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QUALITY INDICATOR

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Title: Indikator Kualiti dalam Pendidikan Tinggi (Quality Indicators in Higher Education) Last modified by: FPP5 Created Date: 1/28/2009 4:34:12 AM – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: QUALITY INDICATOR


1
QUALITY INDICATOR
  • 13 APRIL 2013

2
Indikator Kualiti dalam Pendidikan
Tinggi(Quality Indicators in Higher Education)
Quality Indicators
  • Learning outcomes
  • Explain the meaning of quality indicators
  • Describe the characteristics of quality
    indicators
  • Synthesis the importance of quality indicators
    in HEI
  • Explain studies related to the application of
    quality indicators in HEI

3
INDICATORS
  • Customer satisfaction
  • Performance

4
Teras PSPTN
  • Meluaskan akses dan meningkatkan ekuiti
  • Menambah baik kualiti pengajaran dan
    pembelajaran
  • Memperteguh penyelidikan dan inovasi
  • Memperkasakan institusi pengajian tinggi
  • Mempergiatkan pengantarabangsaan
  • Membudayakan pembelajaran sepanjang hayat dan
  • Mengukuhkan sistem penyampaian KPT.

5
Aspects of quality in higher education
Quality Indicators
  • Three aspects
  • Client quality what students and employers want
    from the service.
  • Professional quality whether the service meets
    needs as defined by professional providers and
    whether it carries out techniques and procedures
    which are believed to be necessary to meet
    clients needs.
  • Management quality the most efficient and
    productive use of resources within limits and
    directives set by higher authorities.
  • Ovretveit (1992)

6
Judging quality in higher education
Quality Indicators
  • Three categories
  • Academic standards of courses what the students
    demands of the students, the extent it meets
    staff needs.
  • Teaching quality staff training, appraisal
    systems, teaching evaluation, reports from
    external examiners, patterns of employment of
    graduates, students feedback.
  • Student achievement completion rates, class of
    degrees obtained.
  • ONeil (1994)

7
Issues to be addressed
Quality Indicators
  • The need for competent staff
  • Management responsibility
  • Quality policy
  • Quality manuals
  • Quality planning

8
Performance cultures in higher education
Quality Indicators
  • HEIs worldwide have undergone reform to improve
    quality
  • HEIs have implemented systematic and formalized
    quality assurance processes to achieve greater
    efficiency and accountability
  • Establishment of quality models and organizations
    to audit and review university performance
  • Institutional and national quality models and
    performance indicators are vital components to
    raise the standard of HEIs
  • Quantitative performance indicators are used to
    provide international comparisons

9
Rationale for performance indicators
Quality Indicators
  • To ensure education provided by HEIs equips
    students for employment and provide the country
    with a highly skilled workforce that support
    economic growth.
  • To contribute to educational, social, and
    political values.

10
Purposes of performance indicators in HEIs
Quality Indicators
  • To monitor own performance for comparative
    purposes.
  • To facilitate the assessment and evaluation of
    institutional operations.
  • To provide information for external quality
    assurance audits.
  • To provide information to the government for
    accountability and reporting purposes (Rowe,
    2004).

11
The use of performance indicators in HEIs
Quality Indicators
  • Ensure accountability for public funds
  • Improve the quality of higher education provision
  • Stimulate competition within and between
    institutions
  • Verify the quality of new institutions
  • Assign institutional status
  • Underwrite transfer of authority between the
    state and institutions
  • Facilitate international comparisons
  • Ref Chalmers (2008)

12
Defining performance indicators
Quality Indicators
  • Simple indicators expressed in absolute
    figures and are intended to provide an unbiased
    description of a situation or process.
  • Performance indicators imply a point of
    reference for example, a standard, objective,
    assessment, or comparator, are relative rather
    than absolute in character. Involve value
    judgements.
  • General indicators externally driven and are
    not indicators in the strict sense they are
    frequently opinions, survey findings or general
    statistics.
  • Ref Chalmers (2008, quoted from Hanney, Henkel
    Kogan, 1997)

