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Anatomy / Physiology Overview

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Title: Anatomy / Physiology Overview


1
Anatomy / Physiology Overview
  • Skeletal System

2
Skeletal System
  • Composed of organs called bones that give form to
    the body and, with the joints, allow body motion.
    The human adult has 206 bones

3
(No Transcript)
4
Skeletal System
  • Bones must be rigid and unyielding to fulfill
    their function, but they must also be able to
    grow and adapt as the human body grows (bone
    growth is usually complete by late teens)
  • Bones are just as much living tissue as muscle
    and skin, a rich blood supply constantly provides
    the oxygen and nutrients that bones require, each
    bone also has an extensive nerve supply

5
BONE FUNCTION
  • FRAMEWORK support the bodys muscle, fat skin
  • PROTECTION surround vital organs to protect them
  • LEVERS attach to muscles to help give movement
  • BLOOD PRODUCTION makes red white blood cells
    platelets
  • STORAGE stores most of calcium

6
Functions
  • Framework
  • Bones are as strong or stronger than reinforced
    concrete. The skeletal system provides
    structural support for the entire body.
  • Protection
  • Delicate tissues and organs are surrounded by
    skeletal elements.
  • The skull protects the brain
  • The vertebral column protects the spinal cord
  • The ribs and sternum protects the heart and lungs
  • The pelvis protects the digestive and
    reproductive organs

7
Functions
  • Levers
  • Bones work together with muscles to produce
    controlled, precise movements. The bones serves
    as points of attachment for muscle tendons. Bones
    act as levers that convert muscle action to
    movement.
  • Storage
  • Bones store minerals that can be distributed to
    other parts of the body upon demand. Calcium and
    phosphorus are the main minerals that are stored
    in bones. In addition, lipids are stored as
    energy reserves in the yellow bone marrow.

8
Functions
  • Hemopoiesis/Blood Production
  • Red bone marrow produces red blood cells, white
    blood cells, and platelets.

9
Classification of Bones
  • The bones of the human skeleton have four general
    shapes
  • Long
  • Short
  • Flat
  • Irregular
  • There is also one other category
  • Sesamoid

10
Classification of Bones
  • Long
  • Are longer than they are wide. Long bones are
    bones of the extremities.
  • Short
  • Equal in length width, cube shaped- wrist, ankle

11
  • Flat
  • Thin broad as scapula, cranial, sternum, ribs
  • Irregular
  • Complex shapes as face vertebrae


12
  • Sesamoid
  • Small bones that are held in place by tendons
    as patella. Also called floating bones

13
Structure of Bones
  • Diaphysis the long shaft of bone
  • -Contains yellow bone marrow
  • -Made of compact (dense) bone.
  • Epiphysis two extremities or ends of bone
  • -Contains the red bone marrow
  • -Made of spongy (lighter) bone.
  • Epiphyseal line known as the growth plate
  • -this is the area where the diaphysis
  • and epiphysis meet. In growing bone,
  • it is where cartilage is reinforced
    and
  • then replaced by bone.

14
  • MEDULLARY CAVITY
  • Cavity in diaphysis
  • Filled with Yellow Marrow
  • YELLOW MARROW
  • Inside the medullary cavity
  • Mainly fat cells
  • ENDOSTEUM
  • Membrane that lines the medullary cavity
  • Keeps yellow marrow intact
  • Produces some bone growth

15
  • RED MARROW
  • Found in certain bones such as vertebrae, ribs,
    sternum, cranium, and proximal ends of
  • humerus and femur
  • b) Produces red blood cells platelets, and some
    white blood cells
  • c)Bone marrow is important in the manufacture of
    blood and is involved with the bodys immune
    systems.
  • Used in diagnosing blood diseases
  • Given as transplants to people with defective
    immune systems
  •  

16
  • PERIOSTIUM
  • a) Tough membrane covering on outside of the bone
  • b)Contains blood and lymph cells
  • c)Contains osteoblasts special cells that form
    new bone tissue
  • d)Necessary for bone growth, repair, and
    nutrition
  • ARTICULAR CARTILAGE
  • a)Thin layer covers the epiphysis
  • b)Acts as a shock absorber when two bones meet to
    form a joint

17
Skeletal Terminology
  • Each of the bones in the human skeleton not only
    has a distinctive shape but also has distinctive
    external features. Theses landmarks are called
    bone markings or surface features.
  • Foramen a tunnel or hole for blood vessels
    and/or nerves (examples pelvis, skull).
  • Fossa a shallow depression (example shoulder).

