Psychological Disorders - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Psychological Disorders PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 744544-YzgxN



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Psychological Disorders

Description:

Psychological Disorders * * The caudate nucleus is located in the basal ganglia and is associated with initiation of learned, habitual motor activities Using drugs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:53
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 67
Provided by: Schu2188
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Psychological Disorders


1
Psychological Disorders
2
What do you think?
  • Write a definition for a psychological disorder.
  • Do not give examples or define specific
    disorders- what does it mean to have a
    psychological disorder?

3

Psychological Disorder
  • distressing harmful disruptive
  • behavior is uncontrollable
  • Unjustified, Irrational

4
Psychological Disorders
  • Must have personal distress and impaired
    functioning

5
Personal Distress
  • The behavior/symptoms causes significant personal
    distress to the patient (may not realize)
  • Potential harm to self or others

6
Impairs Functioning
  • Daily life functioning is impaired (one or both)
  • Work/School life
  • Home life
  • Varies throughout time/ culture

7
Ancient causes of madness
  • movements of sun or moon
  • lunacy- full moon (lunar)
  • evil spirits

8
Ancient cures
  • Exorcism
  • Caged like animals, beaten, burned, castrated,
    mutilated
  • blood replaced with animals blood!

9
Diagnosis DSM-IV-TR
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
    Disorders
  • describes specific symptoms and diagnostic
    guidelines for psychological disorders
  • Provides a common language comprehensive
    guidelines to help diagnose

10
When diagnosing a client the American
Psychological Association recommends that the
clinician use a multiaxial Assessment System. As
follows
  • Axis I Clinical Disorders
  • Axis II Personality Disorders and Mental
    Retardation
  • Axis III General Medical Condition (major medical
    conditions that may be relevant )
  • Axis IV Psychosocial and Environmental Factors
    (psychosocial and environmental factors affecting
    the person)
  • Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning (best
    guess of the clients overall level of
    functioning )

11
Diagnosis
  • Axis I 296.21 Major Depressive Disorder , Single
    Episode
  • Axis I 303.90 Alcohol Dependence
  • Axis II 301.6 Dependent Personality Disorder
  • Axis III None
  • Axis IV Recent Divorce, unemployment
  • Axis V 58

12
Insanity
  • legal definition only
  • unable to determine between right wrong or
    understand consequences

13
Anxiety Disorders
  • An unpleasant emotional state characterized by
    general, vague feelings of tension, fear and
    apprehension

Anxiety
14
  • Anxiety Disorders differ from general feelings of
    anxiety in that
  • Distressing, persistent
  • And/or
  • The behaviors that reduce anxiety

begin to control and dominate life!
15
Anxiety Disorders are
  • Irrational (exaggerated or non existent threats,
    response is out of proportion)
  • Uncontrollable (can not be turned off, even if
    the person wants to)
  • Disruptive (interferes with life)

16
Types of Anxiety Disorders
  • GAD
  • Panic
  • Agoraphobia
  • Phobias
  • PTSD
  • OCD

17
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
  • Constant worry about many issues w/o cause,
    seriously interferes with functioning
  • Physical symptoms
  • headaches
  • stomach aches
  • muscle tension
  • irritability

18
Panic Disorder
  • Panic attackssudden episode of helpless terror
    with high physiological arousal (increased blood
    pressure, heart beat, temp., sweating)
  • Very frightening sufferers live in fear of
    having them

19
  • Agoraphobia often develops
  • NOT FEAR OF OUTDOORS
  • Fear of being in situations in which escape might
    be difficult, they dont feel safe- public
    places, crowds, wide open spaces
  • Mostly confined to homes- they are safe there

20
Specific Phobias
  • Intense, irrational fears that may focus on .
  • Inappropriate response to ..

21
Natural environment type
  • the fear of heights (acrophobia)
  • the fear of lightning and thunderstorms
    (astraphobia).

22
Situational type
  • the fear of small confined spaces
    (claustrophobia)
  • being "afraid of the dark," (nyctophobia).
  • Monophobiafear of being alone
  • Gephyrophobia - Fear of crossing bridges.
  • Ligyrophobia Fear of loud noises.
  • Xenophobia Fear of strangers, foreigners, or
    aliens.

