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Islam

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Title: Islam Author: Mahopac High/Middle School Last modified by: Mahopac Central School District Created Date: 1/14/2002 12:34:43 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Islam


1
Islam
  • Objectives
  • Describe the basics of Islam
  • Develop an understanding of where Islam emerged
    from and when.
  • Compare Islam vs. Christianity

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Key Terms of Islam
  • Islam
  • Muslim
  • Quran/Qran/Koran
  • Mosque
  • 5 Pillars of Islam
  • Allah
  • Muhammad
  • Mecca/Makkah
  • Medina
  • Caliph
  • Fundamentalist
  • Sunni
  • Shiite
  • Jihad
  • Sharia
  • Fatwa

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Name____________________________ Islam
Essay     Islam is both religion and a way of
life. Over the past 1500 years, this religion has
dramatically impacted the people, the culture and
the region of the Middle East.   Tasks -Explain
the origins and main beliefs/practices of the
Islamic faith. -Describe how the practices of
Islam impact daily life for its
followers. -Compare similarities and differences
of Islam to Judaism and Christianity.
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5 Pillars of Islam
  • Faith/Shahadda This is a prayer where one
    professes their commitment to Allah. There is one
    God, Allah is his name, Muhammad is his
    messenger.
  • Prayer/Salat Each day, each Muslim must pray 5
    times a day to the east (or Makkah).
  • Alms to the Poor/Zakat Each year one must give 2
    ½ of their capital to the poor.
  • Fasting during Ramadan. During the holy month,
    each Muslim must fast from sun up to sun down.
    Abstinence from food and drink. (Saum)
  • Pilgrimage to Makkah/Hajj Each Muslim that is
    financially and physically able must visit the
    holy city of Makkah. They must dress in plain
    cloths and visit the holy Kabba.

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Major Branches of Islam
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Where did this religion come from?
  • Islam, the youngest religion emerged from the
    Arab world. At this point in time in Arabia,
    people were either Hindu, Christian, and some
    Polytheists.
  • In 608 AD, Muhammad was on a retreat or
    meditating and had his first revelation of God,
    through the Angel Gabriel. (Arabian Peninsula)
  • In 622, the hijra/hegira or migration took place.
    Those that followed Muhammad were persecuted, so
    they left for Medina. He did return and Islam was
    accepted more widely- this via war/conflict.

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Common terms to know
  • Koran/Quran Holy book. Many believe that Islam
    is both a religion and a lifestyle, therefore the
    words of the Quran are interpreted verbatim.
  • 114 Chapters in rhyming prose
  • The writing is in elaborate calligraphy
  • Mosque Church
  • Caliph Priest/leader

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Discussion Questions
  • 1.The Arab world observes many traditions. To
    what extent are these traditions from before the
    time of Mohammed? To what extent are the
    traditions a result of the influence of Islam?
    Why do you suppose that Muslim traditions are
    observed more strictly in some parts of the Arab
    world than other parts?
  • 2. In Saudi Arabia, boys and girls attend
    separate schools. Males teachers cannot teach
    female students except by close circuit
    television. Why do they use this system? What
    are the advantages/disadvantages of this? How
    might this impact the educational process?
  • 3.Do you agree with the Muslim belief that
    people should passively accept their lot in life?
    What people you know accept this idea?

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What do Muslims believe about Allah? 1. He is
the one God, Who has no partner.2. Nothing is
like Him. He is the Creator, not created, nor a
part of His creation.3. He is All-Powerful,
absolutely Just.4. There is no other entity in
the entire universe worthy of worship besides
Him.5. He is First, Last, and Everlasting He
was when nothing was, and will be when nothing
else remains.6. He is the All-Knowing, and
All-Merciful,the Supreme, the Sovereign.7. It is
only He Who is capable of granting life to
anything.8. He sent His Messengers (peace be
upon them) to guide all of mankind.9. He sent
Muhammad (pbuh) as the last Prophet and Messenger
for all mankind.10. His book is the Holy Qur'an,
the only authentic revealed book in the world
that has been kept without change.11. Allah
knows what is in our hearts.
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Muslims believe that God is One, indivisible, and
they believe in all the prophets of the
Christians and Jews including Adam, Noah,
Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Job,
Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon, Elias, Jonah, John
the Baptist, and Jesus (peace be upon them).
Muslims trace their lineage back through the
Hebrew Scriptures to Ishmael, the son of Abraham
and Hagar, Abraham's second wife. Later, as the
story goes, Abraham's first wife Sarah conceived
a son, whose name became Isaac. Isaac was the
chosen one, while Ishmael and his mother were
banished to the South and began their lives anew
close to what is now the city of Mecca. Hundreds
of years later, a child called Mohammed was born
in the desert he was a descendant of the Hebrew
Ishmael
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The 2 Main SectsSunni vs. Shiite (Shia)
  • Sunnis believe that the caliphate or priest must
    be elected upon.
  • Shiites believe that the caliphate must be
    related to Ali. (actually decedents of
    Mohammed..but Mohammed not have a son.)
  • 90 of all Muslims are Sunni
  • Shiites make up 10 of the Muslim population.
  • Some of these Shiites are Fundamentalists
  • Fundamentalists are radicals who have
    misinterpreted the Koran or perverted its
    teachings.

