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Chapter 16 Part 1

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Characteristics of Absolutism in Western Europe. Bureaucracies in the 17th century were often composed of career officials who owed their appointments to the king and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 16 Part 1


1
Chapter 16 Part 1
  • Absolutism
  • V
  • Constitutionalism

2
Absolutism in Western Europe 1589-1715
  • Absolutism the traditional assumption of power
    (heirs to the throne) and the belief in divine
    right of kings
  • Louis XIV was the quintessential absolute monarch

3
Characteristics of Western European Absolutism
  • The Ruler of a country was sovereign
  • The Ruler is not subordinate to national
    assemblies
  • The nobility is under the control of the ruler
  • Will be different in Eastern Europe
  • Nobility could still put obstacles in the way

4
Characteristics of Absolutism in Western Europe
  • Bureaucracies in the 17th century were often
    composed of career officials who owed their
    appointments to the king and were loyal to the
    king
  • Often upper middle class bourgeoisie (nobility of
    the robe)
  • Control over the Church
  • Maintained large standing armies
  • No more reliance on nobles or mercenary troops

5
Characteristics of Absolutism in Western Europe
  • Use of secret police to weaken political
    opponents
  • Those who did not overtly oppose the state were
    usually left alone
  • In contrast to the totalitarian regimes of the
    20th century which required active participation
    and enthusiastic support
  • The difference? Financial, technological
    resources

6
The Philosophy of Absolutism
  • Jean Bodin Believed that only absolutism could
    provide order and force obedience to the
    government
  • His POV the religious wars in France in the
    late 16th C.
  • Was among the first to provide a philosophical
    basis for absolutism

7
The Philosophy of Absolutism
  • Thomas Hobbes wrote The Leviathan
  • Had little faith in human nature
  • People were naturally nasty and brutish
  • Without strong government control and
    micromanagement chaos would result
  • Did NOT believe in Divine Right
  • But too authoritarian for constitutionalists

8
Philosophy of Absolutism
  • Bishop Jacques Bossuet BIG advocate of divine
    right
  • Since the king was placed on the throne by God,
    he owed nothing to anyone else.
  • Was a favorite of Louis XIV

9
French Absolutism 1589-1648
  • In the 17th Century
  • Population of 17 million 20 of Europes
    population
  • Largest country in Europe
  • Huge s helped make France the strongest
    European nation (bigger armies possible)

10
17th Century French Society
  • Divided into 3 estates based on rank and
    privilege
  • First Estate The Clergy 1 of the population
  • Second Estate The Nobility 3-4 of pop
  • Third Estate Everybody else from the
    Bourgeoisie to the landless peasants

11
Taxes
  • The Clergy and Nobility did not pay taxes
  • The peasants and urban workers had little money
  • The Bourgeoisie supported the whole country

12
Henry IV 1589-1610
  • Established the Bourbon Dynasty after surviving
    the War of the Three Henrys
  • Was a Politique converted to Catholicism to
    gain popular support
  • But issued the Edict of Nantes religious
    freedom for Huguenots and gave them the right to
    live in fortified cities

13
Henry IV
  • Laid the foundation for France to become the
    strongest European power in the 17th Century
  • Strengthened the social hierarchy by
    strengthening existing institutions Parlements,
    the Treasury, Universities and the Catholic Church

14
Henry IV
  • The First French King to take an interest in
    France colonizing in the New World
  • Encouraged trans-Atlantic trade

15
Henry IV
  • Weakened the Nobility of the Sword
  • They were not allowed to influence the Royal
    Council
  • Many of the Nobility of the Robe (who had
    purchased their titles) became high government
    officials and were intensely loyal to the monarch

16
The Duke of Sully French Finance Minister
  • His reforms enhanced the power of the monarchy
  • Mercantilism increased the role of the state in
    the countrys economy to achieve a favorable
    balance of trade with other countries
  • Granted monopolies in the production of gunpowder
    and salt

17
Sully and Mercantilism
  • Encouraged the silk industry, tapestry industry
  • Only the government could operate the mines
  • Reduced the Royal debt
  • With systematic bookkeeping and budgets
  • Reformed the tax system (more equitable)
  • Improved transportation roads, bridges, canals
  • Even began to build a canal linking the
    Mediterranean to the Atlantic!

