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World Religions

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Title: World Religions


1
World Religions
2
Essential Questions
  • What is the purpose of religion?
  • What impact does religion have on other aspects
    of culture?

3
How are we going to study religion?
  • This is not temple, church, or mosque. Therefore,
    we will not be analyzing religion as adherents
    rather we will be analyzing religion from the
    outside looking in, as historians.
  • This does not mean that we will leave out
    discussion of faith-based beliefs on the
    contrary, religious beliefs shaped historical
    actions and events for thousands of year.

4
Religion and Beliefs
  • Religion is humanitys way of explaining the
    unexplainable.
  • God/The gods were and are seen as the provider
    and sustainer of life.
  • All cultures have a religion of sorts.
  • All religions seek to answer how we got here and
    what is our purpose

5
Judaism
  • Hear O Israel,
  • the Lord our God,
  • the Lord is One.

6
Judaism
  • Judaism is the religion of the Jews.
  • Judaism was the first Western religion
    Christianity and Islam grew out of traditional
    Judaism and share many of the same beliefs.
  • Judaism was the first monotheistic religion.
  • People who follow Judaism are known by several
    names
  • Jews (a religious and ethnic connotation)
  • Hebrews (an ancient ethnic connotation)
  • Israelites (ancient national connotation)
  • Israeli (modern national connotation)

7
Jewish Holy Book
  • The origins and history of the Jewish people is
    contained an a document called the Torah.
  • The Torah is NOT one book, but a collection of
    books that were written between the years 2000
    B.C.E. and 400 B.C.E.
  • Sometimes the Torah is referred to as the Five
    Books of Moses.

8
Jewish Creation Story
  • The Jewish creation story described in Genesis is
    also believed by both Christians and Muslims.
  • God created the universe in 6 days and on the
    seventh God rested. For Jews, the 7th day
    represents the Sabbath or Shabbat.
  • God creates the universe out of nothing.
  • For Jews, Christians, and Muslims, God is the
    Oneperfect unity and pure essence in whom all
    goodness, justice, and beauty derives.

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History
  • Judaism began circa 1800 B.C.E. in Mesopotamia
    (modern day Iraq) with a man named Abraham.
  • One day, Abraham was called by God to take his
    family and travel to the land of Canaan, where he
    would become the father of a great nation. They
    eventually migrated to Egypt and were enslaved.

11
General Timeline
  • 1250B.C.E. Moses led Hebrews from Egypt
  • According to tradition, he heard the voice of God
    and made a holy, binding agreement that if the
    Hebrews would accept God as ruler of Heaven and
    earth, God would make Hebrews the chosen people
  • By 1025B.C.E. Kingdom of Israel is formed.
  • United Israel only had three kings Saul, David,
    and Solomon.
  • David unified Israel, made it a Middle East power
  • Solomons reign was peaceful, built great temple

12
Babylonian Destruction of the Temple
13
The End of United Israel
  • When Solomon died, his sons disputed who would
    rule the kingdom. There was a war, which was
    resolved by the kingdom of Israel being divided
    into two separate kingdoms
  • Judah Southern Israel encompassing the tribes of
    Judah (Davids tribe) and the small tribe of
    Benjamin.
  • Israel Northern Israel encompassing the
    remaining ten tribes.

14
Babylonian Captivity
  • Solomon died in 931 B.C.E. at which time his
    kingdom was divided between two of his sons.
  • Between the years of 700 B.C.E. and 600 B.C.E.
    both kingdoms were attacked and destroyed by the
    Babylonians, a strong empire to the east of
    Israel.
  • During this time, the temple in Jerusalem was
    destroyed (580s B.C.E.) and Jews were forced
    leave their homes in Israel and were resettled in
    Babylonia.

15
The Second Temple
  • In 539 B.C.E., the Persian Empire, under King
    Cyrus the Great conquered the Babylonians and
    allowed exiled Jews to return to Israel and
    rebuild their temple in Jerusalem.

16
Persians, Greeks, and Romans (580 B.C.E.-70 C.E.)
  • Although Jews were allowed to live in Israel and
    worship their God, they were controlled remotely
    by foreign empires.
  • The Persians were the kindest to the Jews,
    allowing them to practice their culture and
    religion freely.
  • Under the Persians, Jews began to speak Aramaic,
    the common language of the Middle East. Hebrew
    was only used in religious settings.
  • In 332 B.C.E. the Greeks, under Alexander the
    Great conquered the Persian Empire.
  • From 332-63 B.C.E., Israel was controlled by
    Greek governors.
  • Under the Greeks, Israel became very metropolitan
    and Greek became as widely spoken as Aramaic.
    Most Jews at this time became trilingual in
    Greek, Aramaic, and Hebrew.

