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Political Theories


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Title: Political Theories

Political Theories
  • 5th lecture.
  • The postmodern theories and the 21st century

Division of the semester
  • 1st lecture Introduction and Classical
  • 2nd lecture Political ideas of the Middle Ages.
    Church and state in medieval Europe. The
    investiture controversy.
  • 3rd lecture Political ideas of early Modern Age.
    Separation of Church and State. The Separation of
    powers, and the importance of institutions.
    Machiavelli, Hobbes, Montesquieu.
  • 4th lecture Political ideas of 19th century.
    Birth of modern streams of political thinking.
    Liberalism, conservativism and left-wing
    movements, (Marx and Marxism).
  • 5th lecture Main trends in political movements
    (thinkers and ideas and institutions in the 20th

Assessment process
Obligatory literature Civilizations and
world-religions and the History of political
ideas ppt-presentations on the web-page
www.marosan.com Recommended literature Marosán
György. (2006) Hogyan készül a történelem?
Money-Plan kft The course implies an exam. There
are two components of the mark an essay and a
written exam. If someone participates at least 3
lectures from the 5, and writes an acceptable
essay at home, then he or she could receive a
mark after his or her essay, (that is no written
exam needed then). When someone does not
participate enough lectures, and/or his or her
essay is not acceptable or is not good enough,
then he or she must make a written exam too. The
topic/theme of the essay must be in a connection
with the subject matter of the course, and it
should be an analysis of a definite, designed
topic, or movie. The essay must be of 2600 words
long, the dead-line is 17. december, 2012.
Topics and treatments of essays
  • Everybody should write two essays one from
    Civilizations and World-religions and another
    from History of Political Ideas.
  • The topic of the first essay one should watch a
    film, (which is set in the case of each student
    individually), then write an essay concerning the
    topic or theme of the movie, (perhaps a
    recommendation of 20 lines at the end of the
  • The topic of the second essay the decisive
    events of 21st century on the basis of articles
    and news downloaded from the internet. The
    student must choose 5 news, events or articles,
    and write an essay on its ground.
  • Both essays should be unbiassed, objective,

Movie-titles. Possible themes for essay
  • A katedrális (német-kanadai)
  • Hullám (N)
  • Ajami (Izraeli film)
  • Ég velünk (USA)
  • A vágy forradalma (francia)
  • Ütközések (USA)
  • Vittorio de Sica Csoda Milánóban (Olasz)
  • Aki szelet vet (USA)
  • Isten nagy, én kicsi vagyok (francia)
  • Fellini Róma (Olasz)
  • Megfoghatatlan (Il Divó) Andreotti film (O)
  • Pasolini Médeia (Olasz)
  • Rosellini Róma nyílt város (Olasz)
  • A háborúnak vége (F) Semprun könyvbol film
  • Berlin fölött az ég, (német)
  • Kapcsolat (USA, Jodie Fosterrel, 1997)
  • Tarkovszkij A tükör
  • A kelet, az kelet. (A)
  • Anna és a király (USA)
  1. Enyedi Ildikó Simon mágus (magyar)
  2. Ámen (francia-német-német film)
  3. Bergman Úrvacsora (svéd)
  4. Andrzej Wajda Szenthét (Lengyel)
  5. A paradicsom meghódítása (Angol-amerikai-francia-s
  6. Bergman Suttogások, sikolyok (svéd)
  7. A Magdolna novérek (ír)
  8. Luther (N)
  9. Goya kísértetei, (spanyol).
  10. Mennyei királyság, (Amerikai-angol, stb.)
  11. Bergman A hetedik pecsét
  12. Bresson Egy falusi plébános naplója (francia)
  13. Bergman Tükör által homályosan (svéd)
  14. Tarkovszkij Andrej Rubljov (szovjet-orosz)
  15. Szent Lajos király hídja (spanyol-angol-francia)
  16. Enyedi Ildikó A buvös vadász (magyar)
  17. Hét év Tibetben (Amerikai)
  18. Bresson Jeanne DArc pere
  19. Vera Drake

