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Topic 5

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The Function of Transport Terminals Ports and Rail Terminals Airport Terminals Terminals and Security – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Topic 5


1
Topic 5 Transportation Terminals
  1. The Function of Transport Terminals
  2. Ports and Rail Terminals
  3. Airport Terminals
  4. Terminals and Security

2
A The Function of Transport Terminals
  • 1. Transport Terminals
  • 2. Passengers Terminals
  • 3. Freight Terminals
  • 4. Terminal Costs

3
1. Transport Terminals
  • Concept
  • All spatial flows involve movements between
    terminals
  • Except personal vehicular and pedestrian trips.
  • Modes assembly and distribution
  • Cannot travel individually, but in batches.
  • People have to go to bus terminals and airports
    first to reach their final destinations.
  • Freight has to be consolidated at a port, a rail
    yard or a distribution center before onward
    shipment.
  • Terminals are essential links in transportation
    chains.

4
1. Transport Terminals
  • Definition
  • Any location where freight and passengers either
    originates, terminates, or is handled in the
    transportation process.
  • Central and intermediate locations
  • Points of interchange within the same modal
    system.
  • Insure a continuity of the flows.
  • Particularly the case for modern air and port
    operations.
  • Require specific facilities to accommodate the
    traffic they handle.
  • Points of interchange within the same mode.
  • Points of transfer between modes.

5
Major Features of Transport Terminals
Location Serve a large concentration of population and/or industrial activities. Specific terminals have specific locational constraints. New transport terminals tend to be located outside central areas to avoid high land costs and congestion.
Accessibility Accessibility to other terminals (at the local, regional and global scale). How well the terminal is linked to the regional transport system.
Infrastructure Handle and transship freight or passengers. Must accommodate current traffic and anticipate future trends. Modern terminal infrastructures require massive investments.
6
Centrality and Intermediacy
Centrality
Intermediacy
Gateway
Range
Hub (Interception)
Hub (Transcalar)
7
2. Passengers Terminals
  • Overview
  • Passenger terminals require relatively little
    specific equipment.
  • Simple structures.
  • Basic amenities (waiting areas, ticket counters,
    food services).
  • Airports
  • The most complex terminals.
  • Passengers may spend several hours in the
    terminal.
  • Transiting, check-in and security checks, baggage
    pick up and customs and immigration on
    international arrivals.
  • Wide range of services.
  • Provide the very specific needs of the aircraft.

8
Main Concourse, Madrid Airport, Spain
9
3. Freight Terminals
  • Specialized entities
  • Specific loading and unloading equipment.
  • Wide range of handling gear is required.
  • Differentiated functionally both by the mode
    involved and the commodities transferred.
  • Bulk and break-bulk terminals.
  • Warehousing
  • Assembling bundles of goods
  • Time-consuming and storage may be required.
  • Specialized infrastructures
  • Grain silos, storage tanks, and refrigerated
    warehouses, or simply space to stockpile.

10
4. Terminal Costs
Infrastructure costs Construction and maintenance costs. Facilities such as piers, runways, cranes and structures.
Transshipment costs Composing, handling and decomposing passengers or freight. Labor requirement of terminal facilities.
Administration costs Managed by institutions such as port or airport authorities or by private companies.
11
Terminal Costs
Cost
C1
C2
C3
Road
Rail
Maritime
T3
T2
T1
Distance
12
B Ports and Rail Terminals
  • 1. Port Sites
  • 2. Port Functions
  • 3. Rail Terminals

13
1. Port Sites
  • Ports
  • Convergence between two domains of freight
    circulation
  • Land and maritime domains.
  • Facilitates convergence between land transport
    and maritime systems.
  • Handle the largest amounts of freight, more than
    any other types of terminals combined.
  • Infrastructures to accommodate transshipment
    activities.
  • Administration
  • Submitted to authorities.
  • Regulating infrastructure investments, its
    organization and development and its
    relationships with customers using its services.

