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Title: Mobilities and Capacities for Living Cosmopolitan Identifications beyond Multiculturalism


1
Mobilities and Capacities for Living Cosmopolitan
Identifications beyond Multiculturalism
  • Voices of Youth and Francophone Migrants in
    Minority Contexts

2
An event of the Alberta Civil Liberties Research
Centre (ACLRC), U Calgary, and partners European
Academy (EURAC), Bolzano-Bozen, Italy
Consortium for Peace Studies (CPS), U Calgary
  • Multiculturalism or Interculturalism? What are
    the Implications for Albertans and Canadians?
  • November 10-11, 2011, Calgary
  • Presentation by Dr. Yvonne Hébert, Professor, U
    Calgary

3
Presentation Plan
  • Policy Contexts
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Deeper analysis of several data sets
  • Results
  • Implications for Social Policy

4
Policy Contexts
  • Four types of multiculturalism
  • Multi as ideology (prescriptive)
  • Multi as sociological fact (description)
  • Multi as set of intergroup dynamics (process)
  • Multi as policy (political perspective)
  • Canadian Multiculturalism policy, law

5
Multicultural Rights
  • Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms Clause
    27 on multicultural heritage
  • This Charter shall be interpreted in a manner
    consistent with the preservation and enhancement
    of the multicultural heritage of Canadians.
  • Critique Static clause, little support for
    variability, fluidity, productivity, viability
  • Need to rethink policies for far more complex
    realities

6
Multiplicities
  • Instant global communication ease of travel
  • Multiple attachments extensive knowledge of the
    world
  • Students learn to accept respect one another
  • Challenges remain credentialing issue academic
    achievement and integration of children of
    immigrant origins
  • Canada is not keeping pace

7
Challenges of Lived Experiences
  • Racial gap in labour market racialized Canadians
  • Experience higher levels of unemployment,
  • Earn less that non-racialized Canadian,
  • More likely to live in poverty,
  • More willing to work.
  • Comparisons between immigrants vs. native-born
    Canadians, in media and studies, create unfairly
    negative portraits
  • Human rights insufficient guarantees against
    exclusions in daily life

8
Theoretical Framework
9
Exploration of Four Concepts
  • Transculturalism
  • Glocal Spaces
  • Mobility of Mind, Body Boundary
  • Cosmopolitanism

10
Defining Transculturation and Glocal Spaces
  • Transculturation phenomena of converging
    merging cultures, creating something new, thus in
    its new uses, takes on an emphasis on creativity
    performativity that links past present
  • Glocal Spaces a local micro-space comprising
    spatial expressions and contextual symbols of
    globalisation

11
Defining Three Mobilities
  • Mobility of MIND ability to imagine oneself as
    an other, as living in another place or time,
    being comfortable with multiple identifications
    able to recognize, in their local surroundings,
    symbols which have international, transcultural
    and or global reference
  • Mobility of BODY for youth, especially second
    generation youth an awareness of parents
    journeys as well as their own journey of moving
    across cultural and other spaces of interaction,
    developing complex attachment and identification
    in youth specific and friendly places
  • Mobility of BOUNDARIES for youth recognizes
    moving across and beyond linguistic, cultural,
    religious, ethnic, racial spaces of interaction
    and boundaries, to take up new belongings in
    transcultural modes.

12
Cosmopolitanism Four major theoretical
approaches
  • Global ethical theory
  • Global political theory
  • Cultural theory of global community
  • Sociological theory

13
Defining Cosmopolitan Approaches
  • Conceptualising cosmopolitan subjectivities as
    capacities rests upon
  • complex understandings of all humans as being of
    equal moral standing,
  • with responsibilities extended to all the peoples
    of the world, and
  • commitments to express these through political
    action in the context of institutions with a
    global reach aligned towards equality, respect
    and recognition

14
Deeper Analyses for Greater Understanding
15
Three Data Sets
  • G2 Youth Toronto, Winnipeg Calgary
  • Graduates of Francophone Secondary Schools in a
    Minority Context, enrolled in an Anglophone
    University
  • Francophone Migrants in a Minority Context, an
    Anglophone City in Western Canada
  • Creating broad detailed portraits of new
    realities for greater understanding