The points of view of the analysis of the film
  • What is the movie about?
  • What is its relationship to the particular,
    chosen topic (to Religions or History of
    Political Ideas)
  • What is the message of the movie?
  • What is its peculiar importance in relationship
    to the history of 20th and 21st century?
  • Does it have a message in regard of nowadays
  • Which opposite opinions are expressed in the
  • Which opposite opinions are present according to
    the topic in question in the contemporary
    Hungarian and/or global society?
  • You could select the behaviour, story or path of
    life of one or more characters, and you could
    present and analyse them in your essay.
  • With what other movies and literary works could
    you compare the actual, chosen movie?
  • What is the relationship of this film to the
    reality does it alter the latter drastically or
    rather mirrors it in a quite acceptable, adequate

Topic of the other essay
  • There were three options
  • You should choose and download from the internet
    5 events, news, information in the last two
    years, which you consider to be decisive in
    regard of the history of 21st century.
  • I will give you one case, about which you could
    write an essay.
  • There are some TED case, which also provide
    option to write essay.

The points of view of the analysis concerning
the 21st century
  • You should choose and download from the internet
    5 events, news, information in the last two
    years, which you consider to be decisive in
    regard of the history of 21st century.
  • You should show and argue for why do you think
    these events to be decisive (rather than others).
  • You should unfold their connections and internal
    relationship, and form your opinion what kind of
    future they foreshadow together.
  • You should determine the possible message of this
    foreshadowed picture in regard of Europe, and in
    particular in regard of East-Europe.
  • You should determine the possible message of this
    foreshadowed picture in regard of present
    Hungarian society.
  • The essay must be approximately 8 pages, out of
    which one page should be about the analysis of
    these five tendencies.
  • Deadline 17. December, 2012. Room, E II 22.

An example
  • At least 45 people, including women and children,
    have been killed in sectarian violence involving
    two ethnic groups over land row in Nigeria's
    northern state of Benue, police and witnesses
    said today. Those killed belong to Tiv ethnic
    group while the attackers were the Fulani people
    who are mostly cattle herdsmen, witnesses
    said. The Tiv, who are mostly farmers, also had
    some of their houses burnt down by the invaders.
    Ejike Alaribe, the police spokesman, said the
    number of people killed in Sunday's violence is
    16 but a witness who spoke to PTI on condition of
    anonymity insisted the number could not be less
    than 45, adding that the country's police is
    known for reducing casualty figures. The cause
    of the violence is related to land row between
    the two ethnic groups. The Fulanis, who are
    mostly Muslims, seek land for their cattle to
    graze while the Tivs want to preserve it for
    farming. Ethnic conflict over land are
    widespread in northern Nigeria. Most frequently,
    these occure in the country's north-central state
    of Plateau where Fulani herdsmen engage in
    clashes with the Biroms and other ethnic groups.

Suggested TED presentations (www.TED.org)
  • J. Haidt Religion, evolution, and the extasy of
  • J. Haidt The moral roots of liberalism
  • Hans Rosling A vallások és a demográfia
  • Hans Rosling The best statistics
  • Frans de Waal Moral behavior in animals
  • Dan Ariely irracionalitásaink..
  • D. Ariely Our buggy moral
  • Devdutt Pattenaik Kelet kontra nyugat
    elkápráztató mítoszok
  • Joseph Pine What consumer wants
  • Roy Sutherland an add man life
  • Gopnik What do babies think
  • Jamie Drummond Lett crowsource ..
  • Marc Googman A vision of crime int he future
  • Jean Baptiste Michel Matehmatics of history
  • Sherry Turtle Connected but alona
  • Berry Schwartz Paradox of choice
  • Laurie Santos Monkey economy
  • Geoffrey West A városok és cégek meglepo
  1. Paddy Ashdown The global power shift.
  2. Clay Shiky Institution vs. collaboration
  3. Clay Shirky How the internet transform
  4. Rachel Botsman The currency of the new economy
  5. Jammy Drummond Lets crowsource
  6. Don Tapscott Four principles for open world
  7. Howard Rheingold The new power of collaboration
  8. Yochai Benkler New open-source economics
  9. Sam Harris Science can answer moral questions
  10. Schlomo Benartzi Saving for tomorrow, tomorow
  11. R. Wilkinson How economic inequality harms
  12. Niall Ferguson A jólét 6 kegyetlenül jó "app"-je
  13. Mark Forsyth Whats a snowgoster
  14. M. Jakubowski Nyílt forráskódú tervrajzok a
  15. Gladwell Choice, happiness, spagetti sauce
  16. Lean-Baptist Michel The mathematics of histoty
  17. J. Diamond Why societies collapse