13
Defining performance indicators
Quality Indicators
  • Currently there is no common definition of
    performance indicators.
  • PI cannot be considered as facts, but are goal,
    value and context laden, and utilized in
    different ways depending on the performance model
    being used.
  • PI are defined as measures which give information
    and statistics context permitting comparisons
    between fields, over time and with commonly
    accepted standards. They provide information
    about the degree to which teaching and learning
    quality objectives are being met within higher
    education sector and institutions.
  • Ref Chalmers (2008, p.3)

14
Types of performance indicators
Quality Indicators
  • Input
  • Process
  • Output
  • Outcome
  • The types can be categorized as quantitative
    indicators and qualitative indicators.
  • Ref Chalmers (2008, p.3)

15
Quantitative Indicators
Quality Indicators
  • define as those associated with the measurement
    of quantity or amount, and are expressed as
    numerical values.
  • Input indicators
  • Human, financial and physical resources in
    supporting institutional programmes, activities
    and services.
  • Output indicators
  • Output reflects the quantity of outcomes
    produced, including immediate measurable results,
    and direct consequences of activities implemented
    to produce results. Do not demonstrate quality of
    education, but quantities of outcomes.
  • Ref Chalmers (2008)

16
Qualitative Indicators
Quality Indicators
  • associated with observation based descriptions,
    rather than an exact numerical measurement or
    value. Relate to or involve comparisons based on
    qualities of non-numerical data such as policies
    and processes for assessing students learning,
    the experience, the content of a mission
    statement.
  • Outcome Indicators
  • Focus on the quality of educational program,
    activity and service benefits for all
    stakeholders.
  • Insightful, meaningful and accurate since they
    are related to the objectives of higher
    education.
  • Students are treated as customers.
  • Ref Chalmers (2008, p.5)

17
Qualitative Indicators
Quality Indicators
  • Process Indicators
  • include the means used to deliver educational
    programmes, activities and services within the
    institutional environment.
  • qualitative information on teaching and learning
    such as policies and practices.
  • Considered as most practical, useful and
    appropriate measures of quality teaching and
    learning.
  • Ref Chalmers (2008)

18
Research conducted in Australia
Quality Indicators
  • Look at 13 process indicators
  • Mission, Vision and Objectives
  • Teaching and Learning Plans and Policies
  • Teaching and Learning Indicators
  • Internal and External Performance Funds for
    Teaching and Learning
  • Organizational Unit Review
  • Curriculum Review
  • Assessment and Feedback Policies
  • Graduate Attribute Statement
  • Student experience
  • Ref Chalmers (2008)

19
Research conducted in Australia
Quality Indicators
  • Look at 13 process indicators
  • Professional Development
  • Appointment and Promotion Criteria
  • Review of Academic Staff performance
  • Recognition of Excellence in Teaching and
    Enhancing Student Learning Experience
  • Ref Chalmers (2008)

20
Research in Australia Quality Teaching
Quality Indicators
  • Look at four dimensions of teaching practice
  • Institutional climate and systems commitment
    to the enhancement, transformation and innovation
    of learning. Measure student experience and level
    of satisfaction.
  • Diversity relates to ethnic, cultural and
    socioeconomic diversity as well as students
    abilities, talents and learning approaches.
  • Ref Chalmers (2008)

21
Research in Australia Quality Teaching
Quality Indicators
  • Look at four dimensions of teaching practice
  • Assessment the assessment tasks of student
    enrolled in the program of study. Look at the
    design, delivery and administration, provision of
    feedback, moderation, and review of assessment.
  • Engagement and learning community student
    engagement, i.e. the student commitment and
    engagement with their own education. Also
    includes staff engagement.
  • Ref Chalmers (2008)

22
Study in Hong Kong and China
  • Seven factors contributing to the quality of
    education.They are
  • 1 course content
  • 2 concern for students
  • 3 facilities
  • 4 assessment
  • 5 medium of instruction
  • 6 social activities and
  • 7 people.