16
Mobility of Mind, Body Boundaries
17
Locality Youth Example 1
  • When I visit my family in Ontario, I feel like
    Im home again. (Life Story, Chiquita, F,
    Mexican-Mennonite, Christian, C)
  • This is the place where I might be graduating and
    the love I have for some people that work for the
    school community... I wanted to make sure that
    you can see the cross and I kinda feel that
    thats the prettiest part of our school that we
    have cause everything else is just either
    mangled, full of people or ugly itself because of
    spray paint or markers and crap like that.
    (Interview, Blue Flag Baron, M, Spanish, RC, T)
  • I like my house. There are a lot of memories in
    my house, like family gatherings there and
    friends come over. It is a good place for me
    because I like it. Good times, yeah, like having
    a bbq with my family there. I also like being
    with friends in my school and going to class.
    (Interview, 4Lyfe, M, Portuguese, Christian, T)

18
Locality Youth Example 2
  • This is my room at my Grand moms house. It is
    where I sleep at my grandmas house, very pink,
    welcoming. I do my homework and study here. My
    grand mom teaches me life lessons or wisdom
    (Photoscape, Unicorn, F, Jamaican/Antiguan/Canadia
    n, RC, W)

19
Youths Mobility of MindExample 1
  • A multi-coloured floral lei is the best way to
    express myself as a cultural individual living
    with so many different ethnicities in Canada
    (Cultural Collage in shape of shoebox, Rubber
    Duckie, F, Filipina, RC, W)

20
Youth Mobility of MindExample 2
  • This place, I just do nothing and just think of
    the problems of the worlds
  • (Photo of front of school, Photoscape, Capt
    Crack, M, White/Redneck/Blackfoot, sometimes
    Romanian)

21
Mobility of Mind Example 3
This place is important to me because it is one
of the first popular Filipino restaurants in my
neighbourhood. I have a lot of good memories
here. This photo represents good friends and my
culture. Image 11 Photoscape (Rubber Duckie,
F, Filipina, RC, W)
22
Mobility of Body, Examples 1 2
  • I have traveled to the Desert I love it and
    feel relaxed. I could hope for knowledge or
    enlightenment, but I dont really expect
    anything (Urban mapping, Gonzo, M, Canadian, C)
  • Where I live, I am very relaxed and the places
    that I have traveled (to), I am filled with
    energy and ready to go exploring (My life story,
    Unicorn, F, Jamaican/Antiguan/ Canadian, RC, W)

23
Mobility of Body, Example 3
  • I like the fact that I am Portuguese and I like
    to watch and play soccer. At 17, I am more mature
    and responsible in Portugal. I love listening and
    dancing to Portuguese music. I spend time and
    have fun.
  • (4Lyfe, M, Christian, To)

24
Mobility of Boundaries Example 1
  • I am proud to be Canadian because it accepts me
    in its country, especially since I am not from
    here. It accepted me for being Lebanese (LueRue,
    F, Syrian, Christian, C)

25
Mobility of BoundariesExample 2
  • My computer in my bedroom is important cause
    internet makes everything accessible
  • Referring to Lebanon/Syria/Middle East I think
    that the whole area is one and it will always be
    one, no matter whatever is going on we will
    always be one language, same culture, same
    people, like I can say, I am Lebanese, I am
    Syrian, I am Jordanian, because they are all my
    people, they are all one (LueRue, F, Syrian,
    Christian, C)

26
Mobility of Boundaries Example 3
  • I found it interesting, the old culture
    clashing with the new culture
  • in referring to petroglyphs in US national
    park juxtaposed with modern media images (Capt
    Crack, M, White/ Redneck/ Blackfoot/Romanian, no
    religion, C)

27
Mobility of Boundaries Example 4
  • Im in favour of multiculturalism because we are
    all multiculturals. My parents were immigrants
    and I wouldnt be here if they didnt immigrate
    and I like how we are all difference something
    interesting (Gelato, M, Italian, RC, T)

28
Mobility of Boundaries Example 5
  • yeah, well, my Indian friend showed me there,
    and just, I dont usually get anything from
    there, its just cuz he goes there and it showed
    like it just goes to show and then beside it
    there are different cultures. Theres like an
    Italian store down the street and a Portuguese
    store and it just shows all the different
    cultures (Gelato, M, RC, To)

29
Mobility of BoundariesExample 6
  • At my school, no one cares what colour skin you
    are, or what religion you are. When I met my
    friends, thats not the question I asked them or
    they asked me.
  • If youre going for a job, I dont think people
    look at skin colour here cause everyones from a
    different culture, a different country, no one
    here is original Canadian, so no one is original
    Canadian, very few people, so...
  • (Mina, F, Sri Lankan, RC, T)

