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Chapter 3

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Infancy and Childhood PHYSICAL,PERCEPTIAL AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT CHAPTER 3:1 AND 3:2 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 3


1
Chapter 3 Development
Infancy and Childhood
  • PHYSICAL,PERCEPTIAL AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
  • CHAPTER 31 AND 32

2
What is developmental psychology?
  • The study of changes that occur as an individual
    matures.

3
Nature vs. Nurture
  • What makes us who we are?
  • Genes or environment?
  • Brainstorm with neighbor

4
NATURE
  • biological dispositions that were born with
    (genes)

5
NURTURE
  • our surroundings, upbringing, social influences
  • Example Rats in a deprived environment had less
    brain development.

6
  • How do the brain andmotor skills develop during
    infancy and childhood?

7
NEWBORNS
  • REFLEXES- inherited automatic responses.
  • Grasping reflex-an infants response to touch on
    palm of hand.
  • Rooting reflex- if an infant is near the mouth he
    will move his head and mouth toward the source of
    the touch.
  • Hence..breast feeding and the sucking motion.

8
PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT
  • In the womb neural cells develop one-quarter
    million per minute.
  • When born you have most of the brain cells you
    will ever have.
  • Ages 3 to 6 most rapid growth is in the frontal
    lobes (rational planning).

9
  • Areas linked with thinking, memory, and language
    are the last to develop.
  • Severe deprivation and abuse can retard
    development.
  • Maturation sets the basic course of development
    and experience adjusts it.

10
MATURATION
  • the internally programmed growth of a child

11
MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
  • The sequence of physical (motor) development is
    universal.
  • Babies roll over, sit unsupported, creep on all
    fours, and then walk these developmental
    milestones are the same around the world.
  • Blind children do too.
  • Genes play a major role in motor development.
  • Identical twins typically begin sitting up and
    walking on nearly the same day.

12
MOTOR DEVELOPMENT
  • The rapidly developing cerebellum creates our
    readiness to learn walking around age 1.
  • The wonderchild began walking at 9 months.. I
    wonder what happened since then

13
INFANT MEMORY
  • Can you recall your first day of preschool or
    your third birthday party?
  • Earliest memories seldom predate our third
    birthdays.
  • Babies only 3 months old can learn to move a
    mobile by kicking it and can retain that learning
    for a month.
  • What the conscious mind does not know and cannot
    express in words, the nervous system somehow
    remembers.

14
NEURAL DEVELOPMENT
15
PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Besides grasping and sucking newborns
  • have mature perception skills.
  • Perception- recognition and interpretation of
    sensory stimuli based chiefly on memory.
  • Hmmm is that possible?

16
LANGUAGE DEVELPOMENT
  1. any set or system of such symbols as used in a
    more or less uniform fashion by a number of
    people, who are thus enabled to communicate
    intelligibly with one another.
  2. any system of formalized symbols, signs, sounds,
    gestures, or the like used or conceived as a
    means of communicating thought, emotion, etc.

17
LANGUAGE AQUISITION
  • How do we acquire language?
  • Is there a window for this learning?
  • Why is it harder for adults as opposed to kids??
  • Telegraphic speech-

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CH 32 COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  • Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
  • His interest in cognitive development began in
    1920 while developing questions for intelligence
    tests.
  • REVIEW- COGNITION all the mental activities
    associated with thinking, knowing, remembering,
    and communicating
  • Core idea Children are active thinkers,
    constantly
  • trying to construct more
  • advanced
    understandings.

20
  • PIAGET proposed that a childs mind develops
    through a series of stages.
  • The driving force between our intellectual
    progression is our unceasing struggle to make
    sense of our experiences.

21
  • COMPLETE G.O. ON PIAGETS STAGES OF COGNITIVE
    DEVELOPMENT
  • PP. 75
  • YOUR OWN WORDS

22
Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development
Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena
Birth to nearly 2 years Sensor motor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, hearing, touching, mouthing, and grasping Object permanence Stranger anxiety Schema/ball does not exist
2 to about 6 or 7 years Preoperational Representing things with words and images using intuitive rather than logical reasoning Pretend play Egocentrism Schema/exist when I do not see it. If I flatten the ball it has less clay.
About 7 to 11 years Concrete operational Thinking logically about concrete events grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations Conversation Mathematical transformations Schema/flatten ball it has same mass
About 12 through adulthood Formal operational Abstract reasoning Abstract logic Potential for mature moral reasoning Schema/cut ball 2 balls w/same amount of clay
23
HOW KNOWING CHANGES
  • How do we make sense of the world?
  • How do we make sense of random unrelated events
    to understand them?
  • How to we understand anything?
  • FIRST WE

24
PIAGET
  • Sensorimotor touching, tasting, moving
  • Pre-Operational pretend play, object permanence
    (knowing an object continues to exist even when
    out of sight)
  • Concrete Operational understand conservation
    (quantity does not change despite changes in
    shape), math
  • Formal Operational abstract thinking,
    hypothetical situations, moral reasoning

25
  • CREATE schemas
  • Schema a concept or framework that organizes and
    interprets information. By adulthood we have
    built countless schemas, ranging from cats and
    dogs to our concept of love.

