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National Growth in Early 20th Century Vast post-war changes: territorial expansion, westward movement, new immigration, growth of cities, and complete economic ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: National%20Growth%20in%20Early%2020th%20Century

National Growth in Early 20th Century
  • Vast post-war changes territorial expansion,
    westward movement, new immigration, growth of
    cities, and complete economic transformation

Westward Movement
Years surrounding the Civil War were the era of
the American cowboy. Cowboys led long cattle
drives over unfenced open land in the West to get
the cattle to market.
The incentive of free public land (the Homestead
Act of 1862) to those who would settle and farm
the land led many, particularly Southerners and
African Americans, to move west to rebuild their
Westward Movement
  • After the Civil War Era of the Cowboy.
  • Homestead Act of 1862 Free public land for
    those who would settle and farm the land.
  • Many southerners and African Americans moved west
    to rebuild their lives.

Westward Movement
New technologies like the railroads and
mechanical reaper opened new lands on
the Great Plains Rocky Mtn region. Farming
was now profitable because of new links of
product and markets.
Forcible removal
Farms, ranches and towns grew.
continued ?
Westward Movement
Forcible removal of Indians - moved further and
further west. New technologies like railroads and
reaper opened new lands on the Great Plains and
Rocky Mountains. Farming now profitable. Farms,
ranches and towns grew.

Prior to 1871 from northern and western Europe
(Germany, Great Britain, Ireland, Norway, and
Sweden) From 1871-1921 from southern and
eastern Europe (Italy, Greece, Poland, Russia,
Hungary and Yugoslavia) and Asia (China and Japan)
Ellis Island and Statue of Liberty
Freedom. . . Opportunity. . . Better lives
Immigrants made valuable contributions to
Americas industrial growth. Chinese came to work
on the railroad. Other groups worked in textile
and steel mills in the NE and the clothing
industry in NY City. They often worked for low
pay in dangerous conditions to help build the
nations industrial strength.
Textile Mill
Coal Mine
Steel Mill
Chinese Worked on the railroad. Other groups
Worked in textile and steel mills in the NE and
clothing industry in NY City. Worked for low pay
in dangerous conditions.
Textile Mill
Coal Mine
Steel Mill
Immigrants began to assimilate into the American
melting pot.
Settled in ethnic neighborhoods
Public schools had an essential role in the
assimilation process.
Immigrants faced hardship and hostility. Fear and
resentment over immigrants taking away jobs for
lower pay. Prejudice based on religious and
cultural differences.
Congress limits immigration through the
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 and Immigration
Restriction Act of 1921.
Growth of Cities
Industrialization leads to Chicago, Detroit,
Cleveland, Pittsburgh and New York growing
rapidly as manufacturing and transportation
Cities provided jobs, but workers families often
lived in harsh conditions crowded into tenements
and slums.

Growth of Cities--
Caused housing shortages and need for public
services like sewage, water systems and public
Sewer Systems
New York began the first subway system and many
cities built streetcar or trolley lines.
Public Transportation
Admission of New States
As people moved West, many new states in the
Great Plains and Rocky Mountains were added.
By the early 20th century, all the states from
the Atlantic to Pacific of the continental U.S.
had been admitted.
Modern Industrial Growth
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries
economic opportunity, industrialization,
technological change and immigration fueled
American growth and expansion.
Modern Industrial Growth
From the Civil War to WW I,
Civil War
the U.S. underwent an economic transformation
that involved industrialization, expanding big
business and large-scale agriculture
and the rise of national
labor unions and industrial conflict.
Modern Industrial Growth
Technological change, inventions and innovations,
and industrial leaders, spurred the growth of
industry primarily in northern cities.
The wealthiest and most powerful leaders were
John D. Rockefeller (oil), Cornelius Vanderbilt
(railroads), Andrew Carnegie (steel), and J.P.
Morgan (finance).
Rockefeller, Vanderbilt . . .
.Carnegie, and Morgan
Modern Industrial Economy
Bessemers Steel Process
Fords Assembly Line
Bell's Telephone
Wright Brothers Airplane
Corporations limited liability
Edisons Light bulb and power grid
Modern Industrial Growth
Reasons for the economic transformation include
Laissez-faire economicsno government
Plentiful Natural
Increasing labor supply from immigration and
migration from farms
Discrimination Segregation
Discrimination and segregation against African
Americans intensified and took new forms.
  • Freedom limited
  • Separation of races in public places
  • Intimidation, crimes and lynchings

