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Important Supreme Court Cases in America History


Title: Important Supreme Court Cases in America History Author: amcdonough Last modified by: amcdonough Created Date: 5/23/2011 12:01:27 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Important Supreme Court Cases in America History

Important Supreme Court Cases in America History
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
  • When was it? 1803
  • What was it about? And who was involved?
    ___Outgoing President John
  • Adams appointed Federalist judges at the last
    minute nicknamed Midnight Judges. After the
    new President, Democrat-Republic Thomas
    Jefferson, took office he ordered his new
    secretary of state, James Madison, to not deliver
    the commissions and since they werent delivered
    the judges could not take office. William
    Marbury sued Madison for his job and was allowed
    by law to make the complaint directly to the
    Supreme Court.
  • How was it decided? The Court and John Marshall
    ruled against ordering Madison to deliver
    Marburys commission.
  • Implications for the future? Supreme Court
    established its power of Judicial Review. They
    could now decide constitutionality of the other
    two branches actions.

I. Marbury v Madison 1803
  • A. Prior to Adams leaving office Congress
  • (Federalist dominated) tried to assert
  • power over the Judicial Branch
  • B. Judiciary Act of 1801
  • 1. Created 16 new federal judgeships
  • 2. Adams approves appointments during
  • last days as president
  • 3. Became known as the Midnight Judges
  • 4. Way Adams (Federalists) could protect
  • country against Jeffersons ideals

I. Marbury v Madison 1803 cont
  • C. William Marbury (midnight judge)
  • D. Appointed by Adams to serve in
  • Washington, D.C.
  • E. James Madison the Secretary of
  • State
  • 1. Refuses to allow Marbury his bench
  • 2. Marbury refuses to step down
  • 3. Madison asks Supreme Court to step in

I. Marbury v Madison 1803 cont
  • F. John Marshall-Chief Justice (appointed by
  • Adams)
  • 1. Federalist from VA
  • 2. Acted on over 500 cases
  • G. Marbury v Madison ruling
  • 1. Marbury had right to judge position
  • 2. Supreme Court could only hear cases on
  • appeal
  • 3. Declare part of Judiciary Act of 1789
  • unconstitutional

I. Marbury v Madison 1803 cont
  • H. Established the principal of judicial
  • review-federal courts have the
  • power to declare laws unconstitutional

McCulloch v Maryland 1816
II. McCulloch v Maryland
  • When was it? 1819
  • What was it about? And who was involved?
    Congress set up the Second Bank of the United
    States in 1816. Several states taxed the
    branches of the federal banks within their
    borders. The Maryland branch refused to pay the
    tax so Maryland sued the banks cashier James
  • How was it decided? Chief Justice John Marshall
    ruled that the Constitution allowed the
    establishment of the National Bank but that the
    Constitution didnt allow a state to tax the
    Bank. The power to tax includes the power to
  • Implications for the future? Gave more power to
    the Federal government under the necessary and
    proper clause as part of the loose
    constructionist view of the constitution

II. McCulloch v Maryland
  • A. Court case over the Second
  • National Bank
  • 1. Maryland tried to destroy the
  • National Bank by taxing the
  • National Bank to protect its
  • states banks
  • B. National Bank refused to pay taxes
  • and sued the state of Maryland

II. McCulloch v Maryland 1816
  • C. Supreme Court Issues
  • 1. Was the Bank constitutional?
  • 2. Did Maryland have right to tax National
  • Bank?
  • D. Court ruling (Chief Justice Marshall)
  • 1. Bank was constitutional (falls under
  • necessary and proper clause)
  • 2. Maryland (states) could NOT tax
  • National Bank
  • a. Power to tax is the power to
  • destroy
  • b. States could not take away national
  • powers

Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824
III. Gibbons v. Ogden, 1824
  • A. Called the Steamboat Case, this Supreme
    Court Case was over the state of New York
    attempting to give a monopoly of water-borne
    commerce between New York and New Jersey.
  • B. Marshall ruled that only Congress and the
    Federal Government can govern interstate
  • C. This weakened states rights and strengthened
    the powers/rights of the federal government.

