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The Age of Ideologies

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The Age of Ideologies Part I- An Overview A theme to keep in mind for the rest of our course . The Age of Ideologies 1815-1850 Reactions to Post Industrial and Post ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Age of Ideologies


1
The Age of Ideologies
  • Part I- An Overview

2
A theme to keep in mind for the rest of our
course.
Dual Revolutions
3
  • The Age of Ideologies
  • 1815-1850
  • Reactions to Post Industrial and Post French
    Revolutionary World (Dual Revolutions)
  • Simmering Social Unrest
  • The Revolutions of 1830 and 1848

4
Why were the French Revolution and Industrial
Revolution So Important to Intellectual Trends?
  • French Revolution
  • Ideas of the Enlightenment were spread throughout
    Europe by Napoleons armies
  • Even though these ideas were bottled up by the
    Congress of Vienna, they were NOT destroyed
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Society was dramatically, if unintentionally,
    changed
  • Power shifted increasingly from the aristocracy
    to the factory owning (bourgeois) class
  • Proletariat concentrated (often unhappily) in the
    city
  • (parallels the French Revolution)
  • Factory working conditions are, in many ways,
    degrading
  • Urban life is new and not carefully planned-
    crime, pollution, debauchery, etc.
  • What does it all mean? ? new intellectual themes

5
The Age of Ideologies
  • Part II- Start at the Beginning- The Congress of
    Vienna

6
The Congress of Vienna (September 1, 1814 June
9, 1815)
  • Meeting of Conservative Leaders after Waterloo
  • Intend to Erase the French Revolution

7
Key Players at Vienna
Foreign Minister, Viscount Castlereagh (Br.)
Tsar Alexander I (Rus.)
The Host Prince Klemens von Metternich (Aus.)
King Frederick William III (Prus.)
Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Tallyrand
(Fr.)
8
Congress of Vienna Represented Conservatism
  • Tradition- ancien regime had been around for so
    long that it must be good and must match with
    Gods laws
  • Religion is a bedrock of society
  • Look what liberalism just caused!
  • Revolutions were just bourgeois troublemakers
    inciting the good, peaceful, contented lower
    classes

9
Even Traditionally Liberal England Swung in a
more Conservative Direction After The French
Revolution
  • Is this logical?
  • Horrors of the French Revolution force the
    country to the right
  • Corn Laws
  • England cannot import wheat after the Napoleonic
    Wars
  • Designed to keep profit of aristocratic land
    owners high
  • Peterloo Massacre
  • Poor are protesting laws like the Corn Law and
    demanding a wider franchise to get laws more
    supportive of the people
  • St. Peters Field protestors are attacked by the
    British regular army
  • Irony of naming after Waterloo?

10
(No Transcript)
11
Corn Laws Help to Explain the Rise of the
Chartists
  • The reason laws are only for the rich is that
  • only the rich can vote
  • If workers can vote, politicians must court them

12
Key Principles Established at Vienna
  • Balance of Power
  • Ring France with Strong Countries
  • Legitimacy
  • Return hereditary monarchs
  • Compensation
  • France was occupied for 5 years
  • Paid reparations
  • Both of these punishments might have been
    avoided, but for the ______________________

13
Key Tension at Vienna
  • Compensation
  • the demands of the victors (especially the
    Prussians and the Russians) for compensation
    threatened the Balance of Power
  • Arguments between Russia/Prussia and
    England/Austria almost resparked war
  • Balance of Power
  • preserve peace in Europe

V
  • Solution
  • Britain and Austria turned to France for support.
  • Prussia and Russia were forced to compromise
  • Why was this good for France?
  • More lenient treatment

14
Changes Made at Vienna (1)
  • France was deprived of all territory conquered
    by Napoléon.
  • Bourbons restored to the French throne
  • Russia was given most of Duchy of Warsaw
    (Poland).
  • Prussia was given half of Saxony, parts of
    Poland, and other German territories. (sentinel
    on the Rhine)
  • A Germanic Confederation of 30 states (including
    Prussia) was created from the previous 300, under
    Austrian rule.
  • Austria was given back territory it had lost
    recently, plus more in Germany and Italy.
  • The House of Orange was given the Dutch Republic
    and the Austrian Netherlands to rule. (why?)
  • Why dont I have England listed here?

15
Europe After the Congress of Vienna
16
Was the Congress of Vienna Successful?
  • Yes
  • Congress System (what was this?)
  • No general European war for 100 years
  • Holy Alliance (what was it?)
  • Carslbad Decrees (in Germany)
  • United action to crush uprising in the Two
    Sicilies
  • No
  • Continuing struggle between the forces of
    conservatism and liberalism/radicalism
  • Revolutions in 1830 and 1848
  • Some Liberal Movements were successful
  • Latin America wins its independence

17
Why Such Fear of Liberalism?
  • The Usual
  • stirred up the lower-classes and caused war and
    bloodshed
  • Threatened tradition/status quo/hierarchy/ Great
    Chain, etc.
  • A New Concern
  • Liberalism was increasingly connected to
    nationalism
  • nationalist aspirations in central Europe, which
    could lead to war and the breakup of the Austrian
    and Russian Empires
  • Austria, for examples was dominated by the
    minority Germans, contained many ethnic groups,
    including Hungarians/Czechs
  • So what does nationalism mean for Metternich or
    the Tsar?
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