23
Course content items
  • The chance that your study fulfils your personal
    needs
  • The appropriateness of requirements for your
    course
  • The chance to develop your abilities and prepare
    for
  • your career
  • The quality of material emphasized in course
  • The usefulness of the module components offered
    in your career development
  • The usefulness of the module components in
    fulfilling
  • your personal needs

24
Concern for student
  • The availability of advisers from whom students
    can seek help
  • The interest that student advisers take in the
    progress of their students
  • The ability of advisers to help students develop
    their course plan
  • The willingness of the university management to
    take the opinions of students
  • The channels for reflecting students ideas to
    the management

25
Facilities
  • The availability of quiet places to study in the
    university
  • The cleanliness of most facilities used by
    students
  • The amount and availability of library facilities
  • The places provided for students to relax and
    lounge during the day
  • The amount and availability of computing
    facilities
  • The amount and availability of sports and
    recreational facilities

26
Assessment
  • The chance that you do well if you work hard
  • The appropriateness of the standard of modules
    offered
  • The appropriateness of the assessment system
  • Detailed lecture notes are distributed
  • The amount of work required in most modules
  • The amount of time you must spend studying to get
    a passing grade
  • The likelihood of getting distinction if you work
    hard

27
Medium of instruction
  • Lectures be conducted in Language understood by
    students
  • Tutorials be conducted in language understood by
    students

28
Social activities
  • The activities and clubs you can join in the
    university
  • The social events that are provided for students
    in the university

29
People
  • The friendliness of students and the opportunity
    to make close friends
  • The chances to meet people with the same
    interests as you have

30
Conclusion of the study by Kwan Ng, 1999
  • Hong Kong and Chinese students are very practical
    and only focus on study-related matters rather
    than social life in campus.
  • Students in the States are more interested in
    campus life but the importance of facilities has
    not been mentioned.
  • It seems that Hong Kong and Chinese students
    regard university education as an investment and
    thus stress course content and facilities.

31
DISCUSSION
  • Jelaskan elemen yang dipilih oleh anda sebagai
    pelajar untuk dinilai dalam konteks kepuasan
    pelanggan.
  • Apa kriteria yang diguna untuk penilaian indeks
    kepuasan anda sebagai pelanggan?

32
Higher Education in Malaysia Challenges
Quality Indicators
  • Peranan universiti dan ahli akademik
    (Universitys and academics roles)
  • Perkembangan kurikulum mengikut keperluan
    pasaran (Curruculum development according to
    market needs)
  • Penyelidikan, pembangunan dan pengkormesialan
    dalam sistem inovasi kebangsaan (Research,
    development and commercialization in the national
    innovation system)
  • Kaedah pengajaran dan pembelajaran (Teaching and
    Learning Methods)
  • Perluasan akses dan mobiliti pengetahuan
    (Accessibility and knowledge mobility)

33
  • Pekeliling Kemajuan Pentadbiran Awam Bilangan 2
    Tahun 2005
  • Garis Panduan Bagi Mewujudkan Petunjuk-petunjuk
    Prestasi Utama Atau Key Performance Indicators
    (Kpi) Dan Melaksanakan Pengukuran Prestasi Di
    Agensi Kerajaan

34
Terminologi
  • Petunjuk Prestasi Utama (KPI) ialah salah satu
    kaedah bagi mengukur prestasi perkhidmatan
    agensi-agensi Kerajaan
  • Perkhidmatan Teras Bidang tanggungjawab agensi
    sejajar dengan visi (core business) dan misi
    agensi
  • Proses Utama Fungsi-fungsi di bawah perkhidmatan
    teras yang (core process) perlu dilaksanakan
    bagi menghasilkan perkhidmatan untuk pelanggan
  • Key Performance Petunjuk-petunjuk prestasi utama
    yang ditentukan Indicators (KPI) sebagai asas
    mengukur prestasi

35
NKRA
  • Education
  • Crime (Public Safety)
  • Corruption
  • Low Income Households
  • Rural Basic Infrastructure
  • Urban Public Transportation

36
Higher Education in Malaysia Challenges
Quality Indicators
  • Globalisasi dan piawaian melalui pemeringkatan
    dan penarafan (Globalization and standardization
    through development and accreditation)
  • Peluang guna tenaga (Resource utilization
    opportunities)

37
Malaysia - Current scenario
Quality Indicators
  • 20 public universities
  • 21 polytechnics
  • 37 community colleges
  • gt400 registered private colleges
  • 21 private universities and university colleges
  • 11 local university branch campuses 5 foreign
    university branch campus
  • Areas for indicators
  • Academic staff
  • Educational programs
  • Student selectivity
  • Educational resources
  • Governance
  • The method used will be peer review.

