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WHI SOL Review

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Title: WHI SOL Review


1
How did physical geography impact
the lives of early humans?
Living near water was important because it helped
in nourishment, hygiene, trade, travel,
agriculture, and provided jobs. Climate
determined what conditions the early people
faced. It also determined where they could live
and on what routes they could travel.
2
Homo Sapiens
Also called cro-magnons, they were similar to us,
but had distinct physical differences. Such as,
they had a much bigger skull and used the hair on
their bodies to keep them warm.
3
How long ago were the first
humans on earth?
The first humans in east-central Africa were here
100,000 to 400,000 years ago.
4
How did early humans survive?
They were nomads. They traveled from place to
place to follow the animals and find ripening
fruit. They would use stone, bone, and wood to
make their tools out of. The nomads adapted to
the weather. They would make jackets from the
animal skins and get under cliffs and in caves
during the long winters.
By Ross Franklin
5
Where did the first humans originate and where
did they spread to?
The first humans lived in East Africa. They then
migrated north and east in to Europe and Asia.
They lived in small hunting and food gathering
bands numbering about 20-30 people. The men
hunted and fished and the women picked fruits and
berries. They all contributed to each other.
By Ross Franklin
6
Paleolithic Age
  • Old Stone Age
  • They were Nomads ( People who follow their food )
  • Used stone, wood, and bones for tools
  • For clothes they wrapped in animal skins
  • They took refuge in caves or under rocky
    overhangs during the long winter
  • Learned how to build fires for warmth and to cook

By Ross Franklin
7
Mesolithic Age
  • Middle Stone Age
  • First wooden boat

By Ross Franklin
8
Neolithic Age
  • They learned to farm and by producing their own
    food, they could remain in one place.
  • Farmers settled into permanent villages and
    developed a new range of skills and tools.
  • People learned to domesticate animals.
  • They herded the animals to good grasslands or
    penned them in rough enclosures.
  • Animals provided people with a source of protein.
  • They created the first calendars.
  • They learned to weave cloth from animal hair or
    vegetable fibers.

9
Nomads
  • Paleolithic people they traveled from place to
    place.
  • People depended wholly on their environment for
    survival.
  • They found ways to adapt there surroundings.
  • They made simple tools and weapons out of the
    materials at hand-stone, bone, or wood.
  • To endure the cold, they invented clothing.
  • They took refuge in caves or under rocky
    overhangs during the long winters.
  • They also learned to build fires for warmth and
    cooking.

10
Clans
  • Shang kings were likely the heads of important
    clans.
  • Group of families who claimed a common ancestor.
  • Clans controlled most of land.

11
Cave art
  • Portray animals such as deer, horses, and
    buffaloes.
  • Some cave paintings show stick-figure people.
  • Paintings often lie deep in the caves, far from a
    bands living quarters.
  • A early religious beliefs.
  • Hundred of painted animals that appeared to
    prance over the calcite-covered walls and
    ceilings.
  • Cave paintings have been part of animist
    religious rituals.

12
How and when did agriculture develop?
  • Agriculture developed as a way to have food in
    the winter months when animals hibernated and
    were scarce.
  • The first crops grown were most likely grains
    and seeds found from different plants and trees.
  • First traces of agriculture show up as early as
    the middle stone age
  • Agriculture spread through diffusion rather than
    invention, as neighboring bands would cage or
    steal seeds and plants to try and start farming
    that appeared easier than hunting and moving
    around a lot.

13
How did agriculture and the domestication of
animals affect humans?
  • Nomads no longer had to move around to get food
  • Once agriculture was developed the domesticated
    animals helped to pull plows and wagons to trade
    with neighboring tribes
  • Development of civilizations and cities
  • Religious ceremonies (more intense), temples,
    and shrines.
  • Development of laws and government over time.

14
Advantages of New Stone Age
  • New civilizations
  • Iron and bronze weapons
  • Advances in Agriculture (plows, domestications
    of animals.)
  • Government development over time (laws, leaders)
  • Temples and advanced religious ceremonies.

15
Archeology
the study of past cultural behavior, from the
beginnings of the human species to events that
happened yesterday, through the material remains,
or artifacts, that people leave behind
16
What is history?
  • History is the knowledge of the past gained
    through the study of written records.

17
What is anthropology?
  • Anthropology is the study of the origins and
  • development of people and their societies

18
Stonehenge
  • A group of standing stones on Salisbury Plain in
    southern England. Dating to c. 2000-1800 B.C.,
    the megaliths are enclosed by a circular ditch
    and embankment that may date to c. 2800. The
    arrangement of the stones suggests that
    Stonehenge was used as a religious center and as
    an astronomical observatory.

19
19.What were the first four major river valley
civilizations?
  • Indus River- Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
  • Huang He and Yangzi- China
  • Tigris and Euphrates- Mesopotamia/Fertile
    Crescent
  • Nile- Egypt

20
20.Why did the first permanent civilizations
develop around major rivers?
  • Good irrigation systems, easier trade, water on
    demand, farming, and stable food source.

21
21.When did these early civilizations exist?
  • 3200 B.C.- 256 B.C.

22
The Hebrews, The Phoenicians, The Kush
  • The Hebrews settled in Israel
  • The Phoenicians occupied the string of cities
    along the Eastern Mediterranean coast, in the
    area which today is Lebanon and Syria
  • The Kush settled on the south of Africa

23
What was their government like?
  • They had very strict law and rules
  • Trade was a very resourceful, they relied on it
    a lot
  • They were all near water resources

24
Code of Hammurabi
  • This, the earliest known written legal code, was
    composed about 1780 B.C. by Hammurabi, the ruler
    of Babylon. This text was excavated in 1901 it
    was carved on an eight foot high stone monolith.
    The harsh system of punishment expressed in this
    text prefigures the concept of 'an eye for an
    eye'. The Code lays out the basis of both
    criminal and civil law, and defines procedures
    for commerce and trade. This text was redacted
    for 1,500 years, and is considered the
    predecessor of Jewish and Islamic legal systems
    alike

25
The 10 Commandments
  • The Ten Commandments were given to Moses, the
    great leader of the Hebrews, over 3,000 years ago
    after the Hebrews were delivered from slavery in
    Egypt. While the Law of Moses is made up of over
    600 rules, the Ten Commandments were a brief list
    of rules from which the others were developed.

