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THE KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER

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THE KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER The Kinetic theory has three basic assumptions: All matter is composed of small particles (molecules, atoms, and ions). – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: THE KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER


1
THE KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER
2
  • The Kinetic theory has three basic assumptions
  • All matter is composed of small particles
    (molecules, atoms, and ions).

3
2. The particles are in constant, random motion.
4
3. The particles are colliding with each other
and the wall of their container.
5
  • Kinetic theory helps explain the process of
    dissolving.
  • Here is an example Suppose a crystalline
    substance like sugar is dissolved in water.

6
  • Dissolving is a physical change, not a chemical
    change, because the sugar still has the same
    chemical formula!

7
  • When a crystal dissolves, the molecules at the
    surface of the crystal enter the solution first
    because they are the ones that are in contact
    with the moving water molecules. Water molecules
    can kick the sugar molecules from the surface
    of a sugar crystal.

8
Though there are several ways to increase the
rate at which a solute dissolves in a solvent,
they all involve increasing the number of
particle collisions.
9
  • One way to increase the number of particle
    collisions is to break or crush the solute into
    very small particles. This increases the surface
    area of the solute. More surface area means more
    collisions between solvent and solute particles.

10
Another way to increase the rate of dissolution
is to increase the kinetic energy of the solvent
by increasing the temperature. Increasing the
temperature of the solvent makes the molecules or
atoms of the solvent move faster. Faster solvent
molecules hit solute particles more often. This
has the effect of increasing the rate of
dissolution ( Dissolution means dissolving ).
11
  • SUMMARY If you want to dissolve something
    faster
  • Add more kinetic energy by warming up the
    solvent. This increases the number of particle
    collisions and speeds up dissolving.
  • B.  Crush the solute into smaller particles. This
    increases the number of particle collisions by
    increase surface area and this speeds up
    dissolving
  • C. Add more kinetic energy by agitating the
    solution. This increases the number of particle
    collisions.

12
What is the difference between a dilute solution,
a concentrated solution, and a saturated
solution?
Dilute Few solute molecules compared to the
number of solvent particles. Lots of spaces
between the solvent molecules for more solute to
be added.
13
What is the difference between a dilute solution,
a concentrated solution, and a saturated
solution?
Concentrated Many solute molecules compared to
the number of solvent particles. Less of space
between the solvent molecules for more solute to
be added.
14
What is the difference between a dilute solution,
a concentrated solution, and a saturated
solution?
Saturated Solute molecules fill ALL spaces
between solvent particles. No room left between
the solvent molecules. If any more solute is
added it will settle to the bottom and not
dissolve.
15
What's the Difference between "Dissolving" and
"Melting"? When a solid dissolves into a
solvent, it does not melt since no heat has to be
added. It does not change phase, but simply gets
broken apart into invisible molecules or atoms
that are mixed into the solvent. In order to
melt a solid, heat must be added to raise its
temperature above its melting point. No other
substance is involved.
16
  • A LITTLE QUIZ
  • What is the theory that states Matter is
    composed of particles that are in constant random
    motion?
  • 2. Suppose 50g of salt is dissolved in 200ml of
    water. In this solution, what is the solvent? The
    solute?
  • 3. Dissolution means ___________.
  • 4. List three ways the rate of dissolution can be
    increased.
  • 5 Identify each of the following as
    representative of a Dilute, saturated, or
    concentrated solution.
  • 6. Sowas the wicked witch melting or dissolving?

A B

C
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