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Chapter 6: Learning

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Observational Learning: ... Observational learning through modeling Models: ... Behaviorism Operant Conditioning Escape and avoidance learning Operant ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 6: Learning


1
Chapter 6 Learning
2
Learning
  • Relatively permanent change in behavior due to
    experience
  • 1. Classical Conditioning Pairing
  • 2. Operant Conditioning Consequence
  • 3. Observational Learning Watching

3
Classical Conditioning
  • Ivan Pavlov we learn to associate two stimuli by
    pairing (experiments w/ dogs)

4
Classical Conditioning
  • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) Stimulus coming
    from the environment that naturally triggers a
    response (automatic)
  • Unconditioned Response (UCR) Reflex to the UCS,
    unlearned/naturally/automatically
  • Neutral Stimulus (NS) has no relationship to the
    UCS or UCR but later gains power to trigger the
    CR
  • Conditioned Stimulus (CS) aka previously neutral
    stimulus, through pairing w/ UCS becomes learned
    triggers the CR
  • Conditioned Response (CR) learned response to
    the conditioned stimulus

5
Classical Conditioning Terminology
Acquisition The initial stage of learning
Elicited Brings out either automatically or
involuntarily Trial Pairing of the UCS NS
6
Classical Conditioning of a Fear Response
7
Processes in Classical Conditioning
  • Extinction presenting the CS alone w/out UCS
    causing weakening/disappearance
  • Spontaneous Recovery reappearance of behavior,
    after a period of no exposure
  • Stimulus Generalization responding to similar
    stimuli
  • Discrimination responding to only a specific
    stimuli

8
Acquisition, Extinction Spontaneous Recovery
9
Variations in Classical Conditioning
  • Stimulus Contiguity occurring together in time
    and space
  • Higher-Order Conditioning building on an already
    conditioned behavior, to associate another
    conditioned stimulus. (1st to sound, then to
    color)
  • Renewal Effect if extinguished in another place,
    reappearance of the behavior if you return to the
    original environment

10
Higher-order conditioning
11
Classical Conditioning Behaviorism
  • John B. Watson behavior learned through..
  • Little Albert classically conditioned a baby to
    fear a white rat, then any small fluffy thing.
  • UCS Generalization?
  • UCR Discrimination?
  • NS Reversible?
  • CS
  • CR

12
Operant Conditioning
  • Operant Conditioning learning that is controlled
    by consequences
  • Edward L. Thorndike (1913)
  • Law of Effect behaviors followed by favorable
    consequences become more likely vice versa
  • Puzzle Box experiments w/ Cats taught escape
    learning

13
Escape and avoidance learning
14
Operant Conditioning
  • B.F. Skinner (1953) principle of reinforcement
  • Operant Chamber (Skinner Box) complex or
    voluntary behaviors controlled my a machine
  • Emission of response voluntary
  • Reinforcement Contingencies rules
  • Cumulative Recorder graphs responses

15
Skinner Box Cumulative Recorder
16
Basic Processes in Operant Conditioning
  • Acquisition first time you learn
  • Shaping reinforcing behavior that is close too
    the desired goal
  • Extinction weakening/disappearance of a response
    (no consequence
  • Discriminative Stimuli cues that influence
    behavior (asking when in a good mood)

17
Comparison of Basic Classical Operant
Conditioning
18
Consequences that Strengthen Responses
  • Primary Reinforcers
  • Satisfy biological needs (needs)
  • Secondary Reinforcers
  • Conditioned reinforcement (wants)

19
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Continuous reinforcement
  • Intermittent (partial) reinforcement
  • (leads to more resistance to extinction)
  • Ratio schedules Based on Response
  • Fixed Ratio
  • Variable Ratio
  • Interval schedules Based on Time
  • Fixed Interval
  • Variable Interval

20
Schedules of Reinforcement
21
ConsequencesReinforcement Punishment
Positive () Something Given Reinforcement Behavior Increases
Negative (-) Something Taken Punishment Behavior Decreases
22
Positive Reinforcement Negative Reinforcement
23
Negative Reinforcement Punishment
24
ConsequencesReinforcement Punishment
  • Positive Reinforcement
  • Negative Reinforcement
  • Escape learning learn to end aversion
  • Avoidance learning learn to prevent
  • Positive Punishment
  • Negative Punishment
  • Problems with punishment

25
New Operant Conditioning Ideas
  • Conditioned Taste Aversion John Garcia,
    taste-nausea odder-nausea are impossible to
    prevent

26
Conditioned Taste Aversion
27
Observational Learning
  • Albert Bandura Observational learning through
    modeling
  • Models people who demonstrate the behavior
  • 4 key processes
  • attention
  • retention
  • reproduction
  • motivation

28
Observational learning
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