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Consumer Attitude: Formation and Change


CHAPTER EIGHT Consumer Attitude: Formation and Change * – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Consumer Attitude: Formation and Change

Consumer Attitude Formation and Change

  • First Definition of Attitude
  • Second Models of Attitudes
  • Third Attitude Change

Chapter Eight Slide
First Definition of Attitude
  • Introduction
  • We have attitudes toward many things (objects)
    e.g. people, products, brands, advertisements,
    ideas, places, activities.
  • The attitudes have been learned and guide our
    behavior toward the attitude object.

Chapter Eight Slide
What Is Your Attitude Toward the Product
Advertised? What Is Your Attitude Toward the Ad
Itself? Are the Two Attitudes Similar or
You May Have Liked the Product but Disliked the
Ad or Vice Versa
Chapter Eight Slide
Attitude definition
Attitude is a learned predisposition to behave in
a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner
with respect to a given object.
Chapter Eight Slide
Concepts of attiudes
  • The attitude is toward an object which may be a
    store, product category , brand or anything else.
  • Attitudes are a learned predisposition, either
    through direct experience or from others. This
    predisposition may lead to a favorable or
    unfavorable behavior toward the object.
  • Attitudes have consistency, but are not
    necessarily permanent and can change over time.
  • Attitudes occur within a situation.

Chapter Eight Slide
What Information Does This Ad Provide to
AssistConsumers in Forming Attitudes Toward the
Saturn Vue Hybrid?
It is Stylish, Safe, and Good for the Environment
Chapter Eight Slide
Second Models of Attitudes
  • 1-Tricomponent Attitude Model
  • 2- Multiattribute Attitude Model
  • 3- Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model

These are models that attempt to understand the
relationships between attitude and behavior.
Chapter Eight Slide
1- Tricomponent Model
The three components of attitude are consistent.
This means that a change in one attitude
component tends to produce related changes in the
other components. Marketing mangers find it
difficult to influence the consumers behavior
(conation) directly to buy the product, instead,
they influence the behavior indirectly by
providing information, music or other stimuli
that influence a belief (cognition) or feeling
(affect) about the product.
Chapter Eight Slide
1- Tricomponent Model
  • The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired
    by a combination of direct experience with the
    object and related information from various
    sources (what we learn from others)
  • Cognitive
  • Affective
  • Conative

Chapter Eight Slide
1- Tricomponent Model
  • A consumers emotions or feelings about a
    particular product or brand or any other object.

  • Cognitive
  • Affective
  • Conative

These feelings often tend to be good or bad
Chapter Eight Slide
1- Tricomponent Model
  • The likelihood or tendency that an individual
    will undertake a specific action or behave in a
    particular way with regard to the attitude object

  • Cognitive
  • Affective
  • Conative

Example tendency to buy a certain brand or from
a specific store.
Chapter Eight Slide
2- Multiattribute Models
Multiattribute Attitude Models
Attitude models that examine the composition of
consumer attitude in terms of selected product
attributes or beliefs
Chapter Eight Slide
2- Multiattribute Attitude Models
  • Attitude is function of the presence of certain
    beliefs or attributes with respect to an object.
  • Consumers will like a brand or product that has
    an adequate level of attributes that the consumer
    thinks are important.
  • Example if you are buying a home, there is a
    list of attributes that the home must have 2
    bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, air conditioning, and a
    back yard. With this model, an attitude is
    positive for the house that has the most of these
  • The attitude-toward-object model
  • The attitude-toward-behavior model
  • Theory-of-reasoned-action model

Chapter Eight Slide
2-Multiattribute Attitude Models
  • Is the attitude toward behaving with respect to
    an object, rather than the attitude toward the
    object itself
  • Corresponds closely to actual behavior
  • The question here is how likely are you to
    purchase brand X (behavior) rather than how
    highly do you rate brand X (object)
  • The attitude-toward-object model
  • The attitude-toward-behavior model
  • Theory-of-reasoned-action model

Chapter Eight Slide
A study factors the affect Attitude toward
behavior of Online Shopping
The attitude toward the behavior was measured by
how consumers view nine benefits of online
shopping, including effectiveness, convenience,
information, safety, service, delivery speed, web
design, selection, and familiarity with company
Actual behavior
Chapter Eight Slide
2- Multiattribute Attitude Models
  • The attitude-toward-object model
  • The attitude-toward-behavior model
  • Theory-of-reasoned-action model
  • Includes cognitive, affective, and conative
    components (attitude)
  • In addition to attitude, the model also Includes
    subjective norms (social pressure) on how a
    consumer is influenced by others.

