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Chapter 10: The Kinetic Theory of Matter


Chapter 10: The Kinetic Theory of Matter Section 10.1: Physical Behavior of Matter Main Idea: The common states of matter are solid, liquid and gas Compare ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 10: The Kinetic Theory of Matter

Chapter 10 The Kinetic Theory of Matter
  • Section 10.1 Physical Behavior of Matter

  • Main Idea The common states of matter are solid,
    liquid and gas
  • Compare characteristics of a solid liquid or gas
  • Relate the properties of a solid, liquid, and gas
    to the kinetic theory of matter
  • Distinguish among amorphous solids, liquid
    crystals, and plasmas

  • Based on properties position and movement of
    atoms ions or molecules

  • has a fixed volume that cannot be compressed into
    a smaller volume
  • is rigid with a definite shape because the atoms,
    ions, or, molecules are in fixed positions

  • is flowing matter with a definite volume but an
    indefinite shape
  • takes the shape of its container

  • flowing, compressible matter that has no definite
    volume or shape
  • spreads out to fill the space
  • particles are much farther apart than they are in
    solids and liquids
  • particles can be easily pushed together

Solid, Liquid and Gas
  • Video on states of matter

Brownian Motion
  • Robert Brown- 1827
  • Observed that particles in water (pollen grains)
    move continuously in random, irregular directions
  • Definition constant, random motion of tiny
    chunks of matter
  • https//

Only Water???
  • Water molecules are not the only molecules that
    display random motion

Kinetic Theory of Matter
  • states that submicroscopic particles of all
    matter are in constant motion
  • Kinetic energy is the energy of moving objects

Kinetic Model of Gases
  • A gas particle can change direction only when it
    strikes the wall of its container or another gas
  • Assumptions Each gas particle rebounds without
    losing kinetic energy and without losing speed,
    but in a new direction
  • Collisions of particles in a gas are called
    elastic collisions because no kinetic energy is

Ideal gas
  • gas with particles that are in constant motion
    but have no attraction for each other. The
    particles undergo elastic collisions.
  • Except at very low temperatures or very high
    pressures, nearly all gases act as ideal gases

Gas Particles and Pressure
  • Pressure is the force acting on a unit area of a
    surface Example psi pounds per in2
  • Particles in a gas exert a force on each square
    cm of the walls of the container when the wall
    deflects them
  • Earths atmosphere (mixture of gases) exerts
    pressure also. Constant bombardment of molecules
    in the air

Kinetic Model of Liquids
  • Particles of a liquid can slide past each other,
    but they are so close together that they dont
    move as straight as gas particles

Kinetic Model of Solids
  • Strong forces between particles explain the rigid
    structure of solids
  • Particles of a solid cannot move past each other,
    but they are in constant motion (vibration)
  • Particles occupy fixed positions in a well
    defined, 3-dimensional arrangement
  • Crystal lattice- The arrangement, which is
    repeated throughout the solid
  • When a solid melts, its crystal lattices
    disintegrate and its particles lose their
    3-dimensional pattern

  • Other forms of matter not classified as solids,
    liquids or gases
  • http//

Amorphous Solid
  • Haphazard, disjointed, and incomplete crystal
  • Examples candle wax, cotton candy, peanut butter
  • https//

Liquid Crystal
  • materials that lose their rigid organization in
    only one or two dimensions when they melt
  • interparticle forces in a liquid crystal are
    relatively weak and their arrangement is easily
  • When the lattice is broken, the crystal can flow
    like a liquid
  • Liquid crystal displays (LCDS) are used in
    watches, calculators, etc. because they can
    change colors at specific temperatures
  • https//

  • an ionized gas that forms at very high
  • most common form of matter in the universe but
    least common on Earth (sun and stars)
  • can conduct electrical current and are
    electrically neutral (contain equal numbers of
    free electrons and positive ions)
  • are called high-energy states of matter because
    high energy is needed to separate and to maintain
    separation of the atoms into ions and electrons

Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC)
  • Predicted by Einstein in 1924, Created in 1995
    (CU Boulder- Cornell/ Weiman)
  • a rare state (or phase) of matter that occurs at
    extremely low temperature, near the value of
    absolute zero (at zero- no particles move)
  • Superfluid helium-4 that involve Bosons
  • https//

In the July 14, 1995 issue of Science magazine,
researchers from JILA reported achieving a
temperature far lower than had ever been produced
before and creating an entirely new state of
matter predicted decades ago by Albert Einstein
and Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose. Cooling
rubidium atoms to less than 170 billionths of a
degree above absolute zero caused the individual
atoms to condense into a "superatom" behaving as
a single entity. The graphic shows
three-dimensional successive snap shots in time
in which the atoms condensed from less dense red,
yellow and green areas into very dense blue to
white areas. JILA is jointly operated by NIST and
the University of Colorado at Boulder.
  • Highlight vocabulary or unknown words.
  • Circle any examples you had written down
  • Write 3 questions.