38
How are universities ranked?
Quality Indicators
  • Different ranking approaches
  • League table each university is assigned a
    specific rank. Higher ranks indicate higher
    quality, lower ranks indicate lower quality.
  • Quality criteria and indicators are used in this
    ranking methodology to assess universities.
  • Each indicator such as research impact as the
    number of citations per faculty in the Thompson
    Scientific Database or teaching quality as in
    THES are given weight.
  • This approach are applied to all universities
    assessed.

39
How are universities ranked?
Quality Indicators
  • Different ranking approaches
  • A ranking of individual disciplines or
    departments instead of whole institutions.
  • A multidimensional concept of university quality
    instead of a one-size-fits-all approach, taking
    into account the diversity of academic
    institutions, missions and goals as well as
    language and cultural specifics.
  • A separate measurement and presentation of single
    indicators.
  • A presentation of ranking results in rank groups
    (top, middle, bottom groups) instead of league
    tables.

40
Purposes of ranking of HEI
Quality Indicators
  • Ranking serves several purposes
  • Responds to demands from consumers for easily
    interpretable information on the standing of
    HEIs.
  • Stimulates competition among universities.
  • Provides some rationale for allocation of funds.
  • Helps to differentiate among different types of
    institutions and different programs and
    disciplines.
  • Contributes to the definition of quality of
    HEIs within a particular country.
  • (source Berlin Principles of Ranking of Higher
    Education Institutions, 2006
  • http//www.che.de/downloads/Berlin_Principles_IREG
    _534.pdf)

41
Berlin Principles of Ranking of Higher Education
Institutions
Quality Indicators
  • Purposes and goals of rankings
  • Be one of a number of diverse approaches to the
    assessment of higher education inputs, processes,
    and outputs.
  • Be clear about their purpose and their target
    groups.
  • Recognize the diversity of institutions and take
    the different missions and goals of institutions
    into account.
  • Provide clarity about the range of information
    sources for ranking and the messages each source
    generates.
  • Specify the linguistic, cultural, economic, and
    historical contexts of the educational systems
    being ranked should be aware of possible
    biases.
  • (source Berlin Principles of Ranking of Higher
    Education Institutions, 2006)

42
Berlin Principles of Ranking of Higher Education
Institutions
Quality Indicators
  • Design and weighting indicators
  • Be transparent regarding the methodology used for
    creating the rankings.
  • Choose indicators according to their relevance
    and validity.
  • Measure outcomes in preference to inputs whenever
    possible.
  • Make the weights assigned to different indicators
    (if used) prominent and limit changes to them.

43
Berlin Principles of Ranking of Higher Education
Institutions
Quality Indicators
  • Collection and processing of data
  • Pay due attention to ethical standards and the
    good practice recommendations articulated in
    these Principles.
  • Use audited and verifiable data whenever
    possible.
  • Include data that are collected with proper
    procedures for scientific data collection.
  • Apply measures of quality assurance to ranking
    processes themselves.
  • Apply organizational measures that enhance the
    credibility of rankings.

44
Berlin Principles of Ranking of Higher Education
Institutions
Quality Indicators
  • Presentation of ranking results
  • Provide consumers with a clear understanding of
    all of the factors used to develop a ranking, and
    offer them a choice in how rankings are
    displayed.
  • Be compiled in a way that eliminates or reduces
    errors in original data, and be organized and
    published in a way that errors and faults can be
    corrected.

45
Purposes of Quality Indicator System
Quality Indicators
  • Colorado State, USA
  • Encouraging continuous improvement by
    institutions in achieving high levels of
    performance.
  • Measuring institutional performance and
    accountability.
  • Determining funding recommendations and the
    funding distribution for the higher education
    system.
  • Build public support for increased funding for
    higher education.