26
(No Transcript)
27
26.) What are the eight features of these early
civilizations?
  • 1.) Cities
  • 2.) Organized Central Governments
  • 3.) Complex religions
  • 4.) Job Specialization
  • 5.) Social Classes
  • 6.) Arts/ Architecture
  • 7.) Public Works
  • 8.) Writing

28
27.) What early religious traditions developed in
ancient civilizations?
  • They started out being polytheistic and later on
    they became monotheistic.
  • They had a God for everything. Later some
    societies religions evolved into having just one
    God.

29
28.) What is monotheism?
  • Monotheism is the belief of one God.

30
Polytheism
  • The belief in multiple gods is probably the
    result of an earlier belief in vaguely defined
    spirits, demons and other supernatural forces.
    These belief systems are similar to animism,
    ancestor worship and totemism. However, in
    polytheism, these supernatural forces are
    personified and organized into a cosmic family.
    This "family" becomes the nucleus of a particular
    culture's belief system. The family of gods was
    used to explain natural phenomena and to
    establish a culture's role in the universe.
    Typically, the number of gods would expand as the
    culture's belief system developed, eventually
    resulting in a hierarchical system of deities.
    Over time, the lesser gods would diminish in
    stature or vanish altogether.

31
What are the beliefs of Judaism?
  • Judaism is a monotheistic religion. The Jewish
    People believe there is one God who created and
    rules the world. This God is omnipotent (all
    powerful), omniscient (all knowing) and
    omnipresent (in all places at all times). God is
    also just and merciful. Judaism believes the Land
    of Israel was part of the covenant made between
    God and the Jewish People at Mount Sinai. Since
    the time of Abraham, there has been a continual
    Jewish presence in the Land of Israel.

32
Abraham
  • Abraham was the first of the Hebrew patriarchs of
    the Old Testament. To test Abraham's faith, God
    commanded him to make a burnt offering of his
    son, Isaac. Torn between great love for his son
    and his desire to obey God's command, Abraham
    decided that his duty to God ultimately took
    precedence. He bound Isaac, laid him on the altar
    and drew his knife. At that moment an angel
    appeared and grasped Abraham's hand saying, "Now
    I know that you are a god-fearing man. You have
    not withheld from me your son." Greatly relieved,
    Abraham saw a ram caught in a thicket which he
    sacrificed instead.

33
Moses
  • Hebrew prophet
  • Founder of Israel
  • Moses killed an Egyptian who murdered a Hebrew
  • Moses renewed the covenant binding agreement
  • Moses led the Israelites in their escape from
    Egypt

34
Jerusalem
  • Arabic capital largest city of Israel
  • A holy city for three of the worlds major
    religions Judaism, Christianity, Islam

35
Exile/ Diaspora
  • The scattering of people
  • Jewish communities outside Israel
  • Jews outside Israel considered themselves in
    exile.

36
Torah
Jewish holy book. Similar to Christian Bible.
37
How did Judaism influence Western civilization?
  • It influenced Christianity and Islam, two other
    major world religions
  • Jews spread across the world and taught their
    faith
  • Similarities between Christianity and Judaism
  • Monotheistic-belief in one God
  • Belief in the SAME God
  • Same history/same prophets/Ten Commandments

38
Pictograms
Drawings used to represent a word. The earliest
writings were made of these.
39
Hieroglyphics
Egyptian form of picture writing. Used to keep
important records in ancient Egypt.
40
Cuneiform
Cuneiform comes form Latin words Cuneus which
means wedge and Forma which means shape.
Pictograms, or drawings representing actual
things, were the basis for cuneiform writing.
Cuneiform was written on clay tablets, and then
baked hard in a kiln. Cuneiform was adapted by
the Akkadians, Babylonians, Sumerians and
Assyrians to write their own languages and was
used in Mesopotamia for about 3000 years .
Cuneiform was created by the Sumerians.
41
Who created the first alphabet?
The Phoenicians created the first alphabet.
42
What is the importance of the Nile River?
Its yearly flooding provided the region with
silt, or rich soil, from which it could grow
crops. It also provided the Egyptians with a way
to trade and travel. The Nile was also a key part
of Egyptians religion. It was seen to give and
take away life with its great floods.
43
What cultural contributions did the Egyptians
make?
  • The Egyptians were polytheistic, They believed in
    an after life so they would mummify the dead and
    buried their dead with things they would need in
    the after life. They built pyramids for the
    pharaohs, so they would have everything they
    needed in the afterlife. The Egyptians had a
    system of writing called hieroglyphics. They made
    a form of paper called papyrus. They used
    medicine that we still use to day, they made a
    calendar. They also had statues, paintings, poems.

44
How did Persia govern its empire?
  • They had a ruler who would make laws collect
    taxes. They split their empire into several
    different regions, each of which had its own
    governor.

45
Cyrus the Great
  • Conquered the largest empire, Persia was
    stretched from Asia minor to India, Turkey Iran,
    Egypt, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.

46
Zoroastrianism
  • A new religion that said there is one wise god
    named ahora Mazda he ruled the world. He was at
    constant battle with Ahriman the prince of lies
    and evil. Zoroaster taught that all individuals
    would be judged for their actions. Those who done
    good would enter paradise those who done bad
    would be condemned to eternal suffering.

47
What was the most important contribution of the
Babylonians?
  • The Hanging Gardens which is known as one of the
    wonders of the ancient world. The gardens were
    probably made by planting trees and flowering
    plants on the steps of a huge ziggurat. According
    to legend, Nebuchadnezzar had the gardens built
    to please his wife, who was homesick for the
    hills where she had grown up.

48
What physical geographic factors influenced the
development of Indian civilization?
  • First of all, the Indian subcontinent is divided
    into three major zones the well-watered northern
    plain, the dry triangular Deccan, and the coastal
    plains on either side of the Deccan. Plus, this
    fertile region is watered by mighty rivers like
    the Indus, which gives Indias its name, the
    Ganges, and the Brahmaputra. These rivers and
    their tributaries carry melting snow from the
    mountains to the plains, making agriculture
    possible.