26
  • Then we try to understand new objects by using
    one of our preexisting schemas..
  • HOW??? Through..
  • Assimilation interpreting ones new experience
    in terms of ones existing schemas.
  • Accommodation adapting ones current
    understandings (schemas) to incorporate new
    information. We change OUR schema to fit and
    adapt to the NEW situation

27
Cognitive Development
28
Impossible Objects
29
Piagets Cognitive Development
  • Infants are smarter than Piaget appreciated.
  • Before reaching the concrete operational stage,
    children have trouble with conservation.
  • Conservation the principle that properties such
    as mass, volume, and numbers remain the same
    despite changes in the forms of objects.

30
Piagets Cognitive Development
  • Theory of the mind people have ideas about
    their own and others mental states about their
    feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and
    behaviors
  • Between 3 to 4 years old, children come to
    realize that others may hold false beliefs.
    Children with autism have an impaired ability to
    infer others states of mind.

31
  • Autism a disorder that appears in childhood and
    is marked by deficient communication, social
    interaction, and understanding of others states
    of mind.

32
Social Development/Emotional Development
  • E.Q. How do the bonds of attachment form between
    caregivers and infants?
  • Stranger Anxiety A babies ability to evaluate
    people as unfamiliar and possibly threatening
    helps protect babies 8 months and older.
  • Children have schemas for familiar faces when
    they cannot assimilate the new face into these
    remembered schema, they become distressed.

33
Origins of Attachment
  • The attachment bond is a powerful survival
    impulse that keeps infants close to their
    parents/caregivers.
  • 1. Contact is one key to attachment.

34
  • At 12 months, many infants cling tightly to a
    parent when they are frightened or expect
    separation.
  • 2. Familiarity is another key to attachment.
  • Attachments based on familiarity formed during
    a critical period-(LORENZ) an optimal period
    shortly after birth when an organisms exposure
    to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper
  • development.

35
  • For some animals attachment happens with the
    first moving object they see. This rigid
    attachment process is called imprinting.
  • MEET CHIRPIN CHARLIE
  • AND
  • LA QUISHA

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  • Once formed this attachment is difficult to
    reverse.
  • Children do not imprint.
  • Children do become attached to what theyve
    known.
  • Mere exposure fosters fondness
  • Familiarity is a safety signal.
  • Familiarity breeds contentment

47
  • What accounts for childrens attachment
    differences?
  • Is attachment style the result of parenting or is
    it influenced genetically?
  • A fathers love and acceptance have been
    comparable to a mothers love in predicting
    offsprings health and well-being.
  • Anxiety over separation from parents peaks at
    around 13 months, then gradually declines.

48
Deprivation of Attachment
  • Individuals are often withdrawn, freighted, even
    speechless.
  • If institutionalized more than 8 months,
    individuals often bear lasting emotional scars.
  • Harlows Monkeys females often were neglectful,
    abusive, and even murderous.
  • The unloved often become the unloving.
  • Most abusive parents and many condemned murders
    report having been neglected or battered as
    children.

49
Attachment Differences
  • Erik Erikson (1902 -1994) Developmental
    psychologist

Out of the conflict between trust and mistrust,
the infant develops hope, which is the earliest
form of what gradually becomes faith in adults.
50
Attachment and Erik Erikson
  • Securely attached children approach life with a
    sense of basic trust.
  • Basic trust a sense that the world is
    predictable and trustworthy formed during
    infancy by appropriate experiences with
    responsive caregivers.
  • Basic trust is attributed to early parenting.
  • Infants blessed with sensitive, loving caregivers
    form a lifelong attitude of trust rather than
    fear.

51
Attachment and Erik Erikson
  • Attachment
  • Affects our adult styles of romantic love
    secure, trusting attachment, anxious attachment,
    or avoidance of attachment.
  • Early attachments form the foundation for our
    adult relationships.
  • What is learned in the cradle, lasts to the
    grave. French proverb

52
AINSWORTH STUDY
  • 3 types of attachment
  • Secure a healthy bond with caregivers
  • Ambivalent child is unsure, lacks trust in
    caregivers
  • Avoidant child is insecure and distant, caused
    by neglect (ignoring the babys cries of
    distress)

53
PARENTING
  • Are LIMITS important?
  • WHY?

54
Parenting Styles
  • Researchers have identified three parenting
    styles
  • Authoritarian parents impose rules and expect
    obedience.
  • Permissive parents submit to their childrens
    desires, make few demands, and use little
    punishment.
  • Authoritative parents are both demanding and
    responsive. They exert control not only by
    setting rules and enforcing them but also by
    explaining the reasons for choices.

