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INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORIES: PLURALISM OR LIBERALISM

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INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORIES: PLURALISM OR LIBERALISM Dr. MARGARITA SESELGYTE Institute of International Relations and Political Science, Vilnius university, 2010 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORIES: PLURALISM OR LIBERALISM


1
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORIES PLURALISM OR
LIBERALISM
  • Dr. MARGARITA SESELGYTE
  • Institute of International Relations and
    Political Science, Vilnius university, 2010

2
PLURALISM(liberalism)
  • Non-state actors are important entities
  • State is not a unitary actor
  • State is not necessarily a rational actor
  • The agenda of international politics is much more
    extensive than national security issues
  • Conflicts are irrational

3
PLURALISM AN IMAGE OF A LATTICEWORK OR COBWEB
Non-state actors Interdependence Overlay Transact
ions
4
TRANSNATIONALISM
  • Transnationalism caused by modernization changed
    the nature of international relations
  • No clear distinction between domestic and foreign
    policies
  • Economic and foreign policies becoming blurred

5
DECISION MAKING
  • Decision makers influence Foreign Policy agenda
  • Individual experiences and group thinking also
    matters
  • Unitary decision does not necessarily mean
    consistent implementation of the policy
  • Transnational coalitions of like minded

6
INTEGRATION
  • Cooperation is necessary to address complex
    problems of modern international system
  • Positive sum game or win win scenario
  • Principle of spill over
  • Interdependence prevents conflicts
  • International regimes encourage mutual trust

7
SYSTEM AND CHANGE
  • Pluralists are rather individualists than holists
  • Believe in the gradual transformation of world
    politics
  • Emphasize feedback system

8
LIBERALISM
  • Idealism
  • Democratic Peace theory
  • Republican liberalism
  • Neoliberalism
  • Sociological liberalism
  • Institutional liberalism
  • Interdependence liberalism

9
IDEALISM
  • Philosophical theory
  • Ultimate nature of reality is based on the mind
    an ideas
  • Philosophy of perception
  • Plato, Kant
  • Woodrow Wilson
  • Laid foundations to the Liberalism in
    International Relations

10
INSTITUTIONAL LIBERALISM OR LIBERAL
INSTITUTIONALISM
  • States are not main actors of international
    relations
  • International institutions can increase and aid
    cooperation between states
  • European Union, economic agreements (ASEAN),
    NAFTA
  • Nevertheless bad states should be dealt with
  • Related to the Democratic peace theory

11
NEO-LIBERALISM
  • Market driven approach to economic and social
    policy based on neoclassical theories of
    economics
  • Nation states are concerned with absolute gains
  • Main methodological tool game theory
  • Joseph Nye, Robert Keohane, John Mearshimer,
    Richard Ned Lebow

12
SOCIOLOGICAL LIBERALISM
  • Critique of realism
  • See international relations as relations between
    people, groups and organizations in different
    countries
  • Peaceful human society is possible if there is
    closer cooperation between those groups
  • Can be managed

13
INTEGRATION THEORIES
  • Federalism
  • Functionalism
  • Neofunctionalism

14
DEMOCRATIC PEACE THEORY (also Liberal peace
theory and Republican liberalism)
  • Theory related to the research on relationship
    between the democracy and peace
  • Conflicts and wars are rare to democracies
  • Systematic violence is in general less common
    within democracies

15
Criticism of the Democratic Peace Theory
theoretical criticism
  • Distinction between democracy and non democracy
    matter of interpretation
  • Rosato (2003) democracies are not peaceful to
    each other because they are democracies but
    rather because they are similar
  • There are other factors that relate to the
    peacefulness economic welfare, democratic norms,
    participation in international organizations
  • No consensus on why democracy should be capable
    of pacifying world politics
  • Valid only after 1945

16
Criticism of the Democratic Peace Theory
practical criticism
  • Democratic crusade?
  • Universal applicability of democracy?
  • Preference of stable/ friendly authoritarian
    regimes

17
Democratic Peace Theory is supported by the USA
  • Bill Clinton Ultimately the best strategy to
    ensure our security and to build a durable peace
    is to support the advance of the democracy
    elsewhere. Democracies dont attack each other
  • George W. Bush And the reason why Im so strong
    on democracy is democracies dont go to war with
    each other. And the reason why is the people of
    most societies dont like war, and they
    understand what war means Ive got great faith
    in democracies to promote peace. And thats why
    Im such a strong believer that the way forward
    in the Middle East, the broader Middle East, is
    to promote democracy

18
And the EU
  • Chris Patten Inevitable because the EU was
    formed partly to protect liberal values, so it is
    hardly surprising that we should think it
    appropriate to speak out. But it is also sensible
    for strategic reasons. Free societies tend not to
    fight one another or to be bad neighbors.
  • EU Security Strategy The best protection for our
    security is a world of well governed democratic
    states

19
NEO NEO DEBATE
  • One of the main debates of IR theory
  • Neo-liberalism takes key concepts from both
    pluralism and neo realism
  • Neo liberalism and neo realism got closer
    together than with liberalism or realism
  • Main difference neo liberalism absolute gains,
    neo realism relative gains

20
GREAT DEBATES IN THE INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
THEORY
  • Realism vs Idealism
  • Behaviouralism in international relations theory
  • Inter-paradigm Debate
  • Postivism vs. Post - positivism

21
CRITIQUE OF PLURALISM
  • Downplay role of anarchy and security dilemma
  • Lack of a unified consistent theory
  • Too much rely on voluntarism

22
RESEARCH AGENDA
  • Democracy and peace
  • Security communities
  • International institutions
  • Integration of states
  • Pool of sovereignty

23
QUESTIONS
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