23
Blood/injection/injury type
  • the fear of medical procedures including needles
    and injections (aichmophobia)
  • Algobphobiafear of pain
  • Pyrophobiafear of fire
  • Emetophobia Fear of vomiting.
  • Radiophobia Fear of radiation or x-rays
  • Hemophopia (Haemophobia) Fear of blood

24
Animal type
  • the fear of spiders (arachnophobia)
  • the fear of snakes (ophidiophobia).
  • Ailurophobiafear of cats
  • Myrmecophobia Fear of ants.
  • Cynophobia Fear of dogs or of rabies.
  • Mottephobia Aversion to moths and butterflies.

25
Other
  • the fear of the number 13 (triskaidekaphobia)
  • the fear of clowns (coulrophobia).
  • Anthropophobiafear of men
  • Ephebiphobia Fear/dislike of teenagers.
  • Zapatophobia - Fear of shoes, socks, or sandals.

26
Common and uncommon fears
27
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
  • Follows events that produce intense horror or
    helplessness (traumatic episodes)
  • Actual or threatened death and/or injury
  • War, Rape, Accidents, Attacks, Abuse, Rescue
    workers
  • May be delayed after event- onset with trigger

28
  • Core symptoms include
  • Frequent recollection of traumatic event, often
    intrusive and interfering with normal thoughts
  • Avoidance of situations that trigger recall of
    the event
  • Increased physical arousal associated with stress

29
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
  • Obsessionsirrational, disturbing thoughts that
    intrude into consciousness
  • Compulsionsrepetitive actions performed to
    alleviate obsessions

30
  • The compulsions (actions) help to keep away the
    obsessions (thoughts)
  • If the actions are not performedanxiety
  • Observable or mental compulsions

31
OCD Examples
  • Obsessions about getting hurt, hurting someone,
    getting sick, contamination, symmetry
  • Compulsions cleaning, checking, hoarding,
    touching, counting, arranging, ordering,
    repeating phrases

32
(No Transcript)
33
Personality Disorders
  • Inflexible, maladaptive pattern of thoughts,
    emotions, behaviors
  • stable over time and across situations
  • deviate from the expectations of the individuals
    culture
  • Antisocial, Borderline, Dependent, Narcissistic

34
Antisocial Personality Disorder
  • Might start as conduct disorder (children)
  • Manipulative, charming, con man
  • Cruel, destructive
  • Lacking conscience, no guilt, no responsibility

35
Borderline Personality Disorder
  • Instability of self-image, relationships
  • Self-destructive behaviors, impulsive
  • Fear of abandonment

36
Dependent Personality Disorder
  • Unable to make decisions or do things on own

37
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
  • self importance,
  • success fantasies,
  • need for attention,
  • envy
  • arrogance others are inferior

38
(No Transcript)
39
Dissociative Disorders
  • literally a dis-association of memory
  • person suddenly becomes unaware of some aspect of
    their identity or history
  • unable to recall except under special
    circumstances (e.g., hypnosis)
  • dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue,
    dissociative identity disorder

40
Dissociative Amnesia
  • Margie and her brother were recently victims of a
    robbery. Margie was not injured, but her brother
    was killed when he resisted the robbers.
  • Margie was unable to recall any details from the
    time of the accident until four days later.

41
Dissociative Amnesia
  • Memory loss the only symptom
  • Often selective loss surrounding traumatic events
  • person still knows identity and most of their past

42
Dissociative Fugue
  • Amnesia with a journey involved often with
    identity replacement
  • leaves home
  • develops a new identity
  • apparently no recollection of former life
  • If fugue wears off
  • old identity recovers
  • new identity is totally forgotten

43
Dissociative Fugue
  • Jay, a high school physics teacher in New York
    City, disappeared three days after his wife
    unexpectedly left him for another man.
  • Six months later, he was discovered tending bar
    in Miami Beach. Calling himself Martin, he
    claimed to have no recollection of his past life
    and insisted that he had never been married.

http//www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21134540/vp/153847241
5384724
44
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
  • Norma has frequent memory gaps and cannot account
    for her whereabouts during certain periods of
    time.
  • While being interviewed by a clinical
    psychologist, she began speaking in a childlike
    voice. She claimed that her name was Donna and
    that she was only six years old.
  • Moments later, she seemed to revert to her adult
    voice and had no recollection of speaking in a
    childlike voice or claiming that her name was
    Donna.