Discrimination and Segregation
In Plessy v. Ferguson the Supreme Court ruled the
separate but equal did not violate the 14th
Amendment. This meant Jim Crow laws were
Discrimination and SegregationAfrican American
During the early 20th century, African Americans
began the Great Migration to northern cities in
search of jobs and to escape poverty and
discrimination in the South.
Discrimination and SegregationAfrican American
African Americans disagreed about how to respond
to the developments.
Ida B. Wells led an anti-lynching crusade and
called on the federal government to take action.
Booker T. Washington believed the way to equality
was through vocational education and economic
success. He accepted social separation.
W.E.B. DuBois felt education was meaningless
without political equality. He helped form the
NAACP, the National Association for the
Advancement of Colored People
Progressive Movement
Reconstruction through the early 20th century was
a time of contradictions. --Agricultural
expansion came through wars against the Plains
Indians and led to new federal Indian
policies --Industrial development brought great
fortunes to a few and raised the standard of
living for millions BUT also brought about
clashes between industry and labor
Social problems in rural and urban settings gave
rise to third-party movements and the Progressive
Progressive Movement
Responding to excesses of the Gilded Age, the
Progressive Movement used government to reform
problems created by industrialization. Examples
Teddy Roosevelts Square Deal, Woodrow Wilsons
New Freedom
Progressive Movement--Causes
The income disparity between the lavish lifestyle
of the wealthy few in the Age of the Robber
Barons with the harsh living conditions
of the factory workers and immigrants
led to calls for reform.
1 or 2
Progressive Movement--Causes
Working conditions for labor --dangerous working
conditions --child labor --long hours, low wages,
no job security, no benefits
Children in coal mine
--company towns employment of women
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire
Progressive Movement--Goals
--Elimination of social injustices --government
controlled by the people --guaranteed
economic opportunity through government
Watchful government
Helping hands to balance society
People active in government
Progressive Accomplishments
In Local Government New forms to meet needs of
growing cities (city council, managers,
In State Government --referendum citizens vote
on proposed laws --initiative voters force
consideration of a bill --recall voters can
remove a corrupt official from office
Progressive Accomplishments
In Elections --Primary elections --Direct
election of Senators --Secret Ballot
17th Amendment
Primary Election
Secret Ballot --no pressure !
Progressive Accomplishments
In Child Labor
Muckraking literature described abuses of
child labor
Child Labor Laws resulted
Labor Unions
Attempts were made to organize national labor
unions to improve working conditions.
In 1869, the Knights of Labor formed open to all
workers. In 1886, Samuel Gompers formed the
American Federation
of Labor seeking practical economic goals for
skilled workers.
The International Ladies Garment Workers Union
formed in 1900 to benefit its mostly women
Labor UnionsEarly Strikes
Labor strikes caused public distrust of these
early union attempts.
The 1886 Haymarket Square Riot violence where a
bomb killed 7 policemen killed the Knights of
When the Carnegie Steel plant near Pittsburgh cut
wages in 1892, the Homestead Strike occurred.
The 1898 Pullman Strike in the railroad car
building company ended with a court injunction.
Labor Union--Gains
Limited work hours
Regulated work conditions
Antitrust Laws
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
The Sherman Anti-Trust Act prohibits any business
structure that restrains trade (monopolies)
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
The Clayton Anti-Trust Act expands the Sherman
Act by outlawing price-fixing and exempting
unions from prosecution under the Sherman Act.
Womens Suffrage
The movement to grant women the right to vote
(suffrage) was a forerunner of the modern
protest movements.
It benefited from the strong leadership of Susan
B. Anthony.
Women were encouraged to enter the labor force
during World War I
With the 19th Amendment in 1920, women gained
suffrage (the right to vote).
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