30
Façade of Globalisation Beneath is Uneasiness
  • Shy and uncertain, Malcolm X is uncomfortable,
    quiet and lonely in new places...
  • His friends provide him with a level of comfort
    and acceptance as they engage in many activities.
    Full of self-doubt, he shops infrequently,
    centers his activities on his home area, where he
    lives, where his friends live, where he attends
    school
  • He writes of Canadas role in environmental
    issues as needing to protect its own environment
    and to act as role model for the rest of the
    world (Interviews Written Responses, Malcolm X,
    M, Filipino, RC, W)

31
Façade of Globalisation Racism Media
  • multiculturalism is great, but even if you
    educate them, there will always be someone who
    will teach their children to fear and hate. And
    it will be forever, we will never be a non-racist
    world
  • There is no culture, it is all media and
    corporations vying for business. Religions dont
    really contribute to culture anymore. Everybody
    is following the same culture which is
    advertisements. Jewellery is hip hops hold on
    culture and you are defined by what kind of car
    you drive
  • (Interviews, Capt Crack, M, White/Redneck/Blackfoo
    t, no religion, C)

32
Façade of Globalisation The Shoppers
  • I feel glamour and happy, sophisticated clothing
    shop, I consider it to be my store. When I
    shop for jewellery, I feel like I am on clouds,
    a breathless scene (In her Photoscape, she lists
    11 different stores
  • Educ 07, F Filipina, RC, W)

33
Façade of Globalisation The Shoppers
  • Unicorn shops for clothes five times a month.
    Her cultural collage shows three computers, two
    cell phones, nine items of jewellery, six games,
    chocolate bars, as well as fashionable women and
    men. (Unicorn, F, Jamaican/Antiguan/Canadian, RC,
    W)

34
Façade of Globalisation Angst of Second
Generation
  • Uncertainty about which country is hers, Canada
    or Vietnam which she has never visited
    (Interview, Barbie, F, C)
  • When I visit my family in Ontario, I feel like
    Im home again. Well, I went to Mexico and felt
    shy because I did not know my cousins. When I
    went to France, I was so happy because I love it
    there. When I first moved to Calgary, I felt
    scared and nervous (Life Story, Chiquita, F, C)
  • Others feel like tourists and foreigners in other
    countries despite extensive travel and prefer
    places close to home
  • Some do not revel in adventure or change, do not
    know what to expect in new situations and feel
    uncomfortable

35
Interpretations
  • Second generation youth
  • Have strong attachments to home schools
  • Can for the most part, imagine themselves as
    Canadians and see themselves on a journey of
    life, moving within youth-specific and
    youth-friendly places
  • Are able to think, imagine and try out cultural
    identifications as part of integration process
  • Mobility of body and boundaries, more difficult
  • Take up the role of shopper with gusto
  • May be critical of globalisation and
    multiculturalism

36
Cosmopolitan Capacities
37
Capacity of openness, of moral obligation towards
an Other
  • Obligation to family members in countries of
    origin
  • Provision of support to new arrivals, community
    members and identified needs
  • Awareness of positioning of self within
    Francophonie as full-fledged citizen, meritorious
    of linguistic, cultural, socio-educational rights
  • Awareness of need to better understand one
    another in order to live well together

38
Capacity for relational attachment to locality of
origin or another
  • Gradual nature of localisation
  • Learning stories of places, locations processes
    of community life in new environments
  • Getting to know attaching to local
    institutions, events, places
  • Developing social networks locally and
    maintaining global connections
  • Integrative processes continue over generation
  • Developing positive relational attachments to
    markers of localisation

39
Capacity of recognition of the relativity of
ones milieu, culture or identity
  • Processes of negotiating transcultural worlds
    brings realisation that one could live elsewhere
  • Search for broader horizons, new ideas ways of
    becoming
  • Need for strong leadership for political change
    for attention to linguistic policy and practices
    in cities and regions other than Québec
  • For migrants, cultural maintenance in diaspora
  • Blending of local, former new cultures
  • Open to other practices positionings for
    greater meaning of lives

40
Capacity to integrate into a new milieu
  • Acceptance of different cultures and values,
    feeling good in strange circumstances
  • Learning how to live comfortably with multiple
    attachments, how to be effective, to be well
    grounded in local/global environments
  • Process of transcultural creativity sits at heart
    of process of integration in new society
  • Exquisitely difficult barriers lg fluency
    non-recognition of credentials racial wage gap

41
Capacity to interconnect, establish maintain
mutual relationships
  • Sentiments of belonging to origins as new
    Canadians
  • Love knowledge of ones origins
  • Openness, adaptation independence with a
    panoply of belongings
  • Public valuing of good image values of ones
    good image of country or region of origin
  • Resistance to negative images and discourses
  • Will to retain cultural linguistic events, to
    weave transcultural identifications in
    transparent process of creativity
  • Possibilities of being better understood
  • All this articulated through cultural markers...