18
Skeletal Terminology
  • Condyle a smooth, rounded articular process
    Knuckle like projection (example femur,
    humerus).
  • Tuberosity a small, rough projection (example
    tibia, pelvis).
  • Crest- a prominent ridge (example pelvis).
  • Sinus a chamber within a bone, normally filled
    with air (example skull).

19
Skeletal Divisions
  • The skeletal system consists of 206 separate
    bones and is divided into 2 DIVISIONS
  • AXIAL- forms main trunk of the body
  • -composed of skull, spinal
  • column, ribs sternum
  • APPENDICULAR forms extremities
  • -composed of
  • shoulder, arms,
    hip leg
  • bones

20
The 5 functions of the skeletal system are,
support, protection, movement, storage
hemopoesis
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
A.) true
B.) false
C.)
D.)
E.)
21
Yellow marrow is used to diagnose blood diseases
and is sometimes transplanted
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
A.) true
B.) false
C.)
D.)
E.)
22
The long shaft of the bone is the epiphysis
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
A.) true
B.) false
C.)
D.)
E.)
23
Where is the "growth plate" located?
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
A.) proximal end of a bone
B.) distal end of a bone
C.) where diaphysis ephipysis meet
D.) center of bone
E.)
24
Axial Skeleton
  • Forms the long axis of the body.
  • The 80 bones of the axial skeleton can be
    subdivided into
  • The 22 bones of the skull plus
  • associated ones (6 auditory
  • bones and the hyoid bone).
  • The 26 bones of the
  • vertebral column.
  • The 24 ribs and the sternum.

25
Appendicular Skeleton
  • Forms the limbs and the pectoral and pelvis
    girdles.
  • Altogether there are 126 appendicular bones.
  • 32 are associated with each upper limb.
  • 31 are associated with each lower limb.

26
SKULL
  • Composed of cranial facial bones
  • Cranium
  • Rounded structured that surround protect the
    head
  • Made of 8 bones
  • Frontal VI Sphenoid
  • Two parietal
  • Two temporal
  • Occipital
  • Ethmoid

27
  • At birth the Cranium is not a solid bone
  • Spaces called FONTANELS or soft spots allow
    for the enlargement of the skull as the brain
    grows
  • They turn into solid bone by about 18 months of
    age

28
FACIAL BONES
  • 14 Facial bones
  • Main bones
  • Mandible
  • Maxilla- 2 bones
  • Zygomatic- 2 bones
  • Nasal- 5 bones
  • Palatine- 2 bones
  • SUTURES AREA WHERE CRANIAL BONES HAVE JOINED
    TOGETHER

29
  • Sinuses
  • Air Spaces in the bones of the skull
  • Provide strength with less weight
  • Act as chambers for voice
  • Lined with a mucous membrane
  • Foramina
  • Opening in bones
  • Allow for passage of nerves blood vessels

30
VERTREBRAE
  • Spinal Column has 26 bones
  • Protects the spinal cord
  • Provides support for head trunk
  • Main divisions
  • Cervical- 7 neck
  • Thoracic -12 attach to ribs
  • Lumbar- 5 at the waist
  • Sacrum 5 fused bones posterior side of pelvis
  • Coccyx- 1 fused tailbone

31
  • Intervertebral disks
  • Pads of cartilage tissue that separate vertebrae
  •  
  • Act as shock absorber
  • Permit bending and twisting movements of
    vertebral column
  •  

32
RIBS (cost)
  • 12 pairs of long slender bones
  • Attach to thoracic vertebrae on dorsal surface of
    body
  • True Ribs
  • First 7 pairs of ribs
  • Attach directly to sternum on front of body
  • False Ribs
  • Next pairs of ribs
  • First 3 pairs attach to cartilage of ribs above
  • Floating ribs
  • Last two pairs of false ribs
  • No attachment on front of body

33
  • STERNUM
  • Breastbone
  • Consist of three parts
  • Manubrium
  • Body or center area
  • Xiphoid process
  •  Two Clavicles attach to the manubrium by
    ligaments
  • Ribs attach to sternum with costal cartilage to
    form a cage that protects the heart and lungs

34
SHOULDER
  • Shoulder or pectoral girdle
  • Two CLAVICALS or collarbone
  • Two SCAPULA or shoulder bones
  •  
  • Scapula provides for attachment of upper arm bone