45
Dissociative Identity Disorder
  • 2 or more distinct personalities manifested by
    the same person at different times, VERY rare and
    controversial disorder
  • Most report recall of torture or sexual abuse as
    children and show symptoms of PTSD
  • Pattern typically starts prior to age 10
    (childhood)

46
Psychotic Disorders
  • Psychotic loss of contact w/reality-
    irrational, distorted

47
Schizophrenia
  • Disordered thoughts/ communications/
  • inappropriate emotions, bizarre behavior

48
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Hallucinations
  • Seeing hearing things that are not there
  • Command (something/ someone giving orders)

49
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Delusions
  • Persecution (theyre out to get me paranoia)
  • Grandeur (God complex, megalomania)
  • being controlled (the CIA is controlling my brain
    with a radio signal)

50
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • disorganized speech (e.g., word salad)
  • jumping from idea to idea without the benefit of
    logical association
  • Paralogicon the surface, seems logical, but
    seriously flawed
  • e.g., Jesus was a man with a beard, I am a man
    with a beard, therefore I am Jesus

51
Symptoms of Schizophrenia
  • Disorganized behavior
  • behavior is inappropriate for the situation
  • e.g., wearing sweaters and overcoats on hot days
  • Emotion is inappropriately expressed
  • no emotion at all in face or speech, laughing at
    very serious things, crying at funny things

52
Types of Schizophrenia
  • Paranoid type
  • delusions of persecution, believes others are
    spying and plotting
  • delusions of grandeur, believes others are
    jealous, inferior, subservient

53
Catatonic type
  • unresponsive to surroundings, purposeless
    movement, parrot-like speech
  • usually marked by immobility for extended
    periods

54
Disorganized type
  • disorganized speech and behavior
  • Childlike
  • Inappropriate emotions
  • delusions and hallucinations with little meaning

55
  • Vulnerability
  • Cognitive impairments
  • Social Anxiety
  • Odd ideas

WHERE DOES IT COME FROM?
PSYCHOSIS!
Reinforcement Social stress Isolation Drug/Alcoho
l abuse
Early Causes Genetic Predisposition Prenatal
Factors
Nature AND Nurture!
56
Mood Disorders
  • Significant and persistent disruption in mood,
    causing impaired cognitive, behavioral, and
    physical functioning
  • Major depression
  • Dysthymic disorder
  • SAD
  • Bipolar disorder

57
Major Depression
  • extreme and persistent feelings of despondency,
    worthlessness and hopelessness that disturb
    everyday functioning

58
Symptoms of Major Depression
  • Emotionalsadness, hopelessness, guilt, turning
    away from others
  • Behavioraltearfulness, dejected facial
    expression, loss of interest in normal
    activities, slowed movements and gestures,
    withdrawal from social activities

59
  • Cognitivedifficulty thinking and concentrating,
    global negativity, preoccupation with
    death/suicide
  • Physicalappetite and weight changes, excessive
    or diminished sleep, loss of energy, global
    anxiety, restlessness

60
treatment
61
  • Difficult to sleep, to eat, to think, to
    concentrate
  • May have suicidal thoughts, may not be able to
    carry out plan

62
Dysthymic Disorder
  • Chronic, low-grade depressed feelings that are
    not severe enough to be major depression
  • May develop in response to trauma, but does not
    decrease with time
  • Usually does not severely impair functioning
  • Over two years

63
Seasonal Affective Disorder
  • Episodes of depression occur in fall and winter
    then subside in spring and summer (Seasonal
    regularity)

64
Bipolar Disorders
  • Mood levels swing from severe depression to
    extreme euphoria (mania), can have normal in
    between
  • No regular relationship to time of year (SAD)
  • Can vary in length of time for depression and
    mania

65
  • Must have at least one manic episode
  • Supreme self-confidence
  • Grandiose ideas and movements, little effort in
    carrying out plans
  • Flight of ideas
  • Aggressive, hostile, wild, incomprehensible,
    violent

66

PET scans show that brain energy consumption
rises and falls with emotional swings
About PowerShow.com