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Respiratory System

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Respiratory System Respiration The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon dioxide with the external environment. Gases are products and reactants in cellular ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Respiratory System


1
Respiratory System
2
Respiration
  • The process of exchanging oxygen and carbon
    dioxide with the external environment.
  • Gases are products and reactants in cellular
    respiration
  • Cellular respiration provides cells with energy
    in the form of ATP.
  • Adenosine Triphosphate

3
Stages of Respiration
  • Breathing
  • Inspiration - breathing in
  • Expiration - breathing out
  • Ventilation - encompasses inspiration and
    expiration
  • External Respiration
  • Exchange of gases between the air and the blood
  • Occurs in the alveoli

4
Stages of Respiration contd
  • Internal Respiration
  • Exchange of O2 and CO2 with the blood and cells
  • Occurs in the capillary beds
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Production of ATP within the cells
  • Occurs in the mitochondria

5
The Respiratory Tract
  • Fig. 15.1

6
Upper Respiratory Tract Nasal Cavity
  • Main entry point for air.
  • Preferred over the oral cavity
  • Contains 2 nasal cavities
  • Communicate with sinuses
  • Lined by mucous membrane
  • Bony ridges increase surface area

7
Upper Respiratory Tract Nasal Cavity contd
Fig. 15.2
  • Functions
  • 1) Warms air - heat from vessels
  • 2) Cleanses air - coarse hairs and mucus
  • 3) Humidifies air - wet surfaces of membrane
  • Olfactory receptors - on cilia high up in nasal
    cavities
  • Lacrimal glands drain into nasal cavity

8
Upper Respiratory Tract Pharynx
  • Connects nasal and oral cavities to larynx
  • Tonsils form a protective ring at this point
  • 3 divisions
  • Nasopharynx
  • Nasal cavities open posterior to soft palate
  • Oropharynx
  • Where oral cavity opens
  • Uvula projects into oropharynx
  • Laryngopharynx
  • Opens into larynx

9
Upper Respiratory Tract Larynx
  • Passageway for air between pharynx and trachea
  • Protected by a thick band of cartilage
  • known as the Adams apple
  • Have vocal cords
  • Folds of mucosa
  • Glottis-opening between folds
  • Supported by elastic ligaments
  • Vibrate during exhalation
  • Pitch controlled by tension
  • Higher tension higher pitch
  • Loudness controlled by amplitude of vibration

10
Upper Respiratory Tract Larynx contd
  • Epiglottis
  • Prevents food from entering during swallowing
  • Larynx and trachea are normally open, when you
    swallow larynx moves up to and closes.
  • Esophagus is normally closed

11
Placement of the Vocal Chord
  • Fig. 15.3
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