46
Some Quality Indicators
Quality Indicators
  • Baccalaureate graduation rates
  • Achievement scores of graduating students on
    various comprehensive examinations, tests, and
    /or professional specific licensure or
    certification examinations
  • Graduates employed or continuing their education
  • Institutional support expenditures
    administration expenditure, expenditures per
    student
  • Undergraduate class size
  • Faculty teaching workload

47
Current scenario
Quality Indicators
  • Categories of institutions
  • APEX university
  • Research intensive
  • General
  • The structure of Malaysian Qualifications Agency
    (MQA)
  • One-stop center for institutions for
    registration and accreditation of courses

48
Accountability and Quality
Quality Indicators
  • The concept of accountability and quality
    assessment in higher education is an
    international phenomenon
  • In America, many regions are moving toward
    performance incentive funding.
  • In Europe and Australia, the central government
    is directly involved in establishing quality
    mechanisms through
  • Quality control,
  • Quality audit
  • Quality assessment
  • The agencies involved are like the Higher
    Education Quality Council and the Higher
    Education Statistics Agency (HESA)

49
Accountability and Quality
Quality Indicators
  • The focus of attention in performance indicators
    in the U.S. has been cost efficiency, scientific
    and technical education, management of
    intellectual property produced at universities,
    and undergraduate education.
  • Less attention is paid to graduate education and
    research.
  • Categories of costs for higher education
  • Education and general faculty and staff
    salaries, equipment, libraries, administrative
    and basic academic computing, and certain capital
    or such as rent.
  • Cost for sponsored research
  • Costs of student living room, board, clothing,
    laundry, entertainment, and etc.
  • Cost of foregone earnings While disengaged from
    the productive work force.

50
The Movement in Setting PerformanceIndicators in
Higher Education(U.S.A.)
  • 1980s
  • Era concerned with growth in enrollments and
    access was over
  • Emerging issues include
  • Public accountability
  • Quality
  • Productivity
  • Undergraduate education
  • In 1986, all 50 states and the District of
    Columbia had developed initiatives to improve the
    undergraduate education

51
  • Shift from growth funding (formula funding)
    toward funding outcomes, results, and performance
  • These efforts paralleled developments in Europe
    and Australia
  • 1990s
  • The development of performance indicators differs
    from that in 1980s
  • From voluntary institutional improvement to a
    system of mandated public accountability
  • By 1994, 18 states had developed indicator
    systems
  • Greater centralization of authority
  • Issue raised
  • Will the federal government assume greater
    centralized control of higher education through
    areas such as accreditation and financial aids by
    using a set of national goals and performance
    standards?

52
The Future of Higher EducationThe White Paper
2003
  • Higher education must expand to meet rising skill
    needs
  • The social gap among those entering university
    remains too wide
  • Many of our economic competitors invest more in
    higher education
  • Universities are struggling to employ the best
    academics
  • Funding per student fell 36 between 1987 and
    1997
  • Universities need stronger links with business
    and industry

53
Reports of Institutional Effectiveness(EOIE)
Virginias Public Institutions of Higher Learning
  • Annual report to provide meaningful information
    on the academic quality and operational
    efficiency of Virginias public institutions
  • To provide evidence of institutional
    effectiveness the extent to which institutions
    accomplish their missions and students achieve
    their educational goals.

54
Structure of the Reports(Five Points)
  • Institutions mission
  • The mission statement sets a vision for the
    institution and defines how it will get there.
  • Institutional profile
  • In-depth views of enrollment and projections of
    future enrollment.
  • System-wide measures
  • Include 14 performance measures focused on
    operational efficiency and factors associated
    with academic quality
  • Example Classroom and laboratory space
    utilization, percentage of professionally
    accredited programs and etc.

55
  • Institution-specific measures
  • Represent unique aspects of the mission that the
    college or university chose to highlight
  • Core competency reports
  • Explore student general education assessments in
    written communication and technology/information
    literacy.

