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What in the World???

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Title: The World at the Outbreak of WWI Author: Computer Lab B Last modified by: David Collett Created Date: 8/25/2003 9:13:27 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What in the World???


1
What in the World???
Can you make the connection
2
What was going on in 1900?
3
The World at the Outbreak of WWI Why did Europe
and the Neo-Europes dominate
4
British Empire
5
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6
Why was it like this?
  • Old World vs. New World
  • Competition of the environments
  • Ecological Dominance led to Political dominance
    biological pollution and invasives
  • Disease, plants and animals Impact of the
    Columbian Exchange
  • Ex potato and WWI

7
European Dominace
  • 1500 Europe controlled 9 of world
  • 1800 35
  • 1878 67
  • 1914 85

8
Why WWI M.A.I.N
  • Militarism
  • Population growth (potato) built huge armies -
    needed living space
  • Alliances
  • Britain/France/Russia vs. Germany/Austria/Turkey
  • Imperialism
  • Economics
  • Nationalism
  • New countries upset the balance of power New
    Bullies in the complex
  • especially Germany
  • National groups want independence and stuff -
    Balkans Serbs vs Austria Hungary and pan Slavism

Industrial Revolution
9
Why was Germany so strong?
  • In the years 1911, 1912, and 1913 the German
    army in time of peace was raised, from 515,000 to
    866,000 men. War taxes were raised
    correspondingly. The government made great
    purchases abroad of many kinds of military
    supplies. Quantities of nitrate of soda, for
    instance, for the manufacture of explosives, were
    imported from Chile and stored. German
    manufacturers of chemicals used in munitions were
    forbidden to export them. Railroads leading to
    France and Belgium, as well as to Russia,
    together with their equipment, were improved, so
    as to be ready for transportation of troops at a
    moment's notice. The navy was strengthened in
    corresponding fashion. Austria-Hungary and
    Turkey, already under the guidance of the Germans
    according to the Middle-Europe and
    Berlin-to-Bagdad projects, were making similar
    improvements. In 1914 the Germans felt that their
    preparation was complete.

10
Armies at the ready
11
So why didnt they stop Germany?
  • While Germany was making all these preparations
    so openly, she declared that they were for
    defense only, and other nations did not make
    themselves ready for the attack that Germany was
    really planning. Perhaps France alone fully
    comprehended the situation. Yet her population
    and resources were much inferior to those of
    Germany. Likewise Russia's army, though large,
    was inferior to Germany's army in training,
    equipment, and effectiveness. All of the nations
    now allied hoped still that war might be avoided.
    Consequently they did not prepare for war as
    completely as Germany did.Among the Great
    Powers of Europe that entered the war
    immediately, England had by far the smallest army
    and it was scattered widely over the earth. She
    had small supplies of munitions and few factories
    for making them. Her people had not believed that
    Germany would provoke a war. But he did have the
    advantage of a great navy. England's navy was her
    salvation.

12
So what started it all?
  • The event that immediately led to the war
    occurred in Austria near the Serbian border. On
    June 28, 1914, heir to the throne of
    Austria-Hungary, Archduke Francis Ferdinand, and
    his wife, were assassinated by Serbian
    sympathizers. Bad feeling already existed between
    Austria and Serbia, and this deed naturally made
    it worse.
  • Feeling that they were fully ready for war, the
    Central Powers now saw the excuse for beginning
    it. As punishment for the murder of the Archduke,
    Austria, with the full support of Germany, made
    demands on Serbia that were altogether too
    humiliating for acceptance. Then, when Serbia
    rejected them, war was declared.

13
What did the alliances look like?
14
All Resulted in a War but what made this such a
unique war and truly the first World war and
total war
  • Deadlock in the trenches
  • Led to the development of a totally different
    type of war a unique war, a total war .