49
What impact did the Aryans have on India?
  • Due to the acculturation, the people shared a
    common culture rooted in both Aryan and Dravidian
    traditions. By this time, the Indian people had
    developed a written language called Sanskrit.
    Priests now began writing down the sacred texts.
    The Aryans, despite the new written language,
    they preserved a strong oral traditions. They
    continued to memorize and recite ancient hymns,
    as well as long epic poems.

50
Describe the Caste System
  • The caste system or social group is into which
    people are born and which they cannot change.
    Indians use the word jati to describe their
    social system. The Portuguese, who reached India
    in the late 1400s used the word caste, which
    other Europeans adopted.

51
How was the caste system central to the Indian
culture?
  • The caste system was central to the Indian
    culture because it provided stability and order
    to their lives.
  • Also, every caste member had their own place in
    society and believed that the law of karma
    determined their caste.
  • People in the caste system depended on and helped
    one another, if they were in the same level of
    society.
  • People with diverse customs lived side by side in
    harmony.

52
What were the contributions of the Gupta Empire?
  • The Gupta rule was a period of great cultural
    achievements.
  • The system of Arabic numerals was developed and
    put into practice.
  • Exports of cotton cloth, pottery, and metalware
    were abundant.
  • Doctors and surgeons performed simple surgeries,
    set broken bones, began using herbs and other
    remedies to treat illnesses, and administered
    vaccinations for smallpox.

53
What were the characteristics of the Hindu
religion?
  • Hindus believed in more than one God.
  • The ultimate goal of existence for Hindus was to
    achieve moksha (a union with Brahman, a spiritual
    force).
  • Hindus believed in reincarnation.
  • Hindus believed that everything in existence had
    a rank or a status in life.
  • A primary moral principle of Hinduism was ahimsa,
    or nonviolence. They believed that all people
    and things should be respected.

54
Reincarnation
  • The Egyptians thought the soul transmigrated from
    body to body and this was a reason why they
    embalmed the body in order to preserve it so that
    it could journey along with ka, an animating
    force that was believed to be counterpart of the
    body, which would accompany it in the next world
    or life. Ka might be considered equivalent to the
    term of soul.

55
Reincarnation continued
  • The belief is thought to have been an necessity
    among primitive peoples. Certainly long before
    ancient Egypt peoples believed in transmigration
    of the soul. If they were not sophisticated
    enough to understand the concept of a soul, then
    they may have simply called it life. An
    individual or object which moved had life, and
    the one which did not, did not have life. This is
    analogous to the belief of animism.

56
Reincarnation.continued 2
  • Gradually the concept of a soul developed with a
    further realization that the soul departed the
    body at death and entered the body at birth. Soon
    it was thought the soul leaving a dead body would
    seek another body to enter, or enter an animal of
    a lower life form. It was also thought the soul
    left the body during sleep. This soul was
    pictured as vapors that entered and left through
    the nostrils and mouth.

57
Karma
  • In Buddhist teaching, the law of karma, says only
    this for every event that occurs, there will
    follow another event whose existence was caused
    by the first, and this second event will be
    pleasant or unpleasant according as its cause was
    skillful or unskillful.' A skillful event is one
    that is not accompanied by craving, resistance or
    delusions an unskillful event is one that is
    accompanied by any one of those things. (Events
    are not skillful in themselves, but are so called
    only in virtue of the mental events that occur
    with them.)

58
Karma
  • Therefore, the law of Karma teaches that
    responsibility for unskillful actions is born by
    the person who commits them.
  • Let's take an example of a sequence of events. An
    unpleasant sensation occurs. A thought arises
    that the source of the unpleasantness was a
    person. (This thought is a delusion any
    decisions based upon it will therefore be
    unskillful.) A thought arises that some past
    sensations of unpleasantness issued from this
    same person. (This thought is a further
    delusion.) This is followed by a willful decision
    to speak words that will produce an unpleasant
    sensation in that which is perceived as a person.

59
Karma
  • Have you ever heard someone say it's there karma,
    or they have bad computer karma? They are
    referring to the sum of there actions in the past
    working out in the present. Karma can be
    accumulated and takes time to bear fruit. When
    you plant a seed it usually takes some time for
    it to grow into a fruit-bearing tree. Another
    aspect is that the tree bears many fruit. So
    there is a delay in time and a multiplication in
    result.Karma also works on multiple levels.
    Your emotions and thoughts also cause effects on
    a emotional and mental level. When looking at a
    situation karmaically this should also be taken
    into account.

60
Vedas and Upanishads
  • The word Veda means knowledge, and the Vedas are
    considered the most sacred scripture of Hinduism
    referred to as sruti, meaning what was heard by
    or revealed to the rishis or seers. The most holy
    hymns and mantras put together into four
    collections called the Rig, Sama, Yajur, and
    Atharva Vedas are difficult to date, because they
    were passed on orally for about a thousand years
    before they were written down. More recent
    categories of Vedas include the Brahmanas or
    manuals for ritual and prayer, the Aranyakas or
    forest texts for religious hermits, and the
    Upanishads or mystical discourses.

61
Vedas and Upanishads
  • The hymns of the Rig Veda are considered the
    oldest and most important of the Vedas, having
    been composed between 1500 BC and the time of the
    great Bharata war about 900 BC. More than a
    thousand hymns are organized into ten mandalas or
    circles of which the second through the seventh
    are the oldest and the tenth is the most recent.
    The Hindu tradition is that even the Vedas were
    gradually reduced from much more extensive and
    ancient divine revelations but were perverted in
    the recent dark age of Kaliyuga. As the only
    writings from this ancient period of India, they
    are considered the best source of knowledge we
    have but the ethical doctrines seem to have
    improved from the ancient hymns to the mystical
    Upanishads.

62
Vedas and Upanishads
  • The Sama Veda contains the melodies or music for
    the chants used from the Rig Veda for the
    sacrifices almost all of its written verses are
    traceable to the Rig Veda, mostly the eighth and
    ninth books and most to Indra, Agni, or Soma.
    These are considered the origin of Indian music
    and probably stimulated great artistry to make
    the sacrifices worthwhile to their patrons who
    supported the priests. The Sama Veda helped to
    train the musicians and functioned as a hymnal
    for the religious rites.