56
Performance Indicators of California Higher
Education, 2001
  • Describes the scope of the current set of
    indicators reported by the Commission, and
    highlights recent trends based on current
    information related to these indicators.
  • This report are divided into five categories
  • Population Context,
  • Fiscal Context,
  • Student Preparation,
  • Student Access, and
  • Student Outcomes

57
Key Performance Indicators (KPIs)
  • Key Performance Indicators are quantifiable
    measurements, agreed to beforehand, that reflect
    the Critical Success Factors of an organization.
  • They defer depending on organization
  • KPIs must
  • Reflect the organizational goals
  • Be key to its success
  • quantifiable

58
Curtins efficiency and effectiveness Key
Performance Indicators (KPIs)
  • Teaching and learning
  • Effectiveness indicators
  • Quality of graduates
  • Quality of teaching
  • Student progress and achievement
  • Input
  • Efficiency indicators
  • Teaching and learning expenditure
  • Student progress and achievement

59
EFFICIENCY EFFECTIVENESS
  • EFFICIENCY means saving TIME, MONEY or EFFORT
  • Efficiency measures the resources used to attain
    a certain level of output
  • EFFECTIVENESS means how well the the job gets
    done. i.e. the quality of the output.
  • Effectiveness measures the extent to which
    outcomes have been achieved

60
The End of Quality6th Quality in Higher
Education International Seminar (Birmingham, UK)
May. 2001
  • Three Major themes
  • Has external quality review has its day?
  • Has control of quality been usurped by the market
    and by information technology?
  • Does the development of mass education
    necessarily mean the end of quality?

61
Transforming Quality7th Quality in Higher
Education InternationalSeminar (Melbourne) Oct.
2002
  • Three main themes
  • To reconceptualise how higher education engages
    with access, employability and funding issues
  • What constitutes a high quality learning process
    and outcomes
  • How might quality evaluation be transformed to
    help improve the quality of the experience and of
    the learning?

62
8th Quality in Higher Education
InternationalSeminar (Sheffield) May. 2003
  • Two major themes
  • How does student feedback inform quality?To what
    extent do institutions need to adopt new
    procedures to make student feedback effective?
  • What does the White Paper encourage a closer link
    between quality and learning?

63
The First Session of the Regional Follow-up
Committee for the World Conference on Higher
Education (WCHE), 2- 3 November 2000, Kuala
Lumpur Malaysia
  • Recommendations to Member Countries
  • Need for ongoing efforts to broaden access taking
    into account the disadvantaged groups (women and
    ethnic minorities)
  • Provide increased support for staff development
    and research
  • More participation of women in higher education
    particularly in decision making level

64
Indicators of Research Quality in Higher
Education
  • The vast majority of discoveries have been made
    in higher education environment (Dill, 1986).
  • Review of literature on research productivity
    highlighted several indicators which include
  • Productivity dollars
  • Productivity publications
  • Peer evaluation

65
  • Productivity dollars
  • The number of dollars generated by research was
    the most often cited measurement of success
  • Those universities that are ranked higher, their
    faculty have are adept at obtaining research
    grants
  • Productivity publications
  • The number of publications is frequently used as
    an indicator of quality in research
  • The research that is published is taken as an
    indication of its quality
  • The types of publication which determine its
    quality
  • Journal articles, monographs, chapters, books
  • Quality reputation of publication in
    discipline, distribution of publication, refereed
    vs. non-refereed journals, invited
    chapters/papers

66
OUTPUT IMPACT FACTOR
  • Output versus Impact factor of publications
  • Output refers to how prolific the the research is
    producing acceptable articles/books
  • Impact was determined by checking citations of
    the articles over a period of years

67
PEER EVALUATION
  • Peer Evaluation
  • Assemble a group of peers to review the research
    efforts and make a determination of the quality
    of those efforts
  • The concerns of such approach include
  • The visiting group doesnt fully understand the
    work of the unit/individual being reviewed
    (especially when it is multidisciplinary)

68
Curtins Efficiency and Effectiveness Key
Performance Indicators (KPIs)
  • Research and Development
  • Effectiveness indicators
  • Research Performance Index
  • Research Quantum
  • Comparison between Curtin and all Australian
    Universities
  • Research Funding
  • Research Publications