WORLD WAR I
15
Trench Warfare
16
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17
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18
Gatling Gun
New Type of Modern and Technologically Advanced
Warfare
19
Airplanes of WWI
During WW1, planes were armed with machine guns
and  werent very accurate or effective, but
everybody used them.  Towards the end of the war
they built bomber planes that could hold two to
three bombs each. So, to have any effect they had
to build a lot of these types of planes.
20
Mustard Gas
Used by Saddam Hussein on his own people in 1984
21
Total War
By the nineteenth century, warfare had evolved
into total war, involving resources and
populations of entire nations. No longer were
wars fought almost exclusively by trained
soldiers or hired mercenaries it came to involve
entire populations, including both citizen
soldiers and ordinary citizens. World War One
gave birth to total war in the industrial age
when huge armies of soldiers faced each other
across battlefields that had been made horribly
lethal by technological advances in weaponry.
Shortly after the war began, the nations
mobilized over 65 million troops. In spite of the
huge armies, both sides expected a quick end to
the war, and both sides went on the offensive.
However, the war quickly settled into one of
tactical deadlock in the trenches.
22
Enter America
  • America entered World War One on April 6th, 1917.
    Up to that date, America had tried to keep out of
    World War One though she had traded with
    nations involved in the war but unrestricted
    submarine warfare, introduced by the Germans on
    January 9th, 1917, was the primary issue that
    caused Woodrow Wilson to ask Congress to declare
    war on Germany on April 2nd. Four days later,
    America joined World War One on the side of the
    Allies.

23
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24
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25
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26
THE ZIMMERMANN NOTEReleased March 1, 1917 This
blundering effort to get Mexico into World War I
on the German side backfired when British
intelligence intercepted, decoded and forwarded
it to the American government. It is safe to call
it the last straw for President Wilson, who
mentioned it in his war message to Congress in
April, 1917. Berlin, January 19, 1917 On the
first of February we intend to begin submarine
warfare unrestricted. In spite of this it is our
intention to keep neutral the United States of
America. If this attempt is not successful we
propose an alliance on the following basis with
Mexico That we shall make war together and
together make peace. We shall give general
financial support, and it is understood that
Mexico is to reconquer the lost territory in New
Mexico, Texas, and Arizona. The details are left
for your settlement. You are instructed to
inform the President of Mexico of the above in
the greatest confidence as soon as it is certain
there will be an outbreak of war with the United
States, and we suggest that the President of
Mexico on his own initiative should communicate
with Japan suggesting adherence at once to this
plan at the same time offer to mediate between
Germany and Japan. Please call to the attention
of the President of Mexico that the employment of
ruthless submarine warfare now promises to compel
England to make peace in a few months.
27
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28
The main terms of the Versailles Treaty were
(1) the surrender of all German colonies as
League of Nations mandates (2) the return of
Alsace-Lorraine to France (3) cession of
Eupen-Malmedy to Belgium, Memel to Lithuania, the
Hultschin district to Czechoslovakia, (4)
Poznania, parts of East Prussia and Upper Silesia
to Poland(5) Danzig to become a free city
(6) plebiscites to be held in northern
Schleswig to settle the Danish-German frontier
(7) occupation and special status for the Saar
under French control (8) demilitarization and a
fifteen-year occupation of the Rhineland (9)
German reparations of 6,600 million (10) a
ban on the union of Germany and Austria (11)
an acceptance of Germany's guilt in causing the
war (11) provision for the trial of the former
Kaiser and other war leaders (12) limitation
of Germany's army to 100,000 men with no
conscription, no tanks, no heavy artillery, no
poison-gas supplies, no aircraft and no airships
(13) the limitation of the German Navy to
vessels under 100,000 tons, with no submarines
Germany signed the Versailles Treaty under
protest. The USA Congress refused to ratify the
treaty. Many people in France and Britain were
angry that there was no trial of the Kaiser or
the other war leaders.
29
The outcome of WWI
  • Casualties??
  • Who won??
  • The Rocky victory
  • A very fragile peace
  • Web site stats