63
Vedas and Upanishads
  • Though also following many of the hymns of the
    Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda deviates more from the
    original text in its collection of the ritual
    formulas for the priests to use in the
    sacrifices, which is what yaja means. It explains
    how to construct the altars for new and full-moon
    sacrifices and other ceremonies. The Yajur Veda
    has two collections or samhitas called White and
    Black, the latter being more obscure in its
    meanings.

64
Vedas and Upanishads
  • The latest and fourth Veda is in a different
    category. For a long time many referred to only
    three Vedas, by which complete ceremonies could
    be conducted with the Rig hotr reciting, the Sama
    udgatri singing, and the Yajur adhvaryu
    performing the ritual. Even later the Atharvan
    Brahmin's part was often performed unaccompanied
    by the other three priests. Also much of it draws
    from the customs and beliefs of pre-Aryan or
    pre-Vedic India. The Atharva Veda is much longer
    than the Sama and Yajur and only about a sixth of
    it is from the Rig Veda.

65
How did Hinduism influence Indian Society?
  • Hinduism has had a long and continuous evolution
    and in the process has influenced all other major
    world religions.
  • Indian or Hindu civilization has been molded and
    shaped in the course of its history more by
    religious than by political, or economic,
    influences.
  • The fundamental principles of social, political,
    and economic life were welded into a
    comprehensive theory which is called Religion in
    Hindu thought.

66
What are the Characteristics of Buddhism?
  • The first characteristic of Buddhism is Karma.
  • Karma- action or deed, any moral or immoral
    violation.
  • This is the most important doctrine and the most
    difficult. It is also the one to be easily
    misunderstood.
  • The second characteristic of Buddhism is
    conditioned Genesis.
  • Condition Genesis- unchangeable truth of life and
    the universe.
  • Conditioned Genesis is based on the Law of Cause
    and Effect.
  • The third Characteristic of Buddhism is Sunyata.
  • Sunyata- emptiness.
  • Sunyata is used by Mahayanist to explain the
    existence of this world and universe.
  • The fourth Characteristic of Buddhism is the
    Three Dharma Seals.
  • Three Dharma Seals- three characteristics of
    existence.

67
Siddhartha Guatemala
  • Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Guatemala.
  • He lived in Northern India from 560 B.C to 480
    B.C.
  • After his death a cult formed and they focused
    on stupas and holy sites.
  • After he died 500 monks were held at the
    Rajagrha and all the Buddha sermons and the rules
    of the decibel we remembered and recited.
  • In century 2 A.D. they made a school called the
    Madhyamikc School.

68
Four Noble Truths
  • The Four Noble Truths
  • The Truth of Suffering (Dukkha)
  • The Truth of the Cause of Suffering (Samudaya)
  • The Truth of the End of Suffering (Nirodha)
  • The Truth of the Path Leading to the End of
    Suffering (Marga)

69
Eightfold Path to Enlightenment
  • Though the Eightfold Path is the supreme method
    of achieving enlightenment and to becoming a
    better person, it is very difficult for a normal
    person to be able to practice without this
    necessary aspect of Buddhism.
  • It is organized into three categories wisdom,
    virtue, and concentration

70
What was Asokas role in spreading Buddhism?
  • Asoka was the grandson of Chandragupta who was
    the founder of the Mauryan dynasty
  • Asoka adopted the peaceful aspects of Buddhism
    and declared that there forth his conquests
    should be conquests of religion.
  • From then on Asoka spread the word of the
    Buddhist religion throughout the empire and into
    China.

71
Why was the Great Wall of China built?
  • During the Shang and Zhou dynasties, separate
    walls were built between Chinese regions which
    were fighting with each other.
  • The walls were also built to protect China from
    outside invaders.
  • Emperor Shi Huangdi of the Qin dynasty thought
    of the idea of the Great Wall and ordered his
    workers to connect the old walls with new ones to
    protect them from invasions (mainly the Mongols)

72
Silk Roads
  • There was a network of market towns along the
    road and since silk was in such high demand, many
    other trade routes connected and/or branched off
    of the Silk Road.
  • The Silk Road wasnt the safest place (mountains,
    robbers, desserts) but it allowed new ideas to
    spread from place to place such as paper and
    glass making
  • The Silk Road was the most important trade route
    before the discovery of the sea route to India.
    It stretched along the edges of deserts and
    mountains from China to Rome, connecting China to
    the west.

73
Mandate of heaven
  • The concept that the kings rule was based on the
    blessing of heaven and that if a king rules
    unwisely, heaven would not like it and give the
    mandate to someone else.
  • This concept was first used on the Zhou dynasty
    in China.

74
Contributions of China to Civilization
  • The Chinese developed a smallpox vaccine,
    invented the spinning wheel, and pioneered in the
    use of arches in bridge building.

WOW!
75
What is Confucianism?
  • Confucians believe that in society there are five
    key relationships Father to son, elder brother
    to young brother, husband to wife, ruler to
    subject, and friend to friend. They also believed
    that had certain duties and responsibilities they
    had to stay with, like how superiors should care
    for their inferiors while inferiors show loyalty
    to their superiors.

76
What is Confucianism?
  • Confucianism spread because his ideas and
    philosophies were used in everyday life Chinese
    rulers relied on it to pick Confucian scholars as
    officials and the Confucian emphasis in filial
    piety bolstered traditional customs

77
What is Daoism
  • Daoism was not concerned with bringing order to
    human affairs.Instead Daoists sought to live in
    harmony with nature.Daoists rejected conflict and
    strife.They wanted to end the conflict between
    human desires and the simple ways of
    nature.Daoists thought the best government was
    the one who governed the least.

78
Yin/Yang
  • Gained control of a corner of northern China,
    along the Huang He.
  • During this period, Chinese civilization first
    took shape.
  • Kings led other noble warriors in battle.
  • Social classes were royal families, noble
    warriors, artisans and merchants, then peasants
  • Yin and Yang were opposite forces that worked to
    balance each other.

79
Impact of Confucianism and Taoism on Chinese
Society
  • Confucianism and Taoism changed the whole view of
    Chinese society.
  • It influenced people to become more educated.
  • More than a third of the worlds population came
    under the influence of these ideas.
  • Chinese civilizations spread, hundreds of
    millions of people in Korea, Japan, and Vietnam
    accepted these beliefs.

