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The Great War

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The Great War The war to end all wars Wilson s Fourteen Points Delivered to Congress on January 8, 1918 George Creel printed 60 million leaflets and distributed ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Great War


1
The Great War
  • The war to end all wars

2
Chapter 10-1 Becoming a World Power
  • Special Destiny-uphold liberty and freedom,
    export knowledge and products to less developed
    countries
  • Overseas Markets- new markets for products
  • Anti-imperialist plea- Pride to be different than
    Europeanscolonialism and militarism

3
Policies in the Caribbean
  • T.R. West African Proverb Speak softly and
    carry a big stick you will go far.
  • Panama CanalLink Atlantic and Pacific
  • Expansion of Monroe DoctrineRoosevelt corollary,
    gave right to exercise international police
    powers in Western Hemisphere
  • Dollar DiplomacyTafts policies that were milder
    than T.R.s, substituted dollars for bullets.
    Investors lend money to pay back debts owed to
    Britain

4
Policies in Eastern Asia
  • Chinese Market400 million people
  • Missionariesbuilt schools and hospitals
  • Consume American goods
  • Other nations vied for this marketU.S. had
    disadvantage, geography and navy
  • John Hays Open Door Policyshare
  • War in PhilippinesTeller Amendment granted Cuba
    independence, Philippines expected similar
    treatment.
  • McKinley wanted to civilize the population.
  • 4,200 American casualties, 215,000 Filipinos
    deaths

5
Involvement with Europe
  • T.R.s involvement with Russia and Japan
  • Japan attacked Russia
  • Mediated peace (Nobel Peace Prize)
  • Made sure no single power reigned in Asia
  • Conflict between Japan and U.S. Schools
  • Japanese students segregated in San Francisco
    schools
  • U.S. has been strengthening the Navy in order to
    back up its foreign affairs involvementsends
    Great White Fleet around the world.

6
Entanglement with Europe
  • During much of the1800s, the U.S. didnt get
    involved in European affairs.
  • Hays Open Door Policy
  • Roosevelts involvement in Russo-Japanese
  • 1900s, U.S. mediated often
  • 1906 T.R.Germany and France over Morocco
  • 1911, TaftFrance and G.B. over Liberia
  • Presidents tried to keep peace in these areas due
    to the U.S. trade market, if war erupts, trade
    might suffer.

7
Long-term causes of WWI
  • Imperialismcompeting for colonies
  • Nationalismeach country wants to be the best
  • Arms racecompetition for the best weapons
    (strongest navy)
  • Alliances systemchoosing sides, creating enemies
  • WWI Video segment

8
Beginning of War
  • June 28, 1914 Archduke Ferdinand killed in
    Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip
  • Germany launched Schlieffen Plan
  • 4 years of long bloody warfare ensued
  • 10 million soldiers would die, 20 million
    civilians
  • Central Powers (Triple Alliance) Germany,
    Austria-Hungary, and later Ottoman Empire and
    Bulgaria
  • Allies (Triple Entente) France, Britain, Russia
    (later Japan, Italy, and the U.S.)

9
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10
Domino effect, August 1914
  • Serbia backed by Russia, Austria backed by
    Germany
  • Germany declared war on Russia and FranceBritain
    declared war on Germany
  • A year later, Britain, France, and Russia lured
    Italy on their side
  • Russia vied for control over the Balkans with
    Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire

11
Wilson U.S. neutral
  • Both sides tried to gain U.S. support
  • Britain enjoyed close cultural, linguistic, and
    economic ties with U.S.
  • Germany and Austria-Hungary counted on natural
    sympathies
  • U.S. money flows to Europe
  • Initially a bad affect on economy
  • War gives boost to economy

12
Submarine warfare
  • Britain traded with U.S.
  • Germany to sink ships
  • Wilson told Germany they would have strict
    accountability
  • Lusitania-British liner sunk off coast of
    Ireland, killed 128 Americans
  • U.S. public turned on Germany

13
Choosing sides
  • By 1917, loans to Allies totaled 2.25
    billionwin war, get money back
  • Zimmerman telegraphGerman ambassador sent
    telegram to Mexico.
  • If ally with Germany, Mexico will receive land
    lost to U.S. in 1848.
  • British official intercepted info and told U.S.
  • 1917, Germany unrestricted submarine warfare
  • Bolshevik Revolution in RussiaLenin takes power.
    Russia drops out of war
  • Video Clip

14
WWI Editorial
  • Instructions Please write a one page editorial
    on the following subject.
  • The United States was neutral throughout most of
    WWI. Should the U.S. have entered the Great War
    or remained neutral? What are your reasons for
    your response? Please include specific events
    that reinforce your decision. Information can be
    found in chapter 10, sections 1-3.

15
April 6th, 1917
  • America declared war on Germany
  • House voted 373-50, Senate 82-6
  • Five reasons why Wilson asks for declaration of
    war
  • Unrestricted submarine warfare
  • Zimmerman Note
  • Russian Revolution
  • U.S. could end war quickly a role in peace
  • Moral reason German mass killings

16
Fields of Death
  • WWI resulted in greater loss of life and property
    than all previous wars.
  • Old fashioned strategies and new technology (read
    handout)
  • Trench warfare
  • Poison Gas
  • Submarines
  • Airplanes

17
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18
Luke, Luke, I am your father
19
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20
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21
Its a bird, its a plane, wait, it is a bird
22
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23
Section 3 WWI There and HereObjectives
  • Describe the United States mobilization efforts
    for WWI.
  • Describe American military participation in WWI.
  • Discuss the negative effect the war had on civil
    liberties.
  • Explain how the war effort at home both furthered
    and hindered the reform movement of the
    Progressive Era.