Main features of a political theory
  • A political theory treats the principles,
    guide-lines, norms and values according to which
    (in the thinkers opinion) the society has to
    organize its institutions, functions, structures,
    hierarchy and its general way of working.
  • The aim of a political theory is to find the best
    way of running a society and a state.
  • The political thinker in question has to argue
    for his or her ideas, so for his or her opinion
    according to which she/he finds some values to be
    the best for a society.
  • She or he has to fix the most basic values
    according to which the society or the state has
    to organize itself, and its particular way of
    functioning. So she or he has to say what she/he
    thinks to be the most important in regard of a
    society the preserving the traditional values of
    a nation (conservativism), guaranteeing the
    invulnerability of sphere of personal, individual
    freedom (liberalism), social justice and the
    defense of the rights of the needy (left-wing
    movements, Social democracy).

How to govern a state? Two solutions
  • For the Greek political thinkers there were
    generally three possible ways of governance
    kingship, aristocracy and politeia (democracy,
  • Kingship or kingdom, which meant monarchy, was
    the dominance of one person or family, that
    privatized the community, and its most
    important resources, using the latter entirely at
    his and their will and pleasure.
  • The republic (democracy, politeia) was the
    community of several, principally equal citizens,
    who looked for the proper method of how to decide
    those question together, which were decided in a
    kingdom by only one person or just a few.
  • Of course there are transitional forms between
    republic and kingdom, which were described by the
    theoreticians of Athenian democracy, (e.g.
    oligarchy, aristocracy the dominance of a few

Recurrent problems of republics
  • How can we achieve that everybody could have a
    role in the republic? Everybody is eligible.
  • How can we achieve that everbody could have an
    equal chance to have an access to the public
    state? The elections were done by means of
    drawing of lots (sortition).
  • How could we avoid the tyranny? By ostracism.
  • How could we achieve that the people participate
    in political life in real? We should make the
    participation in politics an obligation, and we
    should pay for managing the proper social,
    political, public offices.

Assigned sovereignity as an achievement of the
history of European civilization
  • The sovereign and all-powerful monarch assigns
    certain rights in certain fields that an
    organization could determine and controll its
    functions and working in an autonomous, sovereign
    and free way. Thus emerge in the history of
  • Free cities,
  • Free guilds,
  • Free religious communities,
  • Free universities,
  • Free societies (e.g. Academies)
  • Free enterprises

Evolution of separation of powers, 1.
  • John of Salisbury, AD1120-1180.
  • He wittnesses the assassination of his mentor
    Thomas Becket by the men of the king, Henrik II,
    in 1174.
  • His main work is Policraticus (1159), in which
    he determined the just governance limited and
    controlled by laws, and acceptance of separation
    of powers as the highest task of the monarch.
  • On the one hand he wrote about the difference
    between monarch and tyrrant, according to which
    the monarch subjects himself to the reign of just
    law, while the tyrrant subjects everything to his
    own subjective will and pleasure.
  • On the other hand he argues for that the Church
    is such an autonomous, sovereign organization,
    which falls beyond the sphere of competence of
    the king thus the people, dominions, lands,
    properties and rights to nominate its own people
    to ecclesiastic positions are inviolable,
    invulnerable by the king.

The activitiy index of the first European
Parlaments from the 11. to the 17. century.
There are interesting differences development
of parlamentarism between the North and South
  • , "Il Principe," contains a number of maxims
    concerning politics, but rather than the more
    traditional subject of a hereditary prince, it
    concentrates on the possibility of a "new
    prince." To retain power, the hereditary prince
    must carefully maintain the socio-political
    institutions to which the people are accustomed.
  • Scholars often note that Machiavelli glorifies
    instrumentality in state-building - an approach
    embodied by the saying that "the ends justify the

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Evolution of
separation of powers, 2.
  • The pre-historical period before state
    organization was not as it was generally
    thought by many a time of harmony, a golden
    age of young and innocent mankind, but just the
    opposite the world of permanent and brutal
    conflicts. It was the time of bellum omnium
    contra omnes, the war of all against all.
  • But the man possesses not only instinct, but also
    reason, he is capable of thinking of the future,
    of anticipation, and it makes him able to end
    this period of natural state, following his own
  • He founds the social contract, according to which
    each man abandon his or her absolute right to
    self-affirmation, to do whatever he wants, and
    assign this right to an absolute sovereign if
    and only every other man does the same.