Review of cases under Chief Justice John Marshall
IV. Judicial Branch under John Marshall
  • A. Key decisions by the Supreme Court under Chief
    Justice John Marshall of Virginia established the
    power of the federal courts to declare laws
    unconstitutional (judicial review Marbury v.
    Madison) prohibited
  • the states from taxing agencies of the
  • federal government (the power to tax is the
    power to destroy McCulloch v. Maryland.

Chief Justice John Marshall, Federalist
IV. Judicial Branch under John Marshall
  • B. The doctrine of judicial review set forth in
    Marbury v. Madison, the doctrine of implied
    powers set forth in McCulloch v. Maryland, and a
    broadly national view of economic affairs set
    forth in Gibbons v. Ogden are the foundation
    blocks of the Courts authority to mediate
    disagreements between branches of governments,
    levels of government, and competing business

IV. Judicial Branch under John Marshall
  • C. Doctrine of Implied Powers Necessary and
    Proper Clause

IV. Judicial Branch under John Marshall
  • D. Questions to ponder
  • Was John Marshall demonstrate Judicial Activism
    or Judicial Restraint? What does that mean? How
    did he demonstrate it?
  • What was the overall trend for the cases that
    John Marshall presided over? Did he increase or
    decrease federal power?

V. Wabash v. Illinois
V. Wabash v. Illinois
  • Wabash v. Illinois
  • When was it? 1886
  • What was it about? And who was involved? Many
    railroad companies were challenging Granger laws
    in court.
  • How was it decided? Ruled that state governments
    had no power to regulate interstate commerce.
  • Implications for the future? Established that
    only the federal government had that right to
    regulate interstate commerce.

Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
VI. Plessy v. Ferguson
  • A. Jim Crow laws
  • 1. Forced separation of the races in public
  • places (South)
  • 2. Jim Crow laws limited African Americans
  • freedom
  • B. Plessy v. Ferguson
  • 1. Supreme Court Case
  • 2. Ruling
  • a. Separate but equal is okay
  • b. Does not violate the 14th
  • c. Ruling upholds Jim Crow laws of
    the era

VII. Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
VII. Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
  • A. During Progressive Era
  • 1. Plessy v. Ferguson 1896)
  • 2. Established separate but equal
  • B. Brown v. Board of Education Topeka, KS
  • (1954)
  • 1. Segregated schools are unequal and
  • must desegregate
  • 2. Included a case in VA (Prince Edward

VII. Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
  • C. People
  • 1. Thurgood Marshall NAACP
  • Legal Defense Team
  • 2. Oliver Hill - NAACP Legal Defense
  • Team in VA
  • 3. VA Response
  • a. Massive resistance - some school
  • systems closed
  • b. Private academies were
  • established
  • c. Many whites leave urban school
  • systems (White Flight)

VIII. Supreme Court under Reagan
VIII. Supreme Court under Reagan
  • A. Membership of the U.S. Supreme Court has
    included women and minorities such as
  • a. Sandra Day OConnor
  • b. Ruth Bader Ginsburg
  • c. Clarence Thomas

VIII. Supreme Court under Reagan
  1. The Civil Rights Movement of the 1940s, 1950s,
    and 1960s provided a model that other groups have
    used to extend civil rights and equal justice.
  2. The Supreme Court protects the individual rights
    enumerated in the Constitution of the U.S.

VIII. Supreme Court under Reagan
  • D. The Supreme Court identified a constitutional
    basis for right to privacy that is protected from
    government interference
  • E. The Supreme Court invalidates legislative acts
    and executive actions that the justices agree
    exceed the authority granted to government
    officials by the Constitution of the U.S.

VIII. Supreme Court under Reagan
  • Reagan Revolution
  • Tax cuts
  • Transfer of responsibilities to state govts
  • Appointment of judges/justices who exercised
    judicial restraint
  • Reduction in the number and scope of govt
    programs and regulations
  • Strengthened American military

VIII. Supreme Court under Reagan
  • G. What is Judicial Restraint? It was the idea
    that the Supreme Court Justices shouldnt allow
    their personal opinions to influence their
    decisions but should follow the lead of Congress
    and the President. Therefore, if Congress passes
    a particular law then the Supreme Court shouldnt
    rule it unconstitutional unless they have a
    really, really good reason to do so.
  • H. Do you think the John Marshall Supreme Court
    operated with Judicial Restraint or Judicial
    Activism? How about the Warren Court (ruled over
    Brown v. Board of Education)?
  • I. Which do you agree with?