18
In the Meantime
  • Spain was drowning in debt

19
Henry IV was assassinated in 1610
  • By a fanatical monk who was upset with the Edict
    of Nantes
  • Henrys death a crisis in power
  • Henrys widow (now Marie de Medici) ruled as
    regent until their son came of age

20
Louis XIII 1610-1643
  • His regency was a mess
  • Feudal nobles and princes increased their power
  • Some increased their influence at court
  • Some convinced Louis XIII to exile his own mother
    and assume power for himself

21
Cardinal Richelieu 1585-1642
  • Laid the foundation for absolutism in France
  • Richelieu in spite of being a cardinal- was also
    a politiqueput the state ahead of religious
    matters
  • Richeleau introduced the Intendant System

22
The Intendant System
  • Was used to weaken the Nobility (Sword)
  • Replaced local officials with intendants (civil
    servants) who reported directly to the king
  • Were generally middle class (of the robe)
  • One Intendant per each of Frances 32 districts
  • Intendants were responsible for policing, finance
    and justice in his district
  • Intendants were NEVER placed near their hometowns
  • Government was more efficient and centralized

23
Richelieu also continued with Mercantilism
  • Built on Sullys achievements
  • Increased taxes to fund the military
  • But new tax system not as successful as Sullys
  • Continued to sell government offices
  • Farmers and peasants were ruthlessly exploited

24
Richelieu and the Huguenots
  • Tweaked the Edict of Nantes with
  • The Peace of Alais (1629) Huguenots were still
    able to practice their religion freely BUT
  • No more fortified cities and Protestant armies

25
The Thirty Years War
  • France supported Gustavus Adolphus in the 3rd
    phase of the war
  • France declared war on the Spanish in 1635 and
    also entered the Thirty Years War against the
    HREs Hapsburg army
  • Kept to the same foreign policy of keeping
    Germany divided

26
Louis XIV 1643-1715
  • The Sun King because he was the center of French
    power just as the sun is the center of the solar
    system
  • Personified the idea that the sovereignty of the
    state resides in the ruler
  • L etat, cest moi
  • I am the state

27
Louis XIV
  • Was a strong believer in Divine Right
  • Had the longest reign in European History (72
    years)
  • Inherited the throne at age 5
  • France was the major power in Europe during his
    reignlargest pop largest army

28
French culture dominated Europe
  • French became the international language for over
    two centuries and the language of the
    well-educated
  • Was the epicenter of literature and the arts
    until the 20th century

29
The Fronde (I1640s)
  • Cardinal Mazarin controlled France while Louis
    XIV was a child
  • Some of the nobles (of the Sword) revolted
    against Mazarin when Louis was between 5 and 14
    years
  • Mazarin was able to defeat the nobles due to the
    competition among themselves
  • Louis never forgot the humiliation and will keep
    a close watch on the nobility throughout his reign

30
The Government under Louis XIV
  • Kept the aristocracy out of the government by
    recruiting his closest ministers from the middle
    class
  • Curtailed the powers of institutions that could
    pose a danger to the throne (the Parlements were
    afraid to cross him)
  • Louis XIV never called the Estates General
    together
  • Would arrest officials who were critical of the
    government

31
Control of the Peasants
  • Peasants about 95 of the population
  • Kept only about 20 of their incomes after tithes
    to the Church, government taxes, and feudal
    rents.
  • The Corvee caused more hardship forced labor.
    Required peasants to give one months labor a
    year to the crown (road building, etc)
  • Idle peasants conscripted into the army
  • Rebellious peasants were executed or used as
    galley slaves

32
Versailles
  • Was the grandest and most impressive palace in
    all of Europe
  • Baroque reinforced the image of Louis XIV as
    the most powerful absolute ruler in Europe
  • Was originally a hunting lodge for Louis XIII
  • Architecture of the palace Marquis Louvois
  • The Gardens LeVau
  • The royal court 600 people
  • Cost of maintenance 60 of all royal revenue

33
Versailles
  • Became a pleasure prison for the French nobility
  • Louis required nobles to live at Versailles
    several months a year so he could keep an eye on
    them
  • Nobles were entertained many hunts, tournaments
    and concerts
  • Elaborate theatrical productions by Racine and
    Moliere

34
Religious policies of Louis XIV
  • Louis XIV considered himself the head of the
    Galician Church
  • He WAS very religious but would not allow the
    Pope to exercise political power when it came to
    the French Church

35
The Edict of Fontainebleau
  • When Colbert died Louis XIV revoked the Edict
    of Nantes
  • 200,000 Huguenots fled to the New World, England,
    the Netherlands
  • Colbert was the champion of mercantilismwas a
    finance minister

36
Also
  • Louis XIV supported the Jesuits when they wanted
    to crack down on the Jansenists
  • Jansenists were Catholics who held some Calvinist
    ideas
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