14
Port Sites
In a delta
Along a river
Margin of a delta
Natural harbors
Near an estuary
In a bay
In an estuary
Protected
15
1. Port Sites
Maritime access Physical capacity of the site. Tidal range Cannot handle variations of more than 3 meters. Channel and berth depths coping with growing ship size. Panamax ship (65,000 deadweight tons) requires more than 12 meters (40 feet) of depth.
Maritime interface Amount of space that is available to support maritime access. Related to the amount of shoreline. Guarantee its future development and expansion.
Infrastructures Piers, cranes and warehouses. Consume land which must be available to insure port expansion.
Land access Access from the port to industrial complexes and markets. Requires efficient inland distribution systems, such as fluvial, rail (mainly for containers) and road transportation.
16
Harbor Types
Coastal Natural
Coastal Breakwater
River Basins
River Tide Gates
Coastal Tide Gates
River Natural
Canal or Lake
Open Roadstead
17
Number of Large and Medium Ports by Channel Depth
18
Stages in Port Development
Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4
Period Up to the mid 19th century Mid 19th century to mid 20th century Late 20th century Late 20th century, early 21st century
Development rationale Rise in trade Industrialization Globalization Logistics
Main port function Cargo handling Storage Trade Cargo handling Storage Trade Industrial manufacturing Cargo handling Storage Trade Industrial manufacturing Container distribution Cargo handling Storage Trade Industrial manufacturing Container distribution Logistics control
Dominant cargo General cargo Bulk cargo Containers Containers and information flows (supply chain)
Spatial scale Port city Port area Port region Port network
Role of port authority Nautical services Nautical services Land and infrastructure Nautical services Land and infrastructure Port marketing Nautical services Land and infrastructure Port marketing Network management
19
The Evolution of a Port (Anyport Model)
Expansion
Setting
Specialization
4
4
4
3
2
5
1
2
3
4
4
Rail
Terminal facilities
Downtown
Reconversion
Water depth
Highway
Urban expansion
Port-related activities
20
Evolution of the Port of Rotterdam
21
2. Port Functions
  • Main functions
  • Supply services to freight (warehousing,
    transshipment, etc.).
  • Supply services to ships (piers, refueling,
    repairs, etc.).
  • Concomitantly a maritime and land terminal.
  • Hong Kong
  • Natural site.
  • Geographical position of a transit harbor for
    southern China.
  • Singapore
  • Outlet of the strategic Strait of Malacca.
  • Convergence of Southeast Asian transportation.
  • New York
  • Gateway of the North American Midwest.
  • Hudson / Erie canal system.

22
2. Port Functions
  • Port activities
  • About 4,600 ports in are in operation worldwide.
  • Less than 100 ports have a global importance.
  • High level of concentration in a limited number
    of large ports.
  • Linked to maritime access and infrastructure
    development.
  • Gateways of continental distribution systems.
  • Containerization has substantially changed port
    dynamics.
  • Port types
  • Monofunctionnal ports
  • Transit a limited array of commodities, most
    often dry or liquid bulks.
  • Specialized piers.
  • Polyfunctionnal ports
  • Several transshipment and industrial activities
    are present.
  • Variety of specialized and general cargo piers.

23
Traffic at the 50 Largest Container Ports, 2005
24
Configuration of a Maritime Container Terminal
Rail
Road
Container crane
Docking area
Administration
Empties
On dock rail terminal
Gate
Container storage
Repair / maintenance
Truck loading / unloading
Chassis storage
Loading / unloading area
25
Port Elizabeth, New York
26
2. Port Functions
  • Offshore hubs
  • Usage of a port terminal for transmodal
    operations.
  • Reduce the number of port calls and increase the
    throughput of the port calls left.
  • Frequency and the timeliness of services can be
    improved.
  • Hub-and-spoke
  • Interface between short distance feeder lines and
    long distance deep-sea lines, linking regional
    and global shipping networks.
  • Relay
  • Point of interchange between several long
    distance shipping lines.
  • Interlining
  • Interface between several pendulum routes along
    the same maritime range, but servicing a
    different array of port calls.

