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Aim: How do living things differ from nonliving things?

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Do now: List some examples of living things. What do all of these living things have in common? Vocabulary: living things, non living things, metabolism, synthesis ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aim: How do living things differ from nonliving things?


1
Aim How do living things differ from nonliving
things?
  • Do now List some examples of living things. What
    do all of these living things have in common?
  • Vocabulary living things, non living things,
  • metabolism, synthesis, assimilation,
    reproduction, response, irritability

2
CELLS and SYSTEMS
3
How is a living thing different from nonliving
thing?
  • Growth and development
  • movement or locomotion
  • adaptability or irritability
  • reproduction
  • Metabolism
  • Made up of cells

4
The Characteristics of Life
  • Living things are organized structures.
  • Living things use energy to maintain life and to
    grow and develop.
  • Living things maintain a fairly stable internal
    environment even when their external environment
    changes dramatically.
  • Living things pass hereditary information to new
    organisms of the same type in the process of
    reproduction.

5
Cellular Reproduction
  • A single-celled organism
  • dividing to produce two
  • new cells.

6
Can you tell why?
  • Many scientists do not include viruses with
    living things.

7
  • The reason is that viruses are not cells.
    Instead they are made only of protein and genetic
    material. As a result, viruses do not
    independently carry out all processes of life. To
    reproduce, they must invade the cell of a living
    organism.

8
Life Processes
  • obtaining nutrients from the environment breaking
    them down for transport
  • transporting materials throughout the organism

9
Life Processes
  • breaking nutrients into smaller units to release
    the chemical energy stored in them through the
    process of cell respiration
  • combining simple substances into complex
    substances during the process known as synthesis

10
Life Processes
  • increasing the size or number of cells through
    the process of growth
  • removing waste products from the organism through
    the process known as excretion
  • responding to internal and external stimuli
  • reproducing more of their own species

11
  • The cell biologist carefully adjusts the
    microscope to focus on a slice of corn root cell.
    The cell had been chemically fixed and then
    thinly sliced to form the specimen under study.
    Thus, the cell is frozen in time, capturing in
    exquisite detail the structure that underlies its
    functions.

12
And this is what was seen under the microscope...
13
What is a cell?
  • small individual units that make up all living
    things
  • can not be seen with the naked eye
  • where the life processes of the living organisms
    are carried on
  • some organisms consist of one cell
  • others are made up of many cells

14
The Cell Theory
  • All organisms are made of one or more cells and
    the products of those cells.
  • All cells carry on life activities.
  • New cells arise only from other living cells by
    the process of cell division.

15
Two Basic Cell Types
  • Prokaryotic Cells
  • cells without nucleus
  • Eukaryotic Cells
  • cells with true nucleus

16
Prokaryotic cells
  • lack any internal membrane-bound structures
  • membranes do not separate different areas of the
    cell from each other
  • diameters range between 1 and 10 µm

17
A Prokaryotic Cell
18
Eukaryotic cells
  • present in all living things except bacteria
  • have many kinds of internal membrane-bound
    structures
  • have many specialized internal structures called
    organelles
  • much more compartmentalized compared to
    prokaryotic cells
  • diameters range from 10-100 µm

19
A Eukaryotic Cell
20
Organizational Structure of Organisms
21
Remember that...
  • TISSUES groups of specialized cells
  • ORGAN combination of different kinds of tissues
    that perform one of the life processes
  • ORGAN SYSTEM several organs that may work
    together to perform one of the life processes

22
Test your knowledge...
  • 1. One characteristic of all living organisms is
    that
  • A. make food
  • B. live on land
  • C. maintain homeostasis
  • D. move from place to place

23
  • 2. A biologist would most likely study all of the
    chemical activities of an organism to obtain
    information about the organisms
  • A. number of mutations
  • B. reproductive cycle
  • C. development
  • D. metabolism

24
  • 3. Which of the following statements about cells
    is NOT true?
  • A. One or more cells make up all living
    organisms
  • B. Cells carry on the basic life function of
    living organisms
  • C. Cells contain structures that carry on life
    functions
  • D. Most cells cannot reproduce

25
  • 4. Cells are to tissues as organs are to
  • A. organ systems
  • B. cells
  • C. genes
  • D. organelles

26
  • 5. The ability of an organism to maintain
    internal stability is known as
  • A. metabolism
  • B. homeostasis
  • C. circulation
  • D. excretion

27
  • 6. Which sequence is listed in order from
    simplest to most complex?
  • A. tissue-cell-organ system-organ
  • B. cell-tissue-organ-organ system
  • C. cell-tissue-organ system-organ
  • D. organ system-cell-tissue-organ

28
  • 7. Living things are made mostly of these four
    main elements
  • A. hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and protein
  • B. water, protein, carbohydrates, and fat
  • C. carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
  • D. glucose, salt, mineral, and base
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