24
Mobilization
  • War requires preparation
  • Secretary of Treasury, William Gibbs McAdoo to
    run a Liberty Bond campaign
  • Conscriptionthe draft(21 to 30 and eventually 18
    to 45)
  • Progressives liked the draftwhy?
  • Segregating African Americans
  • DoughboysU.S. infantry (baked good)

25
Fighting over there
  • June 1917, under General John J. Pershing
  • Russia gets out of war, signed peace treaty
    (Treaty of Brest-Litovsk) with Germany on March
    3, 1918 and gave up large amounts of territory,
    including Finland, Poland, Ukraine, and Baltic
    States.
  • Germanys strength was waning.

26
Finland Poland Ukraine Estonia Latvia Lithuania
27
Deterioration of Central Powers in fall of 1918
  • Bulgaria surrendered on Sept. 29
  • British caused Ottoman Empire to surrender on
    October 30
  • Italy, France, and Britain brought down
    Austria-Hungary in November
  • 2 million U.S. soldiers went to France, 1.4
    million in active combat
  • Americans fought in Europe for just over a year
  • Germany signed the armistice on 11/11,
    1918Treaty of Versailles

28
Military Casualties in World War I 1914-1918
  • Allied Powers
  • Belgium 45,550
  • British Empire 942,135
  • France 1,368,000
  • Greece 23,098
  • Italy 680,000
  • Japan 1,344
  • Montenegro 3,000
  • Portugal 8,145
  • Romania 300,000
  • Russia 1,700,000
  • Serbia 45,000
  • United States 116,516
  • Central Powers
  • Austria-Hungary 1,200,000
  • Bulgaria 87,495
  • Germany 1,935,000
  • Ottoman Empire 725,000

29
1918 Flu pandemic
  • Influenza subtype of H1N1
  • Most victims were healthy young adults
  • Estimates of 50-100 million people died
  • Approximately 3 to 7 times killed in WWI
  • Reached arctic to remote islands in Pacific

30
War effort at home
  • Propagandamold public opinion
  • William McAdoo sell Liberty bonds
  • Herbert Hoover, food administratorconserve food,
    use leftovers and serve just enough
  • George Creel, headed Wilsons Committee on Public
    Information

31
Cooperation of business
  • Companies could reap huge profits
  • Big business joined with government in forming
    cooperative committees.
  • Corporate profits tripled between 1914-1919
  • Labor unions supported the war and socialists
    opposed the war
  • Samuel Gompers and AFL wanted to gain better
    working conditions and hours, but came at a
    price. No strike contracts and lose jobs to
    soldiers when came back

32
Civil Liberties lost
  • Espionage Act of 1917 provided fines and
    imprisonment for people making false statements
    aiding the enemy, inciting rebellion in the
    military, or obstructing draft recruitment
  • Sedition Act of 1918 Forbade any criticism of
    the govt, flag, or uniform and expanded mail
    exclusion.
  • Resulted in 1,900 prosecutions, some stayed in
    jail into the 1930s
  • Video Segment 519

33
Before And After WWI Map
34
Wilsons Fourteen Points
  • Delivered to Congress on January 8, 1918
  • George Creel printed 60 million leaflets and
    distributed them around the world

35
Bolshevism Impactradical socialist ideology
  • Withdrew from war in early 1918
  • Lenin signed treaty of Brest-Litovsk, formally
    ending war with Germany
  • Aleksandr Kerensky was a moderate socialist with
    liberal policiespopular
  • At home, unpopular (war and army)
  • Lenin had beliefs in Communist ideology of
    philosopher Karl Marx

36
Bolshevism
  • Marx called for a class war between workers and
    capitalists
  • Lenin blamed the war on capitalists
  • Wilson didnt support Bolshevism

37
Wilsons Fourteen Points
  • Equality of trade and no barriers
  • Territorial integrity and self-determination
  • New states created on nationalities
  • Freedom of ocean travel, open agreements and arms
    reductions
  • Most important League of Nations, an
    international mediating body

38
Reaction to 14 Points
  • European public liked, leaders dislike
  • D. L. George didnt like freedom of seas and
    Clemenceau wanted Germany to pay
  • Wilson had a hard time getting his ideas passed
    in the peace treaty
  • Big FourU.S., France, Britain, and Italy
  • Countries wanted lands after war, but Italy
    didnt get what they wanted
  • Treaty of Versailles signed on June 28, 1919

39
Rejection at home
  • Irreconcilablesmostly progressive Republicans,
    under no circumstances would they be reconciled
    to voting for the League of Nations.
  • Steer clear of corrupt influence of Europe
  • Didnt support defending colonial activities
  • Focus attention at home

40
Reservationists
  • Liked L of N, but wanted it modified to where the
    U.S. would not be involved in armed conflicts
  • Feared League superseded Congress
  • Wilson toured the country to sway opinion, but
    Congress rejected the Treaty of Versailles with
    its League of Nations
  • Wilson Video Segment

41
WWI political results
  • U.S. emerged as worlds economic and political
    leader
  • Russian Revolution ultimately instituted
    communism
  • Britain, France, Austria and Turkey went into
    various states of decline.
  • Germany devastated by Treaty of
    VersaillesArticle 231 war guilt clause 31
    billion over 30 years.

42
Post WWI Map
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