27
The Insertion of Offshore Terminals
Hub-and-Spoke
Relay
Interlining
Deep-sea line
Feeder
Hub
28
2. Port Functions
  • Problems related to port infrastructures
  • Ports along rivers are continuously facing
    dredging problems.
  • Width of rivers is strongly limiting capacity
  • Rarely a port along a river has the capacity to
    handle Post Panamax ships.
  • Lateral spread of infrastructures (Seaports).
  • Congestion in central areas.
  • Port / city competition for land (waterfront
    development).

29
3. Rail Terminals
  • Location
  • Not as space-extensive as airports and ports.
  • Suffer less from site constraints
  • Many established prior to the Second World War.
  • Cities were more compact and land acquisition was
    easier.
  • Passengers and freight terminals
  • Different locations.
  • Central railway stations
  • Feature of most cities and tend to be located in
    downtown areas.
  • Key elements of urban centrality and activity.
  • Freight rail stations
  • Consume more space.
  • Tend to be located at the periphery.
  • Older yards tend to be located at the margin of
    CBDs.

30
Centraal Train Station, Amsterdam
31
TGV Train at Gare de Lyon, Paris, France
32
Antwerp Centraal Train Station
33
Quai d'Orsay Museum, Paris, France
34
Configuration of a Rail Container Terminal
Classification Yard
Classification Yard
Intermodal Yard
Repair / maintenance
Gate / Administration
Container / Chassis Pick Up / Drop Off / Storage
Chassis storage
35
Bedford Rail Yard, Chicago
36
C Airport Terminals
  • 1. Airport Sites
  • 2. Airport Functions

37
1. Airport Sites
  • Concept
  • Airports act as the main technical support of air
    transport.
  • Increased pressures on terminals
  • Existing terminals have been expanded and new
    terminals have been constructed.
  • Replace airports no longer able to cope with the
    increased traffic.
  • International / Regional
  • Role and function in the international and
    regional urban system.
  • Centrality (being an origin and destination of
    air traffic) and intermediacy (a hub or a gateway
    between destinations).
  • Local
  • Level of accessibility of the airport over the
    metropolitan area it services.
  • Daily flows of planes, passengers, freight to and
    from the airport's terminals.

38
Geographical Scales of Airport Location
International / Regional
Local
39
1. Airport Sites
  • Local site requirements.
  • Airfields
  • Runways and parking areas.
  • Long enough to accommodate the takeoff and
    landing of commercial planes.
  • About 3,300 meters (10,000 feet) are required for
    a 747 to takeoff.
  • Slope (less 1), altitude and meteorological
    conditions.
  • About 32 movements (landings and takeoffs) per
    hour are possible on a commercial runway under
    optimal conditions.
  • Terminals
  • Freight and passenger transit infrastructures.
  • Infrastructures for plane accommodation.
  • Linked with local transport systems.

40
Air Terminals
Airfield
Isle
Shuttles
Terminal
Terminal
2
3
1
41
Airport Location Factors
City Center
Low
High
High
Commuting radius
High
Low
Low
Benefits
Externalities
Suitability
Location Ring
42
Distance from CBD and Age of the Worlds 30
Largest Airports
43
1. Airport Sites
  • Land requirements
  • Land required by modern airport operations is
    considerable
  • Landing and take off of planes.
  • Buffer between the adjacent urban areas to limit
    the noise generated.
  • Parking areas in airports located in car
    dependent cities.
  • Peripheral sites
  • Sufficient quantities of land available.
  • The more recently an airport was constructed, the
    more likely this airport is to be located far
    from the city center.
  • Expansion and relocation
  • Extremely difficult.
  • Most airports have grown at locations chosen in
    the 1950s and 1960s.
  • Most airports are now surrounded.
  • Only sites available are far from the urban core.