80
Mountains and Seas helped Greek political and
social development
  • Mountains divided Greece into parts which made up
    the Greek city-states.
  • The seas provided great harbors for ships. Which
    was for trade. Greeks became skilled sailors,
    carrying cargoes of olive oil, wine, and marble
    around the eastern Mediterranean.
  • Mountains and seas led to the expansion of
    Greece.
  • Trade help build a better economy

81
GREEK CITY-STATES
  • First people to settle in Greece was the Minoans
    in 1750B.C.
  • The Mycenae took over Greece in about 1400B.C.
  • Settled on the Balkan peninsula
  • The Greeks who farmed the valleys or settled on
    inlands did not create a very large empire
  • Were not very united because of the many
    mountains any seas that they had to cross to get
    to each other
  • The two major city states were Athens and Sparta
  • The city states steadily disappeared at the end
    of the Peloponnesian war
  • Their economies were formed around ship building,
    trade, and the growth of a few agricultural
    products that could be grown on their land
    (olives, grapes)

82
FEATURES OF GREEK CITY STATES
  • Were very successful sailors
  • Thrived through sea trade with each other
  • Was also successful fishermen
  • Had many deposits of silver, gold, iron, and
    marble
  • Raided olive oil, wine, marble, gold and other
    materials that was in there cities
  • Architects made many magnificent buildings
  • Mainly the Parthenon

83
ATHENS
  • Athens moved from monarchy to aristocracy to
    democracy to a tyrant
  • Males were the only ones able to participate in
    government
  • There were tens of thousands of slaves throughout
    Athens yet Athens offered the most freedom in
    the Greek city states
  • Boys were the only ones who could go to school
    and that was only if there family could afford it
  • Men received military training
  • ten golden years were the years after the
    Persian wars when Athens made many of their
    lasting cultural contributions.
  • The end of Athens, in terms of real power, was a
    century or so after the Peloponnesian war

84
Sparta A Nation of Soldiers
  • Spartans were Dorians who had conquered Laconia
  • They lived in the Peloponnesus, the southern
    part of Greece
  • They had helots, which were people who were
    state-owned slaves they made them work the land
  • Spartans felt a need for a strong military state
    because they feared a possible revolt from the
    helots who greatly outnumbered the Spartans.

Government
  • Government included two kings and a council of
    elders who advised these monarchs. They also had
    an assembly of all citizens who approved major
    decisions.
  • Spartan assembly of citizens male, native born
    Spartans, and over the age of 30.
  • Assembly also elected five ephors officials
    who held real power and ran day-to-day affairs.

85
Spartan Women
Spartan Childhood
  • Continually prepared for military state
  • future mothers were required to be healthy to
    have a healthy child.
  • newborns were examined at birth, the sickly were
    left to die.
  • Girls also had a hard upbringing
  • They were expected to produce healthy sons for
    the army so they were required to exercise to
    strengthen their bodies.
  • Women had to obey fathers or husbands and were
    treated fully with their rights, like that they
    were able to inherit property.
  • Women ran the family estates while the men were
    occupied with war.
  • At the age of 7, boys began their training.
  • they moved into barracks where they were allowed
    a course diet, hard exercise and rigid
    discipline.
  • They were given only one piece of clothing to
    wear year round and they were made to sleep
    outside on the hard ground.
  • they developed cunning to supplement their diets
    because they were encouraged to steal food if
    they were caught, they were beaten

Sparta and its Neighbors
  • Sparta isolated itself from other Greeks.
  • They did not like trade or wealth .
  • They forbade citizens to travel
  • They had little use for new ideas or the arts.
  • There were no other city-states that put to use
    military skills as much as Sparta did.
  • At the age of 20, men could marry but still had
    to live in the barracks for 10 more years and eat
    there for another 40 years.
  • At the age of 30, men would endure more training
    and then enter the assembly.

86
Why did the Greeks feel the need to colonize new
areas?
  • Before 750 B.C., the Greeks were already living
    near many seas and had become skilled sailors by
    carrying cargo across the eastern Mediterranean.
  • By 750 B.C., rapid population growth forced many
    Greeks to leave their valleys and head overseas.
    Scattered colonies started to take root around
    the Mediterranean from Spain to Egypt.

87
How did Greek mythology help explain the
- Stories of gods and goddesses helped to
explain the values and way of life of the Greek
people. - Each of their gods was said to
preside over a certain field of nature or human
affairs. - For example, their god Zeus presided
over the affairs of all gods and humans. -
Aphrodite controlled the love affairs of humans,
Ares was the god of war, and Athena was the
goddess of wisdom. - Later, some Greeks thinkers
came to believe that the universe was regulated
and not controlled by these gods. They believed
that the universe has natural laws.
natural world and disasters that happened to
poeple?
88
What impact did Greek mythology have on later
cultures?
  • Alexander the Great founded many new cities in
    which Greek soldiers, traders, and artisans
    settled.
  • They built Greek temples and filled them with
    Greek statues that portrayed their gods and
    goddesses. Local people then started coming to
    the cities and absorbed all these Greek ideas.
  • The Romans shared the Italian peninsula with
    other people such as the Greeks and Etruscans
    (who actually controlled them). The Romans
    adopted the idea of having gods and goddesses.
  • - Like the Greek god Zeus, the Romans had
    Jupiter. The Roman goddess Juno was like the
    Greek goddess Hera. The Roman god Neptune
    resembled the Greek god Poseidon and instead of
    the Greek god Ares, the Romans worshipped Mars.

