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Landmark Supreme Court Cases

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Supreme Court Cases The Supreme Court Expands its Power Facts of the Case John Adams tried to appoint Marbury and several other guys to positions before he left office. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Landmark Supreme Court Cases


1
Landmark Supreme Court Cases
2
The Supreme Court Expands its Power
3
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
  • Facts of the Case
  • John Adams tried to appoint Marbury and several
    other guys to positions before he left office.
  • The last minute attempts were never finalized
  • The angry appointees sued for their jobs in the
    Supreme Court
  • Question Presented
  • Is Marbury entitled to his appointment?
  • Conclusion
  • -Yes
  • - Established Judicial Review the ability for
    courts to interpret the Constitution

4
Supreme Court and Individual rights
5
  • Facts of the Case
  • Louisiana passed a law that required separate
    railway cars for blacks and whites
  • Homer Plessy took a seat in the a white only
    car of a train. He refused to move to the car for
    blacks and was arrested
  • Question Presented
  • Did this arrest violate his 14th amendment
    (equal protection)
  • Conclusion
  • Conclusion You can keep things separated as long
    as they are equal. Separate but equal

Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
6
Brown v. Board of Education,1954
  • Facts of the Case
  • Black children were denied admission to public
    schools
  • Things were equal in terms of building,
    curricula, and qualifications of teachers
    salaries
  • Question
  • -Is segregation correct and in violation of the
    14th equal protection amendment?
  • Conclusion
  • - YES you cannot possibly by separated and
    equal because you are separating things on the
    bases that they are not the same. Separate is
    NOT equal

Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg B.O.E
7
Supreme Court and the Power of Speech
8
Tinker V. Des Moines, 1969
  • Facts of the Case
  • John Tinker (15), Mary Beth Tinker (13), and
    Christopher Echardt (16) decided to protest the
    vietnam war by wearing black arm bands to their
    school during the Christmas holiday seasion
  • The principals of the school districts said that
    all student wearing these arm bands were to take
    them off or face suspensions. They feared it
    would provoke disturbances
  • The students wore their armbands anyway and when
    they did not take them off they were suspended
    until after New Years Day
  • Questions
  • -Did this violate the students First amendment
    right?
  • Conclusion
  • - The wearing of the armbands was part of freedom
    of speech. Although school officials have the
    right to prohibit certain actions, they fail to
    show how the protest would cause trouble and
    disturbance in the school setting

9
Supreme Court and the Rights of the Accused
10
Miranda V. Arizona, 1966
  • Facts of the case
  • -Ernesto Miranda had been arrested at his home in
    Phoenix, Arizona and accused of kidnapping and
    rape.
  • -He was questioned at the police station by 2
    police officers has was not advised of his right
    to an attorney nor his right to remain silent.
  • -After two hours of interrogation, he signed a
    written confession to the crime.
  • He was found guilty and sentenced to 20 to 30
    years in prison
  • Question
  • -Does the police practice of interrogating
    individuals without notifying them of their right
    to counsel and their protection against
    self-incrimination violate he 5th Amendment?
  • Conclusion
  • -A person in police custody or otherwise
    deprived of his freedommust be warned prior to
    any questioning that he has the right to remain
    silent, and that anything he says can be used
    against him in the court of law..

11
Supreme Court and the Separation of Powers
12
United States V. Nixon, 1974
  • Facts of the case
  • -5 men with bugging equipment and cameras were
    arrested inside the Democratic National
    Convention Committees offices at the Watergate
    Complex
  • -Police discovered that these men worked for
    President Nixon.
  • -Men convicted of burglary court subpoenaed
    recorded tapes held by Nixon .
  • Nixon refused to release tapes under executive
    privilege
  • Question
  • -Does the separation of powers provide the
    President with an absolute power to withhold
    information from other government branches?
  • Conclusion
  • -Court ruled Nixon had to surrender tapes because
    he could not withhold evidence from an ongoing
    criminal investigation of another person
  • -Nixon became first president to resign from
    office on August 9. 1974
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