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)
  • In such condition, there is no place for
    industry because the fruit thereof is uncertain
    and consequently no culture of the earth no
    navigation, nor use of the commodities that may
    be imported by sea no commodious building no
    instruments of moving, and removing, such things
    as require much force no knowledge of the face
    of the earth no account of time no arts no
    letters no society and which is worst of all,
    continual fear, and danger of violent death and
    the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish,
    and short.
  • Hobbes was a champion of absolutism for the
    sovereign but he also developed some of the
    fundamentals of European liberal thought the
    right of the individual the natural equality of
    all men the artificial character of the
    political order (which led to the later
    distinction between civil society and the state)
    the view that all legitimate political power must
    be "representative" and based on the consent of
    the people

John Locke (1632-1704). Birth of modern state
Evolution of separation of powers, 3.
  • The man adds his work to the goods of nature, and
    he creates value. Thus he gains the right to have
    property. The work is the basis for all kind of
  • This idyllic picture of natural state was
    collapsed by the emegence of money. The money
    made possible the accumulation of wealth, and it
    resulted great inequalities.
  • The inequal distribution of properties brought
    sharp conflicts, which must be controlled. To
    avoid these inconveniences, which disorder men's
    propperties in the state of nature, men unite
    into societies, that they may have the united
    strength of the whole society to secure and
    defend their properties, and may have standing
    rules to bound it, by which every one may know
    what is his, Locke, Second Treatise on Civil
    Government, 1690, London, 1821 306.
  • Locke rejects Hobbes solution, according to
    which the people should abandon their rights in
    favour of the monarch. The people would be crazy
    to offer all their rights for a monarch with
    unlimited, absolute power, and trust their fate
    to this uncontrolled, unrestricted overlord.

Montesquieu (1689-1755). The share of powers,
The Spirit of the Laws
  • He tooks the principle of separation of powers
    from Locke, but he elaborates this idea in great
    details in his work The Spirit of the Laws,
    (De lespirit des lois, 1748).
  • In every government there are three sorts of
    power the legislative the executive in respect
    to things dependent on the law of nations and
    the executive in regard to matters that depend on
    the civil law.
  • By virtue of the first, the prince or magistrate
    enacts temporary or perpetual laws, and amends or
    abrogates those that have been already enacted.
    By the second, he makes peace or war, sends or
    receives embassies, establishes the public
    security, and provides against invasions. By the
    third, he punishes criminals, or determines the
    disputes that arise between individuals. The
    latter we shall call the judiciary power, and the
    other simply the executive power of the state.,
    The Spirit of the Laws, 11th book, 6, Of the
    Constitution of England.

Montesquieu. Continuation. The evolution of
separation of powers, 4.
  • Montesquieu
  • The political liberty of the subject is a
    tranquillity of mind, arising from the opinion
    each person has of his safety. In order to have
    this liberty, it is requisite the government be
    so constituted as one man need not be afraid of
  • When the legislative and executive powers are
    united in the same person, or in the same body of
    magistrates, there can be no liberty because
    apprehensions may anse, lest the same monarch or
    senate should enact tyrannical laws, to execute
    them in a tyrannical manner. , The Spirit of
  • In the background of this conception one could
    find a peculiar insight the effective and
    succesfull governance depends primarily not on
    the eminence of politicians, but on the
    appropriate manner and character of institutions.

Montesquieu (1689-1755)
  • Montesquieu saw two types of governmental power
    existing the sovereign and the administrative.
    The administrative powers were the executive, the
    legislative, and the judicial. These should be
    separate from and dependent upon each other so
    that the influence of any one power would not be
    able to exceed that of the other two, either
    singly or in combination.
  • This was a radical idea because it completely
    eliminated the three Estates structure of the
    French Monarchy the clergy, the aristocracy, and
    the people at large represented by the
    Estates-General, thereby erasing the last vestige
    of a feudalistic structure.