89
Zeus
  • Zeus was the youngest son of Cronus and Rheia.
  • He was the supreme ruler of mount Olympus.
  • Zeus (like his father before him) deposed his
    aged father from the throne of eternity.
  • As Kronos was about to slay his father, Uranus,
    he was warned that his own son would someday
    depose him.
  • Kronos swallowed the first of his children, but
    Rheia was smart and tricked Kronos substituted a
    stone for the infant and Kronos swallowed it
    down.
  • Zeus was hidden and raised in secret until he was
    old enough to fulfill his destiny.
  • One day he ambushed Kronos while out hunting.
    Zeus kicked Kronos in the stomach so hard the
    aged god vomited up the stone and the five
    divine, undigested gods and goddesses.
  • In gratitude, and bowing to destiny, Zeus was
    unanimously declared leader of the immortals.
  • Zeus made his domain the mountain tops and
    clouds, where he could survey and vitalize all
    creation.
  • Zeus married his sister Hera.
  • She was jealous and vengeful of her husbands
    affections

90
Apollo
  • Apollo was the sun of Zeus and Leto.
  • Apollo was the god of music, arts, archery, and
    divination.
  • He represents order, harmony, and civilization in
    a way that most other Olympian deities cannot
    quite equal.
  • Apollo is most often associated with the
    cultivated arts of music and medicine.
  • His role as the leader of the Muses establishes
    him as a patron of intellectual pursuits.
  • Apollo was the son of the Olympian Zeus.
  • The brother of the goddess Artemis.
  • Daphne was Apollo's first love.
  • Apollo, as with Zeus his father, had many love
    affairs with goddesses and mortals.
  • The most famous mortal loves of Apollo was
    Hecuba, she was the wife of Priam, the king of
    Troy.
  • Asclepius, the god of healing, was also Apollo's
    offspring
  • Apollo also, as did his father Zeus, fall in love
    with one of his own gender, Hyacinthus, a Spartan
    prince.
  • According to one legend, it was Apollo who helped
    either Cretan or Arcadian colonists found the
    city of Troy.

91
Hera
  • The queen of the Olympian deities
  • She is a daughter of Cronus and Rhea, and wife
    and sister of Zeus.
  • Hera was mainly worshipped as a goddess of
    marriage and birth.
  • The children of Hera and Zeus are Hephaestus,
    Hebe, Ares.
  • Thus they were born, not out of love but out of
    lust and hatred.
  • Hera was constantly being jealous of Zeus's
    various amorous affairs.
  • She punished her rivals and their children, among
    both goddesses and mortals, with implacable fury.
    She placed two serpents in the cradle of Heracles
  • Sometimes when he got angry, he chained her to
    the mountain of Olympus by fastening anvils to
    her feet.
  • He either hid his illegitimate children, or he
    changed them into animals. This was to keep Hera
    from hurting them.
  • Peloponnesus, where she was worshipped as the
    town goddess.
  • The peacock and the cow are her sacred animals.
  • Hera is portrayed as a majestic, solemn woman.
  • Her Roman counterpart is Juno.

92
Artemis
  • In earlier times Artemis was identified as the
    earth goddess, now she is normally referred to as
    the goddess of wild life and the patroness of
    hunters
  • Of all the animals her most sacred was the bear.
  • She is symbolized by a bow and a deer, even
    though her favorite animal was the bear.

93
Athena
  • Athena was the goddess of crafts, domestic arts,
    and those of war. Now she is regarded as the
    goddess of wisdom.
  • She was the patron goddess of Athens, Greece.
  • Her symbol is the owl.

94
Aphrodite
  • Aphrodite is the goddess of love, beauty, and
    fertility.
  • She is also known as the protector of sailors.
  • This beautiful goddess is often associated with a
    dove or a goose.

95
How did democracy develop in Athens?
  • The principle of democracy all started in Athens
    when Aristotles Constitution of the Athenians
    was written. From the base of this constitution
    we wrote our constitution, with the principles of
    Aristotles constitution. Pericles was the main
    person who instituted democracy in Athens.

96
Direct Democracy
  • Direct democracy is about originating ideas as
    much as it is about approving them. In
    parliamentary democracy, people are never asked
    for their own ideas - they are only asked to
    approve or disapprove of ideas already
    prepared for them. In a direct democracy everyone
    participates.

97
Pericles
  • Pericles was born in Athens in about 495 BC to a
    family of wealth and position
  • He opened Athenian democracy to the ordinary
    citizen, he built the magnificent temples and
    statues on the Acropolis, and he created the
    Athenian empire.

98
Oligarchy
  • Early form of government where the civilization
    is ruled by the small elite, usually from the
    business class of merchants and artisans.

99
How were the societies of Athens and Sparta
different?
  • Athens is known for being the major city of
    education and democracy in Greece while Sparta
    was more military based. The boys were taken at a
    young age to start training. The citizens feared
    revolts from their state owned slaves called
    helots. Spartan women held more rights than
    Athens women, Spartan women had the right to own
    land and had to be physically fit. Athens was
    known for its excellent navy and trade was a
    major part of their economy while Sparta was
    known for its excellent military or on land
    combat.

100
Solon
  • Athenian ruler who also helped in the development
    of democracy.
  • He extended citizenship rights to more people,
    outlawed debt slavery, gave people more power and
    brought economic reforms

101
Draco
  • Athenian ruler who helped in the development of
    democracy
  • He was responsible for codifying the laws of
    Greece for the first time they were called
    draconian laws.

102
What were the three stages of government before
democracy spread in Athens?
  • Monarchy- a government where a king or a queen
    has essential power.
  • Aristocracy- a government where elite landowners
    ruled.
  • Oligarchy- a government where a small group
    usually in the business class holds the most
    power.

103
What was the importance of the Persian Wars to
the development of Greek culture?
Victory in the Persian Wars brought Athens to be
one of the most powerful city-states. They
eventually formed the Delian League. Which
brought all of the Greek city-states to an
alliance in defense. Athens dominated the league
and other Greek city-states did not like Athens
having all of the power. When the other
city-states protested, Athens came back with
force. Eventually Sparta and Persia took over
Athens and the other city-states and that lead to
the downfall of Greece. So Greek culture
developed through the Persian Wars by coming
together and joining as one to form the Delian
League and later down falling.
104
MARATHON
At Marathon, Darius I sent an astounding force
from Aegean to punish Athens. The Persians
landed at Marathon in 490 B.C. Even though the
Persians out numbered the Athenians greatly,
Athens ended up crushing Persia in hand to hand
combat. Also after the battle of Marathon a man
ran from the battle scene the equivalence of a
Marathon to Athens. Once he got there to share
the news he collapsed.
105
The Battle of Salamis
  • Part of the Persian wars ( Persians vs. Athenians
    )
  • Athenians pulled Persian navy into the Salamis
    straight, one year later the Persian boats sank
    on land the Greeks defeated the Persians
  • The last major battle of the Persian wars

106
What effect did the Peloponnesian wars have on
Greek power and influence?
  • Athens was not totally destroyed, but it was
    severely weakened
  • Sparta was even too weak to hold off attacks from
    outsiders
  • This begins the decline of Greece

107
Parthenon
  • Ancient Greek temple dedicated to the Greek
    goddess Athena Parthenos
  • Doric Columns
  • Built under the leadership of Pericles (447-432
    BC)
  • Stands on the Acropolis, high above Athens,
    Greece

108
Aeschylus
  • Creator of Greek theatre/drama
  • Wrote many playwrights
  • He fought in the at Athens in the Marathon to
    defeat Persia.
  • His earliest work was The Persians
  • He added two characters, whereas, before there
    had only been one, and he could show intrigue and
    conflict.
  • He was born of a noble family
  • He wrote tragedies.