30
Each symbol indicates 100,000 dead
31
World War One Death Statistics Russia
1,700,000France 1,357,800British Empire
908,371Italy 650,000United States
126,000Japan 300Romania 335,706Serbia
45,000Belgium 13,716Greece 5,000Portugal
7,222Montenegro 50,000Germany
1,773,700Austria-Hungary 1,200,000Turkey
325,000
32
World War One Wounded Russia 4,950,000France
4,266,000British Empire 2,090,212Italy
947,000United States 234,300Japan
907Romania 120,000Serbia 133,148Belgium
44,686Greece 21,000Portugal
13,751Montenegro 10,000Germany
4,216,058Austria-Hungary 3,620,000Turkey
400,000
33
"The Masks for Facial Disfigurements Department"
34
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35
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36
The 1918-19 influenza epidemic killed at least 40
million people worldwide and 675,000 people in
the United States, far exceeding the combat
deaths experienced by the US in the two World
Wars, Korea, and Vietnam combined. Besides its
extraordinary virulence, the 1918-19 epidemic was
also unique in that a disproportionate number of
its victims were men and women ages 15 and 44,
leading to extremely high death rates in the
prime working ages.
37
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38
Effects/Impact/Legacy of WWI
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ??????????????????????????????????????????????????
    ????????????????????
  • ??????????
  • ?

39
Effects/Impact/Legacy
  • Physical
  • Psychological/emotional-poems
  • Social

40
Hyperinflation
In January, 1921, there were 64 marks to the
dollar. By November, 1923 this had changed to
4,200,000,000,000 marks to the dollar
41
HARARE, Zimbabwe, April 25
How bad is inflation in Zimbabwe? Well, consider
this at a supermarket near the center of this
tatterdemalion capital, toilet paper costs
417. No, not per roll. Four hundred seventeen
Zimbabwean dollars is the value of a single
two-ply sheet. A roll costs 145,750 in
American currency, about 69 cents. The price of
toilet paper, like everything else here, soars
almost daily, spawning jokes about an impending
better use for Zimbabwe's 500 bill, now the
smallest in circulation. But what is happening
is no laughing matter. For untold numbers of
Zimbabweans, toilet paper and bread, margarine,
meat, have become unimaginable luxuries. All are
casualties of the hyperinflation that is roaring
toward 1,000 percent a year, a rate usually seen
only in war zones.
Zimbabwe's inflation is hardly history's worst
in Weimar Germany in 1923, prices quadrupled each
month, compared with doubling about once every
three or four months in Zimbabwe. That said,
experts agree that Zimbabwe's inflation is
currently the world's highest, and has been for
some time.
42
Germany in the 1920's suffered from
hyper-inflation when money became almost
worthless. At its worst there were
420,000,000,000 German Marks to the American
Dollar. Can you imagine four hundred and twenty
billion Marks to the Dollar. A suitcase full of
money would buy a pair of shoelaces. The price
of a meal could double in the short time between
ordering and being served. It was much cheaper
for children to play with a million Marks than
with toys.
43
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44
The end of the war gave the allies confidence and
nationalists rallied behind their government In
Germany the economy collapsed and the weak
government demoralized the people. By the 30s
Germanys people were hopeless and disillusioned
and wished for the Germany that there was before
Nationalism
45
  • Land Unification of Greater Germany (Austria
    Germany)
  • expansion
  • Anti-Versailles - abrogation of the Treaty.
  • Land and territory - lebensraum.
  • Only a "member of the race" can be a citizen.
  • Anti-semitism - No Jew can be a member of the
    race.
  • Anti-foreigner - only citizens can live in
    Germany.
  • No immigration - ref. to Jews fleeing pograms.
  • Everyone must work.
  • Abolition of unearned income - "no rent-slavery".
  • Nationalisation of industry
  • Divison of profits
  • Extension of old age welfare.
  • Land reform
  • Death to all criminals
  • German law, not Roman law (anti- French Rev.)
  • Education to teach "the German Way"
  • Education of gifted children

Adolf Hitler during WWI
46
"Everything for the state, nothing outside the
state, nothing against the state. - Mussolini
47
Effects/Impact/Legacy
  • Physical
  • Incredible death and wounded toll
  • Destroyed Infrastructure
  • Economy was shattered
  • Psychological/emotional
  • Exhaustion
  • Disillusionment
  • Social
  • New forms of government
  • Isolationism
  • Anger over a war and punishment the empires
    started

48
WWI A Major Turning Point in 20th Century
  • Brought an end to competition among colonial
    powers
  • New style of warfare as total slaughter
  • Destroyed a generation of young European men
  • Influenced the start of Communist Russia
  • Led to WWII
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