J. Locke
  • Locke's political theory was founded on social
    contract theory. Unlike Thomas Hobbes, Locke
    believed that human nature is characterised by
    reason and tolerance. Like Hobbes, Locke believed
    that human nature allowed men to be selfish. This
    is apparent with the introduction of currency. In
    a natural state all people were equal and
    independent, and everyone had a natural right to
    defend his Life, health, Liberty, or
    Possessions".21 Most scholars trace the phrase,
    "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness," in
    the American Declaration of Independence to
    Locke's theory of rights,22 though other
    origins have been suggested.23

J. Locke (2)
  • Like Hobbes, Locke assumed that the sole right to
    defend in the state of nature was not enough, so
    people established a civil society to resolve
    conflicts in a civil way with help from
    government in a state of society. However, Locke
    never refers to Hobbes by name and may instead
    have been responding to other writers of the
    day.24 Locke also advocated governmental
    separation of powers and believed that revolution
    is not only a right but an obligation in some
    circumstances. These ideas would come to have
    profound influence on the Declaration of
    Independence and the Constitution of the United

  • The first man who, having fenced in a piece of
    land, said "This is mine," and found people naïve
    enough to believe him, that man was the true
    founder of civil society. From how many crimes,
    wars, and murders, from how many horrors and
    misfortunes might not any one have saved mankind,
    by pulling up the stakes, or filling up the
    ditch, and crying to his fellows Beware of
    listening to this impostor you are undone if you
    once forget that the fruits of the earth belong
    to us all, and the earth itself to nobody.

The lesson of French Revolution
  • The theoreticians will be more suspicious and
    careful with the conception of unlimited,
    absolute power, no matter whether it is practiced
    by a king, a group of nobles, aristocrats or
    eminent political people, or the entire people.
  • They will be more careful with separating the
    representation and the final, ultimate executive
  • The claim increases amongst them towards the
    securing of private, individual rights, of
    defending the rights of the minority against the
    power of the actual majority of the society in

Separation of powers after the Second World War
  • The number of voters (freemen) increases by leaps
    and bounds (the age limit is brought down, there
    is no property qualification in voting anymore,
    women got a right to vote also).
  • The new voters are interested in voting and
    politics in general less they have no time,
    they are disinterested and no experience either.
    It is a question of how their own interest could
    be realized in political praxis.
  • A subtly balanced system was formed and
  • Parliament (with the Opposition), Government,
  • Shared and separated powers,
  • Constitutional Court, President (King),
  • National Bank, National Audit Office,
  • Media,
  • Civil organizations (civil advocacy groups),
    local governments/ authorities,
  • Central Statistical Office, National Academy.

The problem of separation of powers at the end of
the 20th century
  • How could such an organization be governed, that
    has in case if it is a corporation more than
    one hundred thousand shareholders, and in case
    if it is a state several million citizens who
    have the right to vote?
  • How could it be guaranteed that the interests of
    such a huge amount of beneficiaries -
    shareholders or voters would be continually
    represented in real and as far as it is
    possible realized by those who were trusted to
    manage and take care the main duties and affairs
    of the community in question?
  • These questions are justified by the same fact in
    both cases the appropriate agents
  • do not see through the situation in its entire
  • do not take the trouble to receive detailed
    information in a circumspective and prudent way,
  • do not participate the shareholders/owners
    assembly or the elections,
  • do not take care at all of their property/state,
    do not spend any time and energy concerning it
    the maximum is that they whine or curse when the
    bankruptsy or the crisis comes in.
  • The political and business sciences though
    different way but found the same solution to
    these questions and the answer is the
    institutional way of sharing or separating of

Factors of good governance
  • 1) Participation
  • 2) Rule of law
  • 3) Transparency
  • 4) Responsiveness
  • 5) Consensus orientation
  • 6) Equity
  • 7) Effectiveness and efficiency
  • 8) Accountability
  • 9) Strategic vision

Dimensions of the rule of law
  • Limited government powers
  • Absence of corruption
  • Order and security
  • Fundamental rights
  • Open government
  • Effective regulatory enforcement
  • Access to civil justice
  • Effective criminal justice
  • Informal justice

The waves of the history
Population, Production, and Consumption
The question is there a change in the trends
after 2000?
History of the last 500 years in a few words
  • Upsurge (the long 16th century from 1492 to
  • Change of speed (1650-1750)
  • Take-off (1750-1850)
  • Acceleration (1850-1970)
  • Run-away and overshot (1950-?)
  • The central question of 21th century
    stabilization or collapse.