Courtesy of Meredith lt3
109
Sophocles
  • He made his first appearance at the City Dionysia
    in 486 B.C. when he was at the mere age of 28.
  • Born in Athens 495 B.C.
  • He was the son of a wealthy merchant.
  • He wrote over 120 plays
  • He won 18 times at the City of Dionysus
  • He preformed in many of his own plays
  • Despite his great playwrights, he did do other
    things, he served for many years as an ordained
    priest.
  • He added the third actor
  • He wrote Antigone, a great work which is still
    used today
  • He died at 91.

Courtesy of Meredith lt3
110
Homer
  • He was born on an island in Asia Minor
  • He was a Greek poet
  • He wrote the Iliad, which was the story of the
    siege of Troy.
  • He wrote the OdysseyThe romantic tale of
    Odysseus struggling to get home from the war.
  • He is believed to be born around 850 B.C.
  • He went from village to village telling his
    stories orally.

Courtesy of Meredith lt3
111
Herodotus
  • Often called the father of history
  • Herodotus was the Greek historian who chronicled
    the Persian wars, which involved the Greek
    city-states Vs. Persia.
  • Wrote the History, provides accurate details
    about other civilizations of the time.

112
Thucyidides
  • Born in 460 B.C and died in 400 B.C
  • The Greek historian who chronicled the
    Peloponnesian wars in which he himself fought in.
  • His book,The History of The Peloponnesian War,
    provides accurate views on battles, historical
    names, and more.

113
Phidias
  • Born in 500, died in 432.
  • Lived during the classic age of Greece under
    Pericles.
  • A famous Athenian sculptor who made the statue of
    Athena in the Parthenon in Athens.
  • Also made the huge statue of Zeus in the Temple
    of Zeus in Olympia.

114
Doric Columns
  • The simplest form of the columns.
  • NO scrolls, and NO flowers or any decoration
  • Shorter and wider than other columns with flat
    tops
  • Buildings include the Parthenon.

115
Ionian Columns
  • The second most decorative of the columns.
  • Ionic columns are taller, and more slender than
    Doric columns.
  • They are characterized by having scrolls at the
    tops of them.

116
Corinthian Columns
  • The most decorated of the columns.
  • Contains decorated scrolls at the top along with
    flowers.

117
Archimedes
  • He was a Greek mathematician, physicist, and
    inventor.
  • He made inventions that applied to the principles
    of physics.
  • He used the lever and pulley.
  • He is famous for his work in geometry on the
    circle, sphere, cylinder, and parabola.
  • He is also well known for his work in physics,
    mechanics, and hydrostatistics.
  • He developed Archimedes principle and
    Archimedes screw.
  • He worked on creating a mathematical expression
    to express extremely large numbers.
  • He also worked on calculating the value of p.

118
Hippocrates
  • Lived around 400 B.C.
  • He was a Greek physician who studied illnesses
    and looked for cures.
  • He created the Hypocratic oath which set the
    ethical standards for doctors and is still in use
    today.
  • Doctors promise to help the sick according to
    my ability and judgment but never with a view to
    injury and wrong and to protect the patients
    privacy.

Euclid
  • Hellenistic mathematician that wrote The
    Elements, a book that became the basis for modern
    geometry.

119
Pythagorus
  • Hellenistic mathematician that devised the
    Pythagorean Theorem (a²b²c²).
  • This formula is used to calculate the
    relationship between the sides of a right
    triangle.

120
Socrates
  • 469-399 B.C.
  • Wrote nothing
  • Most of what we know about him comes from Plato
  • Plato was his student
  • Thought knowledge was a living, interactive thing
  • Philosophy was to question people

121
Socrates
  • Elenchus-method of questioning (cross-examination)
  • Dialect-idea that truth needs to be pursued by
    examining a persons position through questioning
  • Unconcerned with physical or metaphysical
    questioning (Sophist)

122
Plato
  • Socrates most famous student
  • Founded his own school The Academy in 385 (most
    famous school at the time)
  • Most famous pupil was Aristotle
  • Wrote dialogues between Socrates
  • Examined basic ethical issues
  • Formed his own philosophy (more teaching)

123
Plato
  • The Republic is his most famous dialogue
  • Deals with how to live a good life, justice in
    the Senate, and justice for an individual
  • Divides human beings into innate intelligence,
    strength, and courage
  • Believed in aristocracy (rule by the best)
  • Different societies (Producers, Auxiliaries,
    Guardians)

124
Aristotle
  • Teacher was Plato
  • Taught Alexander the Great
  • Opened his own school the Lyceum
  • Studied there for twelve years
  • Disagreed on everything with Plato
  • Wrote about poetics, rhetoric, ethics, politics,
    meteorology, embryology, physics, mathematics,
    analogy, etc

125
Aristotle
  • Evidence-examined what people said, wrote, or did
    to solve a problem
  • Studied over five hundred species of plants and
    animals
  • Read one hundred and fifty eight constitutions of
    different governments
  • Inductive reasoning-to observe as many possible
    examples of a specific subject

126
Aristotle
  • Categorized knowledge by their objects and
    relative certainty
  • Knowledge is characterized by precise
    explanations or probability
  • Thought that everything was always moving and
    changing

127
What Effect Did Major Greek Thinkers Have on
Western Philosophy?
  • Major Greek thinkers used methods to find truth,
    accepting nothing less than that, and also had
    opinions about society, making Western philosophy
    similar.
  • Romans thought highly of the Hellenistic
    philosophy.