35
BONES OF THE ARM
  • HUMERUS upper arm bone
  • RADIUS lower arm bone on thumb side
  • ULNA larger bone of lower that
    joins olecranon process at proximal end
    forming the elbow
  • CARPELS- 8 wrist bones on each hand
  • METACARPELS 5 bones on each hand to
    form
  • palm
  • PHALANGES 14 bones on each hand to
    form thumb fingers
  •  

36
BONES of PELVIS
  • 1. Made of two os coxae (coxal or hip bone)
  • 2. Join with sacrum on dorsal part of body
  • 3. Join together at a joint called the symphysis
    pubis on ventral part of body
  • 4. Each os coax made of three bones that are
    fused or joined
  • ILIUM
  • ISHIUM
  • PUBIS
  •  
  •   

37
  • 5. Contains two recessed areas or sockets called
    acetabulums that provide for attachment of bones
    of the legs
  • 6. Obturator foramen- Opening between the ischium
    and pubis 
  • Allows for passage of nerves blood
    vessels that go to the legs

38
Bones of the legs
  • Femur Thigh bone
  • Patella Kneecap (floating)
  • Tibia Long supporting bone of the
    lower leg
  • medial surface
  • Fibula smaller bone of lower leg, lateral
  • surface
  • Tarsals 7 bones of ankles, calcaneous
    is heel.
  • bone
  • Metarsals 5 bones forming instep
    of foot
  • Phalanges 14 bones on each foot,
    form toes
  •  

39
Joints
  • Joints or articulations exist wherever two bones
    meet. The function of each joint depends on its
    anatomy. Each joint reflects a workable
    compromise between the need for strength and the
    need for mobility.
  • Ligaments connect bone to bone.
  • Bursa fluid filled sac the reduces friction
    between soft tissue and bones, also act as shock
    absorbers.
  • Meniscus a cartilage disc between some complex
    joints for shock absorption, cushioning, and
    stability.

40
Types of Movement
  • Flexion
  • Extension
  • Abduction
  • Adduction
  • Circumduction
  • Rotation (IR /ER)
  • Pronation
  • Supination
  • Inversion
  • Eversion
  • Dorsiflexion
  • Plantar Flexion
  • Opposition
  • Protraction
  • Retraction
  • Elevation
  • Depression

41
Joint Classification
  • Joints can be classified according to the range
    of motion they permit.
  • Synathrotic
  • Amphiarthrotic
  • Diarthrotic

42
Synarthrotic Joints
  • Immovable joints.
  • Bones are connected by fibrous tissue or
    cartilage.
  • Examples sutures found between bones in the
    skull.

43
Amphiarthrotic Joints
  • Slightly movable joints.
  • Examples joints between tibia and fibula, joints
    between vertebrae.

44
Diarthrotic Joints
  • Freely moveable joints permitting a wide range of
    motion.
  • Ends of the bones are covered by cartilage and
    held together by synovial capsules filled with
    synovial fluid. This fluid helps to lubricate the
    joint and permits smooth movement.
  • Examples are hips, shoulder, knee, wrist, ankle

45
Areas where the cranial bones have joined
together are called
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
A.) fontenels
B.) foramina
C.) sutures
D.) sinuses
E.)
46
Spaces or soft spots in the cranium that allow
for enlargement of the skull as brain growth
occurs are
iRespond Question
Multiple Choice
F
A.) fontanels
B.) foramina
C.) sutures
D.) sinuses
E.)
47
Exercise and the Skeletal System
  • Bone is dynamic and changes with the stress put
    on it. Bone has the ability to alter its strength
    in response to stress placed on it.
  • Bones that are positively stressed will increase
    their density and become stronger over a period
    of time. Conversely, bones that are adversely
    stressed will become weakened over time.

48
Exercise and the Skeletal System
  • Exercise enables bone to
  • Increase its deposition of mineral salts and
    collagen fibers
  • Become considerably stronger than bones of
    sedentary individuals
  • Maintain its strength
  • and integrity

49
Diseases of skeletal system
  • ARTHRITIS Osteoarthritis/ DJD
  • Group if diseases involving an inflammation of
    the joints
  • Two main types osteoarthritis and rheumatoid
    arthritis
  • Osteoarthiritis
  • Chronic disease that occurs with aging
  • Symptoms joint pain, stiffness, aching limited
    range of motion
  • Treatment rest, heat/cold applications, aspirin,
    anti-inflammatory medications, steroid
    injections, special exercises