69
Efficiency and Effectiveness Key Performance
Indicators (KPIs)
  • Efficiency Indicators
  • Research Performance Index
  • Research Funding
  • Research Publications
  • Effectiveness measures the extent to which
    outcomes have been achieved
  • Efficiency measures the resources used to attain
    a certain level of output

70
Publications and Number of Ph.D. Graduates
  • 2001 76
  • 2002 89
  • 2003 112
  • Publications
  • 2000 1,864 (319 international journals, 212 in
    local journals)
  • 2001 1,815 (303 international journals, 204 in
    local journals)
  • 2002 2,507 (496 international journals, 328 local
    journals)
  • Malaysia was ranked 63 by MASTIC (Pusat
    Informasi Sains dan Teknologi Malaysia) in terms
    of production referred journals

71
Critical Success factors (Research)
  • Wide academic base and facilities
  • Graduate students
  • Screening of IRPA application and monitoring
  • Evaluation of research and innovation
  • Research culture and administrative support
  • Strong research networking
  • Research cluster development
  • Incentives in-house competition as incubator

72
Steps to be Taken by Institutions toPromote
Excellence in Teaching
  • Define what they mean by excellent in teaching
  • Having well-defined criteria about excellent
    teaching and standards for weighting and rating
    of teaching/research/service
  • Weigh teaching more heavily
  • Increase sophistication of teachers
  • Promote excellent teaching, not just excellent
    teachers
  • Not treat promotion as a separate issue
  • (Gibbs, 1995)

73
Theoretical Definition for Excellent Teachers
  • The character of the professor
  • Values, personality, and social intelligence
  • The knowledge of the professor
  • Disciplinary and pedagogical understanding
  • The actions of the professor
  • Problem-solving behaviors
  • The responses of the students
  • Learning outcomes

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Quality Teaching in Higher Education
  • Flexibility in approaches to teaching and
    learning (including assessment)
  • Good organization of subject matter and course,
    including relevance and coherence of content and
    planned teaching/learning activities
  • Effective communication
  • Knowledge and enthusiasm for subject matter and
    teaching
  • Facilitation of learning through student
    interaction and active experience
  • Respect for and positive attitude toward students
  • Critically reflective orientation to teaching
    including effective use of feedback to guide
    learning and improve teaching
  • Appropriateness and fairness in assessment and
    grading
  • Reeders, E, Marshall, H. 1996

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GOOD TEACHING THE TOP TEN REQUIREMENTSBy
Richard Leblanc, York University, Ontario , 1998.
  • Good teaching is as much about passion as it is
    about reason.
  • Good teaching is about substance and treating
    students as consumers of knowledge.
  • Good teaching is about listening, questioning,
    being responsive, and remembering that each
    student and class is different.
  • Good teaching is about not always having a fixed
    agenda and being rigid, but being flexible,
    fluid, experimenting, and having the confidence
    to react and adjust to changing circumstances

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  • 6. Good teaching is also about style
  • This is very important -- good teaching is about
    humor.
  • 7. Good teaching is about caring, nurturing, and
    developing minds and talents.
  • 8. Good teaching is supported by strong and
    visionary leadership, and very tangible
    institutional support -- resources, personnel,
    and funds.
  • 9. Good teaching is about mentoring between
    senior and junior faculty, teamwork, and being
    recognized and promoted by one's peers.
  • 10. At the end of the day, good teaching is about
    having fun.

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Quality in College TeachingA Research Approach
  • Flexibility in approaches to teaching and
    learning (including assessment)
  • Good organization of subject matter and course,
    including relevance and coherence of content and
    planned teaching/learning activities
  • Effective communication
  • Knowledge and enthusiasm for subject matter and
    teaching

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  • Facilitation of learning through student
    interaction and active experience
  • Respect for and positive attitude toward students
  • Critically reflective orientation to teaching
    including effective use of feedback to guide
    learning and improve teaching
  • Appropriateness and fairness in assessment and
    grading
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