Chapter Eight Slide
A Simplified Version of the Theory of Reasoned
Chapter Eight Slide
Applying the Theory of Reasoned Action to Change
  • It helps to identify those attributes most
    important in causing consumers to form positive
    (or negative) attitudes toward the purchase of a
  • Changing attitude toward purchase
  • It helps to identify and helps to adjust sources
    of social pressure and their possible role in
    intention formation
  • Changing subjective norms

Chapter Eight Slide
3- Attitude toward-the-ad model
Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model
A model that proposes that a consumer forms
various feelings (affects) and judgments
(cognitions) as a result of exposure to an
advertisement, which, in turn, affect the
consumers attitude toward the ad and attitude
toward the brand.
Chapter Eight Slide
A Conception of the Relationship Among Elements
in an Attitude-Toward-the-Ad Model
Chapter Eight Slide
Third Attitude Change
Attitude change and formation are not all that
different. They are both learned, they are both
influenced by many factors such as personal
experience, personality effects, family
influence, and marketing communications.
Chapter Eight Slide
Strategies of Attitude Change
Chapter Eight Slide
1- Changing the Basic Motivational Functions
An effective way to change consumer attitudes
toward a product or brand is to change his four
motivational functions
Chapter Eight Slide
1- Changing the Basic Motivational Functions
  • Utilitarian function is how the product is useful
    to us. A marketer might want to create a more
    consumer positive attitude toward a brand by
    showing utilities the brand can do.
  • ego-defensive function would show how the product
    would make them feel more secure and confident
    (e.g. cosmetics that defense womens appearance).
  • value-expressive function would more positively
    reflect the consumers values or lifestyle.
  • knowledge function would satisfy the consumers
    need to know and help them understand more.

It is important for marketers to realize that
they might have to combine functions because
different customers are motivated to purchase
their products for different reasons. Someone
might buy a product because it tastes good and
fills them up (utilitarian), while another thinks
it is low fat and will make them healthy and
therefore look better (ego-defensive).
Chapter Eight Slide
Why and How Does This Ad Appeal to the
Utilitarian Function?
The Product is Green and Works as Well or Better
than Other Products.
Chapter Eight Slide
Which Lifestyle- Related Attitudes (value
expressive) Are Expressed or Reflected in This Ad?
Healthy Eating and Snacking Lifestyle
Chapter Eight Slide
How Does This Ad Provide Information to
Establishor Reinforce Consumer Attitudes?
It Raises the Question About UVA Rays and then
Provides Information (knowledge) n Sun Protection.
Chapter Eight Slide
2- Associating the Product with an Admired Group
or Event
  • Attitudes are related, at least in part, to
    certain groups, social events, or causes.
  • It is possible to alter (change) attitudes toward
    companies and their products by pointing out
    their relationships to these groups, events, or
  • Example advertisement around the playground in
    football matches or events sponsorships.

Chapter Eight Slide
2- Associating the Product with an Admired Group
or Event
The Fiji waters link to Environmental Cause
Likely to Impact Consumers Attitudes Toward Its
Product. Accordingly, they Might Have a More
Favorable Attitude toward the company and its
Chapter Eight Slide
3- Altering Components of the Multiattribute Model
  • Changing consumers evaluation of attributes.
    Example Perhaps the consumer thinks that the
    product fine to be inexpensive, but a marketer
    might be able to point out that it is often worth
    paying a bit more for better quality.
  • Changing brand beliefs. Example Maybe a consumer
    thinks a brand is very expensive when in fact it
    is less expensive than several other brands.
  • Adding an attribute. Example Who thought
    chewiness was an attribute that could even exist
    for a vitamin until Gummy Vites came along?
  • Changing the overall brand rating, not a single
    attribute of it. Example using statements like
    the one all others try to imitate or the
    largest selling brand.

Chapter Eight Slide
How Is This New Benefit Likely to Impact
Consumers Attitudes Toward the Product?
The ad states that there is a link between ones
mouth health and the health of ones whole body,
changing the overall brand rating in the minds of
target consumers
Chapter Eight Slide
How Is the Absence of an Ingredient Likely to
Lead to a Favorable Attitude Toward a Product?
Adding an attribute (chewiness) to vitamins
Chapter Eight Slide
4- Changing beliefs about the attributes of
competitors brands
How Is Valvolines Attempt to Change Attitudes
Toward a Competing Brand Likely to Impact
Attitudes Toward Its Own Brand?
By Showing Better Wear Protection
Chapter Eight Slide
Central and peripheral routes of changing
attitudes (Elaboration likelihood model)
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
Customer attitudes are changed by two distinctly
different routes to persuasion a central route
or a peripheral route.
Chapter Eight Slide
Elaboration Likelihood Model
High Involvement
Low Involvement
Chapter Eight Slide