Introduction to Ecology Chapter 50 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Introduction to Ecology Chapter 50

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Title: Introduction to Ecology Chapter 50


1
Introduction to EcologyChapter 50
2
What is ecology?
  • Ecology is the study of how organisms interact
    with their environment
  • Eco from Oiko home
  • What factors control the distribution and
    abundance of organisms?

3
1. Types of Ecology
  • Organismal (physiological and behavioral)
  • Population
  • Community
  • Ecosystem
  • Global

4
Organismal ecology
  • Questions center on how organisms respond to
    biotic and abiotic factors in their environment
  • Physiology, morphology, and behavior

5
Population ecology
  • A population is a group of organisms of the same
    species living in the same place at the same
    time.
  • Questions are related to factors that affect the
    number of individuals living in a habitat
  • size, distribution of population?
  • - birth and death rates?
  • - population growth rate?

6
Community ecology
  • A community consists of the organisms that live
    in an area and interact
  • Questions focus on
  • the interactions between organisms (who eats who,
    who helps who)
  • how those interactions affect community structure

7
Mutualism
Competition
Species Interactions
Predators and parasites
8
Ecosystem ecology
  • An ecosystem consists of the biotic (living)
    community and the abiotic (nonliving) factors
    that affect it.
  • Abiotic factors are things such as soil,
    atmosphere, water, nutrients, energy, temperature
  • Questions emphasize energy flow and cycling of
    nutrients

9
Global ecology
  • Controls and patterns of worldwide circulation of
    energy and nutrients
  • Factors that affect climate

Atmospheric CO2 and Temp.
10
2. What factors affect the distribution of
organisms?
  • Species dispersal
  • Behavior and habitat selection
  • Biotic factors-Other organisms such as predators,
    competitors, or facilitators
  • Abiotic factors such as nutrient availability,
    water, temperature

11
What affects the distribution of organisms?
Fig. 50.6 Flowchart of factors limiting
geographic distribution. As ecologists study the
factors limiting a species distribution, they
often consider a series of questions like these.
12
Species dispersal
Species may not inhabit an area because of
biogeographical boundaries.
Fig. 50.6
13
- Breakdown in dispersal barriers- Most do not
cause problems- Some do- Problems can be large,
expensive, and difficult or impossible to reverse
Application Introduced species
Fig. 50.8 Zebra mussel
14
Behavior and habitat selection
  • Organisms do not always occupy all available,
    suitable habitat
  • May be specific in reproduction needs
  • In insects- larval needs may be different from
    adult needs

15
Biotic factors
  • Interactions with other organisms
  • Negative predation or competition
  • Positive facilitation (e.g., pollinators

urchin vs. limpets
Fig. 50.9
16
Abiotic factors
  • Temperature
  • high temperature cause cell membranes to leak and
    enzymes to stop working
  • low temperature causes freezing
  • some animals have antifreezes that allow them to
    survive below freezing temperatures.

Fig. 27.1 thermophilic bacteria, Nevada
Antarctic notothenioids
17
Abiotic factors
  • Water availability
  • too little water (desiccation)
  • Deserts, saltwater
  • too much water (anaerobic)

Mangroves
Organ pipe cacti, desert shrubs
18
Abiotic factors Water availability
  • All terrestrial organisms

Leaves, stomata
Insects tolerate, cuticle
19
Abiotic factors
  • Sunlight
  • Competition, shade tolerance for plants
  • Photic zone, different wavelengths for aquatic
    organisms

20
Abiotic factors
  • Wind
  • exacerbates the effects of temperature and water
    loss
  • also exerts forces on organisms (waves act in the
    same manner)

Flagging of tree limbs due to wind
21
Temperature
  • Temperature is partly determined by the amount of
    solar radiation hitting an area
  • Depends on latitude, angle of incidence

Fig. 50.11
22
What causes the seasons?
  • We know
  • Earth has elliptical orbit
  • Earth is tilted on axis (23.5o)
  • Seasons are opposite in northern and southern
    latitudes
  • It can NOT be the distance of the earth from the
    sun since the seasons are opposite in the
    northern and southern hemispheres.

23
Temperature
  • Seasons are caused by the tilt of the earth as it
    revolves about the sun

Fig. 50.12
24
Water
  • Warming air absorbs water and cooling releases
    water, causing more rain at some latitudes

Fig. 50.13
25
Water
  • Wind patterns interact with mountains to cause
    increased rain on windward sides, rain shadows on
    lee sides.

Fig. 50.14 How mountains affect rainfall.
26
Microclimates
  • Within a biome, region or habitat, temp., water,
    sunlight and other factors can vary dramatically
  • These form small areas with microclimates or
    microhabitats
  • Can have strong effects on species ranges

Fig. 50.26
27
Aquatic biomes cover about 75 of the earths
surface
  • Wetlands
  • Oceanic pelagic
  • Lakes
  • Rivers, streams
  • Intertidal zones
  • Coral reefs
  • Benthos

28
1. Lakes
Oligotrophic Lake Nutrient poor, water is
clear, oxygen rich little productivity by algae,
relatively deep with little surface area.
29
1. Lakes
  • Eutrophic lake nutrient rich, lots of algal
    productivity so its oxygen poor at times, water
    is murkier ? often a result of input of
    agricultural fertilizers

30
Rivers and Streams Organisms need adaptations so
that they are not swept away by moving water
heavily affected by man changing the course of
flow (E.g. dams and channel-straightening) and by
using rivers to dispose of waste.
31
Wetlands includes marshes, bogs, swamps,
seasonal ponds. Among richest biomes with
respect to biodiversity and productivity. Very
few now exist as they are thought of often as
wastelands.
32
Estuary Place where freshwater stream or river
merges with the ocean. Highly productive biome
important for fisheries and feeding places for
water fowl. Often heavily polluted from river
input so many fisheries are now lost.
33
Intertidal Zone Alternately submerged and
exposed by daily cycle of tides. Often polluted
by oil that decreases biodiversity.
34
Coral Reefs occur in neritic zones of warm,
tropical water, dominated by cnidarians (corals)
very productive, protect land from storms most
are now dying from rise in global temperatures
35
Deep-sea vent Occurs in benthic zone diverse,
unusual organisms energy comes not from light
but from chemicals released from the magma.
36
Biomes
  • Regions of the earth that are similar in organism
    type although the particular species differ
  • Driven largely by climate temp., water,
    seasonality
  • Other factors soil, topography

Fig. 50.10 Biomes of North America
37
BIOMES
38
Any Questions??
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