128
Hellenistic Culture
  • During the Hellenistic age many cultures blended
    together, which led to new schools of thought,
    advances in learning and medicine.
  • Schools of thought-Zeno founded Stoicism which
    urged people to avoid desires and disappointments
    by accepting calmly whatever life brought.
    Stoicism later influenced many Roman and
    Christian thinkers.
  • Advances in learning- Pythagoras developed a
    formula to calculate the relation ship between
    sides of right triangles, Euclid wrote the
    elements which became the basis for modern
    geometry, Aristarchus argued that the earth
    rotated on an axis and orbited the sun which was
    a theory of heliocentric. Archimedes applied
    principles with physics and developed the pully.
  • Medicine- Hippocrates developed cures for
    illnesses and his oath set ethical standards for
    doctors to come.
  • During the Hellenistic period Rome emerged as a
    powerful new state after its conquest of Asia
    minor and replaced Greece and the Dominant power
    in the Mediterranean world

129
King Phillip II of Macedonia
  • Philip II of Macedonia ruled from 359-336 B.C.E.
    Without the military and political efforts of
    Philip, Alexander would never have been as
    successful as he was.
  • Philip came to power in 359 B.C.E. after the
    Macedonians had just suffered a defeat at the
    hands of the Illyrians. Macedonia was in
    political and military turmoil, and Philip
    immediately set about bringing the people of
    Macedonia under his control. After exacting
    revenge on the Illyrians by defeating them in 358
    B.C.E., Philip sought to bring all of Upper
    Macedonia under his control and make them loyal
    to him. His primary method of creating alliances
    and strengthening loyalties was through marriage.
    The most important marriage for Philip was to
    Olympias, from the royal house of Molossia. By
    357 B.C.E., they were married, and she gave birth
    to Alexander the next year.

130
Alexander the Great
  • Alexander was 20 years old when he became king.
  • Alexanders empire extended from Greece to Egypt
    and Macedonia to Persia.
  • His greatest achievement was the spread of Greek
    and Hellenistic culture and he did that by
    conquering other countries.

131
The Growth of the Roman Empire
  • Rome is located in the middle of the
    Mediterranean, on the Italian Peninsula.
  • Because of its location, Rome was connected to
    all the major trade routes around the
    Mediterranean
  • Being in the middle of the Mediterranean, Romes
    strategic location contributed to its rise in
    wealth and power.

132
What was Roman mythology based on?
The Greek Gods and Goddess
  • Greek Zeus Roman Jupiter
  • Greek Hera Roman Juno
  • Greek Poseidon Roman Neptune
  • Greek Ares Roman Mars

133
What impact did Roman mythology have on later
civilizations?
  • Roman mythology played a huge role in developing
    culture and traditions in later civilizations.
    The art and literature based on this mythology
    later influenced writers and artists who created
    many paintings and sculptures to represent
    important mythological figures.
  • A good example is the Byzantine empire that
    occurred shortly after the fall of the Rome. The
    Byzantine empire was extremely influenced by the
    traditions of ancient Roman mythology. It has
    inspired many to write poems, plays, and even
    operas.
  • Without the heavy influence of Roman mythology,
    the world would be a very different place.

134
Jupiter
God of Light and Sky
  • The supreme god in Roman mythology - equivalent
    to the Greek god Zeus
  • Was originally the God of storms, thunder, and
    lightning
  • Gradually became the highest God and the
    protector of the Roman people
  • The protector of the state and its laws
  • Had a temple on the capitol
  • Generals honored Jupiter with sacrifices

135
Juno
Queen of Olympia
  • The wife and sister of the God Jupiter -
    equivalent to the Greek God Hera
  • The protector of women especially marriage and
    childbirth
  • A special counselor and protector of the Roman
    state
  • Special festival called Matronalia was held on
    March 1st and dedicated to her
  • Month of June may have been named after her

136
Apollo
God of agriculture and of light and truth
  • The son of Zeus and Leto
  • The God of agriculture and cattle and of light
    and truth
  • The powers and functions of the sun God Helios
    were given to him
  • An excellent musician, especially on the lyre
  • A swift athlete, said to be the first winner of
    the Olympic games
  • His twin sister Artemis was the protector of
    young women, while he was the protector of young
    men

137
122. Diana - Roman goddess of hunting and
childbirth. 123. Minerva -
Roman goddess of wisdom, learning, war, and
crafts. 124. Venus - Roman goddess of love and
beauty. 125. Patricians - members of the
land-holding upper class of Rome.
138
Plebeians
The farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders who
made up the bulk of the population.
  • they had little influence
  • The efforts of the plebeians to gain power shaped
    politics in the early republic
  • The plebeians protested that citizens couldnt
    know the laws, because they were not written down.

139
How did one become a citizen of Rome?
  • Must live in Rome
  • Must be a member of the upper or middle class
  • Or emperor could grant you citizenship

140
How did the Roman republic become more democratic
in its decision making?
  • It granted citizenship rights to more people.
  • The Senate granted more power to bodies that
    represented the common people.

141
129-131
  • 129Roman Senate- In the early republic the most
    powerful part of the government was the senate.
    All of the members were patricians- people of the
    landholding upper class. Each year two consuls
    were elected by the senate. In the event of war
    the senate would elect a dictator to take
    complete control of the government.
  • 130Consuls- Once a year the senate elected two
    consuls. The consuls job was to supervise the
    business of the government and command the
    armies. Consuls could only serve one term. The
    consuls had to consult with the senate, thus
    giving the Roman govt a system of checks on
    power in the govt.
  • 131Twelve Tables of Rome- The plebians protested
    to the Roman govt that they could not know the
    laws because they were not written down. The
    govt then put the laws on 12 tablets and put in
    the marketplace.

142
.
  • Romes victories in the Punic Wars allowed Rome
    to extend there land in the Mediterranean by
    defeating Carthage who held onto Sicily, Corsica,
    and Sardinia. They were the only strong power in
    the region.
  • Hannibal- A Carthaginian general who let Carthage
    to invade Italy and be defeated in 2/3 of the
    Punic Wars
  • Gaul- A land that was taken over in one of
    Caesars conquests. Gaul is present day France.

143
Gaul
  • Present day France
  • Julius Caesar set out on a conquest to conquer
    this area in 59 B.C and after nine years he
    completed his conquest
  • In 486 Clovis conquered Gaul
  • Later became part of Charlemagnes empire

144
Why did the Republic fail to survive chall
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