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THE ENLIGHTENMENT

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Title: THE ENLIGHTENMENT Author: H-J Last modified by: feldmah Created Date: 9/4/2006 3:24:11 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Other titles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE ENLIGHTENMENT


1
THE ENLIGHTENMENT
2
  • 18TH Century
    movement
  • Europe
  • Thinkers apply reason and scientific methods to
    all aspects of society

3
The Scientific Revolution
4
  • OLD SCHOOL
  • Geocentric Theory
  • Earth was the center of the universe
  • NEW SCHOOL
  • Heliocentric Theory
  • Sun is the center of the universe

5
Nicholas Copernicus
6
Copernicus
  • Polish astronomer
  • Reasoned
  • Earth was round
  • Earth rotated on an axis
  • Earth revolved around the sun
  • Feared persecution from the Church
  • Published after his death

7
Johannes Kepler
8
Kepler
  • Proved Copernicus was right
  • Mathematics
  • Planets move in elliptical orbit around sun

9
Galileo Galilei
10
Galileo
  • Italian scientist
  • Built own telescope
  • Observations and laws of motion supported
    Copernicus

11
Galileo
  • Frightened Church
  • Pope summoned Galileo to stand trial
  • Under threat of torture agreed Copernicus was
    wrong

12
Sir Francis Bacon
13
Bacon
  • Scientific Method
  • Observe problem/question
  • Form a hypothesis
  • Test hypothesis
  • Analyze data
  • Draw conclusion

14
Rene Descartes
15
Descartes
  • Developed analytical geometry
  • Relied on math and logic
  • Everything in doubt until proven
  • I think therefore I am

16
Sir Isaac Newton
17
Newton
  • English scientist
  • Theory of motion
  • Law of universal gravitation

18
Spread of S.R.
  • Scientific instruments
  • Zacharias Janssen microscope
  • Evangelista Torricelli barometer
  • Gabriel Fahrenheit - thermometer

19
Spread cont.
  • Medicine / Human Body
  • Andreas Vesalius dissection of human bodies
  • Edward Jenner vaccinations
  • Chemistry
  • Robert Boyle
  • More than four elements in the world

20
Thomas Hobbes
21
Thomas Hobbes
  • Absolute monarchy was best
  • Human beings are naturally
  • Violent
  • Disorderly
  • Without absolute monarch chaos
  • 1651 Leviathan
  • Form social contract
  • Give up freedoms to be protected and live
    peacefully
  • No right to rebel

22
John Locke
23
John Locke
  • Government based on social contract
  • Human beings are naturally
  • Reasonable
  • Moral
  • All people have natural rights
  • Life
  • Liberty
  • Property

24
Locke cont.
  • Government created to protect natural rights
  • People had right to overthrow

25
The Philosophes
  • Height of Enlightenment in France
  • Met in Paris to discuss ideas
  • Believed people could apply reason to all aspects
    of life

26
Philosophes cont.
  • Five concepts of core beliefs
  • Reason
  • Nature
  • Happiness
  • Progress
  • Liberty

27
Voltaire
28
Voltaire
  • French writer
  • Fought for
  • Tolerance
  • Reason
  • Freedom of religion
  • Freedom of speech
  • Made many enemies
  • Sent to jail later exiled to England for two
    years

29
Montesquieu
30
Montesquieu
  • French writer political liberty
  • Proposed separation of powers amongst branches of
    government
  • Keep individuals or groups from becoming too
    powerful

31
Rousseau
32
Rousseau
  • Passionate about individual freedoms
  • Believed society corrupted peoples natural
    goodness
  • Believed only good government was freely formed
    from the will of the people

33
Rousseau cont.
  • Social contract
  • Free individuals to create society and government
  • All people equal ? titles of nobility abolished

34
Beccaria
35
Beccaria
  • Italian philosophe
  • Laws existed to preserve social order
  • Argued for rights of the accused
  • Believed capital punishment should be abolished

36
Mary Wollstonecraft
37
Mary Wollstonecraft
  • Philosophes held traditional view toward women
  • Mary argued that women need education
  • Urged women to enter fields dominated by men
  • Medicine
  • Politics

38
Legacy
  • Inspired French and American Revolutions
  • Three long-term effects
  • Belief in progress
  • Rise of more secular outlook
  • Rise of individualism
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