The triple revolution of the end of 18th
  • Industrial revolution (revolution of technique
    and technology)
  • Political revolution (the birth of modern civil
  • Social revolution (birth of new social
    identities nation and class)
  • The political ideas of 19th and 20th century was
    mainly determined and characterized by the ways
    in which the political thinkers and ideologues
    reacted to these events.

The liberal answer and evaluation
  1. The triple slogan of French Revolution liberty,
    equality, brotherhood could be regarded in
    principle as the victory of liberal thought. The
    French Revolution gave birth to the unitary
    national state, which earlier was made up of
    separate orders.
  2. The industrial revolution opened the way to a
    dynamic development, and the liberal thinking
    welcomed that. The liberal thinkers were the
    pioneers of technical and technological
    advancement and development.
  3. They treated the social questions and problems as
    necessary implications of social changes and
    transformations. They proposed a strict and
    iron-handed defence of private property by the
    state. They considered the miseries and paurerdom
    as temporary problems of society, but they
    advocated the social reforms.

Conservative respond and evaluation
  1. The revolution is considered as the disruption of
    social harmony. For a conservative thinker the
    revolution is nothing else but anarchy and
    general social confusion. It is a conspiracy
    against traditional state and traditional
    institutions organized by some free-thinkers
    (especially freemasonry) and libertines, carried
    out through the manipulation and deception of
    masses and the plebs.
  2. The industrial revolution is considered as the
    disruption of earlier peaceful and natural
    mode of production, which lead to new
    contradictions and antinomies in the society.
  3. They glanced at the masses of social difficulties
    and antinomies, at the emergence of a new and
    apparently uncontrollable class with fear, and
    principally with a critical attitude. They reject
    the mechanical and alianated civilization. They
    regard the disappearance of traditional society
    as disintegration and disorganization.

The socialist respond and evaluation
  1. The social revolution is the motor of
    development, the Jacobin terror as a necessity
    and respond to the counter-revolutionary revolts
    is the possiblity of a radical political way to
    realize the social equality.
  2. The industrial revolution is the possibility of
    enrichment and advancement, but every burden is
    placed onto the proletariat.
  3. The social change results the emergence of a new
    class, which is deprived of any defence, and
    which is exposed to extreme urban pauperdom and
    neediness, to cruel conditions of work, and to
    necessary unemployment.

What is liberalism?
  • Its central subjects are individual freedom,
    intangibility and inviolability of private
    property, and in favour of both is the limitation
    of the state, (Hobbes, then Locke).
  • Main features the affirmation of reason and
    advancament, religious tolerance, the common good
    or public benefit is a result of conflict and
    competition of private interests, free
    competition, pursuit of welfare through the
    above-mentioned issues.
  • Liberalism emphasizes the equality of rights. Its
    basic claims are the principal, essential civil
    rights the rights of association and assembly,
    the freedom of opinion and publication.
  • With all these also some spiritual or
    intellectual rights freedom of conscience and
    religion, and also some economic rights the
    freedom of enterprise and (economic) contract.

What is conservativism?
  • Originally it was a general tendency of
    traditionalism it was the conception of
    advocation of traditional morals, values,
    religion, following of inherited rules and norms,
    and the maintenance of the status quo.
  • The main feature of conservative feeling of life
    and style of thinking concentrating on concrete
    phenomena, rejection of theoretical speculations.
  • The conservative thinker rejects the abstract,
    egalitarian conception of freedom (socialism) as
    well as the negative conception of freedom given
    by the liberal thinkers.
  • The progressive thinker considers the actual
    present as the beginning of the future, while the
    conservative regards it as the last station of
    the past, (Karl Mannheim, Conservatism. A
    Contribution to the Sociology of Knowledge ).

What is socialism?
  • The expression socialism appeared in the 30s
    years of the 19th century. Its advocators
    propagated the war against the defencelessness of
    the worker in the name of the mans dignity. They
    supported the advancement and the civil
  • They agree with the liberals concerning the
    central role of reason and rationality, and the
    importance of industrial revolution, but they
    rejected the circumstances which lead to the
    miserable conditions of the members of working
  • In accordance with the conservatives they
    emphasized the importance of common values, but
    they rejected the idea of eternal and necessary
  • Their aim was to realize the promises of the
    French Revolution to everybody the principles of
    liberty, equality and brotherhood.
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