55
Child-Rearing Practices cont.
  • Children with the highest self-esteem,
    self-reliance, and social competence usually have
    warm, concerned, authoritative parents.
  • Children with authoritarian parents tend to have
    less social skill and self-esteem..

56
  • Children with permissive parents tend to be more
    aggressive and immature.

57
  • When is a parenting style abuse?

58
  • Most abused children do not later become violent
    criminals or abusive parents.
  • Most children growing up under adversity are
    resilient and become normal adults.
  • 30 of those abused do become abusers four
    times the U.S. national rate of child abuse.

59
.
  • Extreme childhood trauma can leave footprints on
    the brain.
  • Show changes in the brain chemical serotonin
    which calms aggressive impulse

60
  • Children terrorized by abuse or war suffer other
    lasting wounds nightmares, depression.
  • In the teens years there are troubles with
    substance abuse, binge eating, or aggression.
  • Child sexual abuse, if severe and prolonged,
    increases the risk for health
  • problems, psychological
  • disorders, substance abuse, and
  • criminality.

61
SUMMARY OF PARENTING
  1. Effective parenting sets limits for the child in
    an atmosphere of love and acceptance.
  2. The limits change and lessen as the child grows
    older and becomes a part of the decision making
    process of the family.
  3. The child learns to assume responsibility
    gradually, to exercise judgment in appropriate
    situations, and to identify with parents as role
    models.
  4. Effective parenting helps a child become
    independent, confident, cooperative, and
    responsible.

62
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT 33
  • SOCIALIZATION-
  • Process of learning the rules of a culture in
    which an individual is born and will live.
  • Its more than just the rules..
  • its what is meaningful, valuable, beautiful,
    worth fighting for, its knowing the value of a
    work ethic, ect, ect.
  • its about acquiring an identity and learning to
    live with others.

63
  • Sigmund Freud Freuds Psychosexual
    Development
  • Erik Erikson Theory of Psychosocial
    Development
  • Lawrence Kohlberg Theory of Moral
    Development

64
Freud
  • Freud's definition of SEX is  "Any process
    that involves the build up of tension, followed
    by some action or event that releases that
    tension"    So Freud is discussing our focus on
    the tension created in each stage the process
    to reduce it.

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Freud's Theory
  • We do what we do because of our childhood
    experiences related to our sexual drive. We go
    through five stages with different areas of our
    body being the focus in each stage.
  • Personality disorders are due to being stuck in
    a certain stage

67
1. Oral Stage, 0-1.5
  • Erogenous Zone Mouth
  • of, relating to, or the arousing of sexual
    feelings
  • Gratifying Activities nursing, sucking, gumming,
    biting swallowing
  • nursing represents love.
  • Controlled by id.
  • Symptoms of Oral Fixation smoking, nail
    biting, overeating, chewing

68
Anal Stage, 1.5-3
  • Erogenous Zone Anus
  • Gratifying Activities Potty Training
  • Can be good/bad experience depending on parents.
  • Anal Personality sloppy, reckless, defiant
  • Anal Retentive Personality obsessively clean
    intolerant of those who arent.

69
3. Phallic Stage, 4-5
  • Erogenous Zone Genitals
  • Gratifying Activities Fondling
  • Most challenging stage
  • Oedipus Complex - castration anxiety
  • Electra Complex - penis envy
  • Fixation for men anxiety about sex, narcissistic
    personality
  • Fixation for women no certainty of acceptance

70
LATENCY STAGE 6 TO PUBERTY
  • Erogenous Zone None
  • Sexual feelings are suppressed
  • School, activities

71
GENITAL STAGEPUBERTY TO ADULTHOOD
  • Erogenous Zone genital
  • Gratifying activities masturbation
    heterosexual relationships
  • Pursuit of relationships
  • No fixations. Problems at this stage were caused
    by issues in earlier stages.

72
ERIKSON
  • Infants and children must develop trust,
    autonomy, initiative, and competence in order to
    become healthy adults/
  • Erikson believes SOCIAL APPROVAL is a key
    component of development

73
LEARNING THEORIES
  • Freud and Erikson stress the emotional dynamics
    of social development.
  • Both believe learning the social rules is
    different from learning to ride a bike. Others
    disagree.
  • They believe children learn the social rules
    through rewards by CONFORMING to please adults
    in hopes of gaining rewards. In short
  • CONDITIONING. Hmmmm.

74
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACH
  • Role Taking/Play.. Important?
  • Wearing different hats teaches children to know
    what is expected when they assume/take on that
    role.

75
IMPORTANCE OF PLAYAND ROLE TAKING
  1. Games allow children to try on different roles
  2. Taking on the roles of adults by acting
    accordingly helps them understand the rules of
    the gameso to speak
  3. Games teach us how to make up rules
  4. Games teach us to work and negotiate with others
    in the group,
  5. Games teach us how to gain acceptance from the
    group
  6. Games teach us to to see different points of
    view.

76
MORAL DEVELOPEMENT
  • Heinz steals the drug
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