner, not the female. Fundamental rights
    are at issue here. . .
  • 4. What banned sex discrimination in hiring,
    firing and compensation?
  • Civil Rights Act of 64 72

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Affirmative Action
  • a. Results have provoked reverse discrimination
    charges
  • Regents of U of Calif v. Bakke overruled Adarand
    v Pena.

130
Good Luck!!!
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