44
Recently Completed Airports by Cost
Country Airport Year Opened Cost (USD Billions)
China Hong Kong (Chek Lap Kok) 1998 20.1
Japan Osaka (Kansai International) 1994 14.4
Japan Nagoya (Centrair) 2005 7.3
South Korea Seoul (Incheon International) 2001 5.8
Germany Munich (Franz Strauss) 1992 5.3
USA Denver International 1995 4.2
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur International 1998 3.2
Thailand Bangkok (Suvarnabhumi) 2006 3.3
China Guangzhou (Baiyun) 2004 2.5
China Shanghai (Pudong) 1999 1.4
45
Site of the Hong Kong Chek Lap Kok Terminal
Northern runway
Train station
Passenger terminal
Future Terminal Expansion
Light Rail System
Southern runway
Logistics and cargo area
To Kowloon and Hong Kong
46
Aerial View of Hong Kong Chek Lap Kok Airport
Terminal
47
Kansai International Airport, Osaka Bay, Japan
48
Aerial View of the Dallas / Fort Worth Airport
49
Phosavan Airfeild, Laos
50
2. Airport Functions
  • Airport activities
  • Terminal activities
  • Parking, ground transportation, checking in,
    baggage-claiming, restoration, retailing and
    maintenance.
  • Provide services to passengers and freight.
  • Airfield activities
  • Loading and unloading planes, maintenance and
    traffic control.
  • Provide services to aircrafts.
  • Economic functions
  • Improved economic opportunities.
  • Employment (USA)
  • 500 billion of economic activity.
  • 1.9 million direct and 4.8 million indirect jobs.
  • Global service activities.
  • Passengers and freight airports.

51
Passenger Traffic at the Worlds Largest
Airports, 2004
52
Freight Traffic at the Worlds Largest Airports,
2005
53
Tons of Landed Freight at Major US Airports, 2003
54
D Terminal Security
  • 1. Passengers
  • 2. Freight

55
1. Passengers
  • A focus on terminals
  • Access is monitored and controlled.
  • Movements are channeled along pathways that
    provide safe access to and from platforms and
    gates.
  • Safety and theft have been a concern for freight
    terminals.
  • Airports
  • Focus of security concerns for many decades.
  • High-jacking aircraft came to the fore in the
    1970s.
  • Terrorist groups in the Middle East exploited the
    lack of security to commandeer planes for ransom
    and publicity.
  • Established screening procedures for passengers
    and bags.
  • Reductions in hijackings, although terrorists
    changed their tactics by placing bombs in
    un-accompanied luggage and packages,

56
1. Passengers
  • Hub-and-spoke networks
  • Strain on the security process.
  • Disparities in the effectiveness of passenger
    screening.
  • Impacts of September 11, 2001
  • Department of Homeland Security established the
    Transportation Security Authority (TSA).
  • Strict new security measures
  • Restricting access to airport facilities.
  • Fortifying cockpits.
  • Extensive security screening of passengers.
  • Screening
  • More rigorous inspections of passengers and their
    baggage at airports.
  • Biometric identification for foreign nationals
    (fingerprint, facial recognition).

57
1. Passengers
  • Costs
  • All screeners (45,000) are now part of the
    Federal workforce.
  • Purchase of screening machinery and training of
    personnel.
  • Additional delays and aggravation for passengers.
  • Downturn in air transport.
  • Some passengers may switch to other modes.

58
2. Freight
  • Issues
  • Less regulated and greater international
    dimensions.
  • Illegal immigrants, drug smuggling, piracy.
  • The container makes it extremely difficult to
    identify illicit and/or dangerous cargoes.
  • Hubbing
  • Compounds the problem.
  • Large numbers of containers are required to be
    handled with minimum delays and inconvenience.
  • Automated Identity System
  • Permanently marked and visible identity number.
  • Record maintained of flag, port of registry and
    address of the registered owner.

59
2. Freight
  • Each port must undertake a security assessment
  • Assets and facilities.
  • Effects of damages that might be caused.
  • Evaluate the risks, and identify weaknesses to
    security.
  • Customs clearance
  • All cargoes destined for the US.
  • Prior to the departure of the ship.
  • Biometric identification for seafarers to be
    implemented and that national databases of
    sailors to be maintained.
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