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Latin American Revolutions

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Latin American Revolutions Peninsulares Creoles Mestizos Peons Miguel Hidalgo Agustin d' Iturbide Francisco de Miranda Simon Bolivar Gran Colombia Jose de San Martin – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Latin American Revolutions


1
Latin American Revolutions
  • Peninsulares
  • Creoles
  • Mestizos
  • Peons
  • Miguel Hidalgo
  • Agustin d' Iturbide
  • Francisco de Miranda
  • Simon Bolivar
  • Gran Colombia
  • Jose de San Martin
  • Pedro I
  • Caudillos
  • Monroe Doctrine

2
Class Systems in the Colonies
  • Colonies had class systems that were highly
    unequal and would lead to future revolution.
  • Peninsulares ? citizens born in Spain, were given
    the best jobs (political and military)
  • Creoles ? colonists born in Latin America to
    Spanish parents, were usually landowners
  • Mestizos ? children of Spanish and Indian
    parents, worked in towns, oversaw estates.
  • Peons ? Indian people of mixed and African
    heritage, worked the mines, held no land

3
Miguel Hidalgo
  • Hidalgo ? village priest who led Indian followers
    on an uprising against Spanish rule in Mexico
  • Managed to get to Mexico City but was defeated by
    the Spanish.
  • Would be executed in 1811.

4
Agustin d' Iturbide
  • Iturbide ? Creole leader that won freedom for
    Mexico in 1821.
  • Was a creole who managed to unite a large chunk
    of Mexico against Spain.
  • Would become emperor of Mexico but is deposed in
    1824.

5
Francisco de Miranda
  • Miranda ? revolutionary who worked closely with
    Simon Bolivar to free Venenzuela.
  • Pleaded to England and Catherine the Great to
    assist their cause and would manage to free
    Venenzuela
  • Venenzuela would be recaptured and Miranda would
    die in prison.

6
Simon Bolivar
  • Bolivar ? worked closely with other
    revolutionaries in an attempt to free South
    America.
  • Managed to drive out the Spanish from Colombia in
    1819.
  • Was called the Great Liberator
  • Freed Ecuador and Venezuela as well in 1821 and
    1822.
  • Would merge these territories into Gran Colombia
    which would break up in 1830

7
Jose de San Martin
  • San Martin ? worked with Bolivar for a short
    period of time, managed to free Chile and
    Argentina.
  • San Martin would free Northern Peru as well and
    would consult with Bolivar to figure out what to
    do with southern Peru, but they would disagree.

8
Brazil
  • John VI would flee to Brazil to avoid the wrath
    of Napoleon.
  • Upon the return of John VI, Pedro I would become
    the ruler of Brazil
  • He would plead to Portugal to grant Brazil its
    independence.
  • It would become an independent nation and a
    monarchy and remain as such until 1889.

9
The Monroe Doctrine
  • In an attempt to protect their landholdings, the
    Americans decide to pass the Monroe Doctrine.
  • Monroe Doctrine ? stated that the Americas were
    closed to colonization and any attempt to
    colonize American territory would be an act of
    war.

10
Unresolved Issues
  • - Creoles gained political power
  • - Able to trade with all nations
  • - Latin America remained disunited
  • - Individual nations tailored their governments
    to the wants of the people
  • - Military leaders would take over an unpopular
    government and rule as caudillos ? military
    dictators
  • - Peons remained poor and still held little
    political power
  • - Would revolt to gain a fairer
    distribution of land
  • - All ideas of land reform would be
    resisted by landowners
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