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Compare Islam to ChristianityCreate a Venn
Diagram that deals with the similarities and
differences of Islam and Christianity

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Yellow is under Mohammed
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Essential Questions of Islam (green book
pp.231-239)
  • What are the basic beliefs of Islam
  • Why did Islam spread so rapidly throughout the
    Arab world?
  • Why did the Islamic world prosper in the Middle
    Ages?
  • How did Muslims treat non-Muslims within the
    Islamic Empire?
  • Explain the impact of the Muslim Empire on
    Western Europe
  • Who are some important people of the Muslim
    Empire(s)
  • What were Muslim contributions to
  • Science
  • Mathematics
  • Art
  • Literature
  • Culture

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Islamic Art
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  • Islamic Contributions
  • Art
  • Architecture
  • Literature
  • Science Mathematics
  • The main idea The Muslims preserved the ideas of
    the Greeks and Romans. During the Crusades
    Christian knights brought back these ideas to
    Europe.

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Art Work
  • Most of the art work is based on geometrical
    designs
  • No religious symbols floral shapes/patterns
  • Calligraphy is the basis of Arabic writing
  • Arabic script is sometimes on buildings as art
    work.

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Architecture
  • Arches and Domes
  • These ideas from the
  • Byzantine Empire
  • Large courtyards
  • Fountains

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Inside the Dome is an outcropping of the bedrock
of Mount Moriah, the "Sacred Rock." On the rock's
pock-marked surface is one indentation which is
believed to be the footprint left by Mohammed as
he leapt into heaven.
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Literature
  • The Quran is the basis for many pieces of
    literature
  • Poetry prior to Muhammad there was a rich
    tradition of oral history.
  • Tales and stories of life, romanticism
  • The Thousand and One Nights
  • http//www.techfak.uni-bielefeld.de/ags/ti/persone
    n/mfreeric/m/an/a_index.html

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Mathematics/Astronomy
  • Muslims studies Greek and Indian Math
  • Algebra (al-Khwarizmi)
  • Studied eclipses, earths rotation
  • Astrolabe
  • Navigation using stars
  • http//mercury.spaceports.com/islam/Science
    Frame/math.htm - Operations_impact

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The system of numeration employed throughout the
greater part of the world today was probably
developed in India, but because it was the Arabs
who transmitted this system to the West the
numerals it uses have come to be called Arabic.
After extending Islam throughout the Middle
East, the Arabs began to assimilate the cultures
of the peoples they had subdued. One of the great
centers of learning was Baghdad, where Arab,
Greek, Persian, Jewish, and other scholars pooled
their cultural heritages and where in 771 an
Indian scholar appeared, bringing with him a
treatise on astronomy using the Indian numerical
system.
ARABIC NUMERALS      Photo From top - Modern
Arabic (western) Early Arabic (western) Arabic
Letters (used as numerals) Modern Arabic
(eastern) Early Arabic (eastern) Early
Devanagari (Indian) Later Devanagari
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Al-Biruni's world map, showing the distribution
of land and sea, 1029 CE
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Muslim Medicine
  • Once again, built on Greeks and Indian ideas
  • Governments set up hospitals
  • Interest in smallpox and the measles (think
    around 800s )
  • Treatment of cataracts
  • Medicines/pharmacology

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Golden Age of the Muslim World
  • The main idea of the Muslim Golden Age was that
    the Muslims maintained the works of the Greeks
    and Romans (two classical civilizations) when
    Europe was in decline and decay (600 AD-1100)
  • As the dark ages cast a shadow on Europe the
    Muslim world flourished in art, literature,
    science, trade and medicine.
  • It was the Crusades in 1090 AD that altered the
    dark ages when Christian knights brought back the
    ideas of the Muslim world to Europe.

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DBQ OUTLINE
  • Read and complete the DBQ questions
  • Disregard the intro and the conclusion!
  • Create 3 body paragraphs (outline)
  • Topic Sentence
  • Example
  • Document(s)
  • Outside information

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