42
Capacity of living between two entities or in
multiplicity
  • Developing relational positional agility
  • Requirement for considerable flexibility of mind
  • Positive benefits of societal diversity,
    favourable to intercommunity, international
    relations
  • Opening to living in diasporas, in duality, in
    multiplicity
  • Interactive relations involving de-ethnicisation,
    de-localisation, de-colonialisation in society
    and in politics of daily life

43
Strengths of Cosmopolitanism
  • Capable of representing complex repertoires of
    allegiance, identity and interest
  • Capable of interpreting interactive processes of
  • de-nationalisation re-nationalisation,
  • de-ethnicisation re-ethnicisation,
  • de-localisation re-localisation
  • in societies and policies
  • Capable of conceptualising ideas data of
    intertwined transnational constellations as
    multiplicity of global phenomena

44
Social Policy Implications
45
Social Policy Implications Second Generation
  • Political and national identifications secure
  • Multiple cultural identifications may be
    difficult to manage and balance
  • Travel to other cities countries not sufficient
    to reflect upon the experience and to develop a
    balanced view of life
  • Many see Canadian identity as that of a prolific
    frequent consumer which becomes their core
    identification
  • Even with adult support, this is a larger problem
    than second generation youth

46
Advantages of Cosmopolitan Approach
  • Rest upon complex understandings of equal moral
    standings, of civic, political, economic,
    geographical, social and political commitments to
    all humans in the world
  • Given situated analysis, necessary to consider
    real space, connections, imaginaries inherent in
    cosmopolitan experiences
  • Perspectives go well beyond boundaries bondages
    of nation-state of permissive multiculturalism
  • Subtle, sophisticated understandings of our eras
    key question How shall we live together?

47
Moving Beyond Multiculturalism Policy Four
Criteria
  • Interactivity
  • Fluidity/variability
  • Productivity
  • Viability

48
Interactivity
  • Relational positional subtleties merge well
    with awareness of living in duality
    multiplicity
  • Feeling of belonging to a larger world better
    represents analyzes the experiences views of
    the participants
  • Appreciation of cultural markers part of
    establishment maintenance of mutual
    relationships, of interconnections with similar
    persons

49
Fluidity and Variability
  • Travels of youth not the same as migration of
    people from many countries, from city to city
  • Reconstitution of everyday life its profound
    meanings far from easy
  • Establishment of local ties while maintaining
    international networks of connections exchanges
  • Uncertainties of integrative processes within a
    multicultural bilingual society

50
Productivity
  • Art of living in multiplicity possible for
    those in minority contexts and those who migrate
    there
  • Importance of localisation
  • Necessity of a critical cosmopolitanism, raising
    relativity of choices for a subsequent life
  • Necessity of collaborative horizontal governance
    at all levels, given world-wide uncertainty,
    highly interdependent states
  • Important to weave new universal motifs with
    local issues, finely etched in detailed human
    experiences, needs and hopes

51
Viability
  • Realities of migrants and minorities lives are
    reflected in cosmopolitan variability
  • Multiplicity of newcomers brings new
    understandings of transnational constellations
    within the current flow of possibilities
  • Not limited to intercultural activity
  • Truly valuable social approach to citizenship

52
References
  • HÉBERT, Y. 2010. Rethinking Integration as
    Cosmopolitan Subjectivities From migrant to
    minority to citizen of the World. Evidence from
    la francophonie de Calgary. Prairie Metropolis
    Centre. Prairie Metropolis Centre Working Papers,
    WP10-10. http//pmc.metropolis.net/frameset_e_html
  • HÉBERT, Y., WILKINSON, L. A. M. A. ALI, (2008)
    Second Generation Youth in Canada, Mobilities and
    Identifications Relevance to Citizenship
    Education, Brock Education, 17, 1 50-70, http
    //www3.ed.brocku.ca/ojs/index.php/brocked/issue/vi
    ew/34

53
Mobilities and Capacities for Living Cosmopolitan
Identifications beyond Multiculturalism
  • Voices of Youth and Francophone Migrants in
    Minority Contexts
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