50
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Chronic inflammatory disease of connective
    tissues and joints
  • Three times more common in women
  • Often begins between ages of 35 and 45
  • Progressive attacks cause scars tissue formation
    and atrophy of bones and muscle tissue, which
    results in permanent deformity and immobility
  • Treatment
  • Rest and prescribe exercise
  • Anti-inflammatory medications
  • Surgery, or arthroplasty, to replace damaged
    joints such as hip or knees

51
OSTEOMYELITIS
  • Inflammation of bone usually caused by pathogenic
    organism
  •  Pathogens causes formation of abscess
    within bone and accumulation of pus in
    medullary canal
  • Symptoms pain at site, swelling, chills, fever
  • Treatment is antibiotics for infection
  • Can result in amputation
  •  

52
Common Disorders of the Skeletal System
  • Osteoporosis
  • A condition that produces a reduction in bone
    mass great enough to compromise normal function.
    Because bones are more fragile, they break easily
    and do not repair well.

53
Osteoporosis
  • Causes include
  • Decreased estrogen levels (postmenopausal women
    at greater risk)
  • Poor Nutrition (Vitamin D and Calcium deficiency)
  • Low activity levels
  • Smoking (decreases estrogen levels)
  • Race (Caucasians
  • are at greater risk)
  • Heredity

54
Fractures
  • A fracture is a break in a bone.
  • Fractures are classified according to their
    external appearance, the sit of the fracture, and
    the nature of the break in the bone. Some
    fractures fall into more than one category.

55
Types of Fractures
  • Types of fractures
  • Greenstick bone is bent and splits causing a
    crack or incomplete break common in children
  • Simple complete break with no damage to the skin
  •   Compound break in bones
    that ruptures through
  •   skin increased chance of infection
  •   Comminuted bone fragment
    or splinters into more than
    two pieces
  • Spiral severe twisting of the bone causes one or
    more breaks coming in skiing and skating
    accidents
  •   Depressed broken piece of
    skull bone moves inward common with
    severe head injuries

56
Types of Fractures
  • Comminuted
  • Greenstick a fracture in which one side
  • of the bone is broken and the other side
  • bends this usually occurs in children
  • whose bones have yet to fully ossify

57
Types of Fractures
  • Stress fracture hairline cracks resulting
    from repeated stress to a bone, and can lead to
    other fractures
  • Non-Displaced fracture the bones remain in
    normal anatomical alignment
  • Displaced fracture the bones
  • are no longer in anatomical
  • alignment

58
Fracture Signs and Symptoms
  • Any athlete who complains of musculoskeletal pain
    must be suspected of having a fracture.
  • Deformity use the opposite limb to provide a
    mirror image for comparison.
  • Tenderness usually sharply localized at the
    site of the break.
  • Guarding inability or refusal to use the
    extremity because motion increases pain.

59
Fracture Signs and Symptoms
  • Swelling and Ecchymosis fractures are virtually
    always associated with swelling and bruising of
    surrounding soft tissues, however these signs are
    present following almost any injury and are not
    specific to fractures.
  • Exposed fragments in open fractures, bone ends
    may protrude through the skin or be seen in the
    open wound.

60
Fracture Treatment
  • If a fracture is suspected, appropriate splinting
    and referral for an x-ray should be accomplished.

61
REDUCTION
  • Process by which bone is put back into proper
    alignment
  • Closed reduction position bone in alignment,
    usually with traction, and apply cast or splint
    to maintain position
  • Open reduction surgical repair of bone, and
    times, insertion of pins, plates and other
    devices
  •  

62
Dislocations
  • Disruption of a joint so that the bone ends
  • are no longer in contact or in normal
  • anatomical alignment. Joint surfaces are
  • completely displaced from one another.
  • The bone ends are locked in the displaced
  • position, making any attempted joint motion
  • very difficult and very painful.
  • Frequently, the ligaments at the joint are
  • torn at the time the joint dislocates.
  • Bones is forcibly displaced from joint/ usually
    in shoulders, fingers, knees hips

63
Dislocation Signs and Symptoms
  • Marked deformity of the joint
  • Swelling of the joint
  • Pain at the joint, aggravated by any attempt at
    movement.
  • Marked loss of normal joint motion (a locked
    joint)

64
Dislocation Treatment
  • All dislocations should be splinted before the
    athlete is moved.
  • Immediate transportation to a medical facility. A
    physician is required to reduce a dislocation.
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