17
  • In 63 B.C.E., the Romans conquered the province
    of Israel and sent a legion of troops and a
    governor to keep order in the province.
  • The Romans ruled as harshly as the Greeks and
    imposed Roman ways and customs on the Jews, which
    greatly angered the Jews.

18
New Ideas
  • There is only one God
  • God chooses to behave in a way that is both just
    and fair.
  • Jews combine two different sounding ideas of God
    in their beliefs
  • God is an all-powerful being who is quite beyond
    human ability to understand or imagine.
  • God is right here with us, caring about each
    individual as a parent does their child.

19
Beliefs
  • God exists There is only one God There are no
    other gods
  • God can't be subdivided into different persons
  • Jews should worship only the one God
  • God is Transcendent God is above and beyond all
    earthly things.
  • God doesn't have a body, which means that God is
    neither female nor male.

20
  • God created the universe without help
  • God is omnipresent God is everywhere, all the
    time.
  • God is omnipotent God can do anything at all.
  • God is beyond time God has always existed
  • God will always exist.
  • God is just, but God is also merciful God
    punishes the bad
  • God rewards the good
  • God is forgiving towards those who mess things
    up.
  • God is personal and accessible.

21
Important Holidays
  • Rosh Hashanah- Jewish New Year
  • Yom Kippur- Day of Atonement
  • Hanukkah- celebrates the ending of persecution of
    Syrian laws 170 B.C.E.
  • Passover- celebrates the libration of the
    children of Israel out of Egypt by Moses

22
Hinduism
  • If I were asked under what sky the human mind
    has most deeply pondered over the greatest
    problems of life, and has found solutions to some
    of them which well deserve the attention even of
    those who have studied Plato and Kant- I should
    point to India. And if I were to ask myself from
    what literature we who have been nurtured almost
    exclusively on the thoughts of Greeks and Romans,
    and of one Semitic race, the Jewish, may draw the
    corrective which is most wanted in order to make
    our inner life more perfect, more comprehensive,
    more universal, in fact more truly human a life,
    again I should point to India.
  • Max Müller (19th century Orientalist)

23
Essential Questions
  • What are the basic tenets of Hinduism?
  • How is Hinduism similar to and different from
    Judaism?

24
Background
  • No founder
  • Aryans, settlers of northern India 2500B.C.E.
  • Social organization of caste
  • Many Hindu texts written at this time
  • Interaction with other cultures leads to spread
    of ideals
  • No central religious authority ? different
    practices developed

25
Beginnings
  • It has been theorized that Hinduism is a result
    of cultural diffusion that occurred between Aryan
    invaders and the native peoples of India sometime
    around 1500 B.C.E.
  • Hindu is a catch-all term that includes most of
    the thousands of different religious groups that
    have evolved in India since 1500 B.C.E.

26
Basic Hindu Beliefs
  • Salvation is achieved through a spiritual oneness
    of the soul with the ultimate reality of the
    universe, Brahman, by breaking the cycle of
    reincarnation by doing good deeds and fulfilling
    one's duty in life
  • All things have souls so all life is sacred.
  • Cycle of death and rebirth continues until moksha
    (release from the cycle) is achieved.

27
  • Patriarchal
  • Usually non violent to avoid bad or negative
    karma that will prevent you from growing closer
    to moksha.
  • Polytheistic? Monotheistic? Something else?

28
Dieties
  • Brahman Creator of Life
  • Gods and goddesses are manifestation of Brahman
  • Brahma, the Creator
  • Vishnu, the Preserver
  • Shiva, the Destroyer
  • The three are known as Trimurti, the three
    deities who represent absolute reality

29
Brahma
30
Vishnu
31
Shiva
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Significant Writings
  • Vedas literature of religious professionals
  • Upanishads mystical writings
  • Agamas literature of the people
  • Ramayana and Mahabharata epic poems
  • Bhagavad Gita considered the epitome of the
    religion

36
Analysis and Discussion
  • The Mahabharata Hindu Epic of Awe and Wonder

37
Caste System
  • The Caste System is a rigid class structure
  • Dharma and Karma If you lead a good life, you
    will be rewarded by being reincarnated as a
    person belonging to the next highest level in the
    Caste System.
  • However, if you are wicked, you will be demoted,
    and possibly even removed from the Caste System
    altogether.

38
  • Outcasts, or Untouchables, are members of Hindu
    society thought to have been removed from the
    Caste System, with no hope of returning to it,
    due to their misdeeds in previous lives. Work
    that is deemed unclean for all other Hindus is
    reserved for these Outcasts.

39
National Geographic, June 2003
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  • A person who followed the rules of their caste
    (dharma) would be reborn to a higher form in the
    next life. A Hindu who neglected their duties
    would be reborn in a lower form, perhaps as an
    animal or insect. The goal of Hinduism is to
    escape the cycle of rebirth by reaching moksha.

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Buddhism
  • Buddhism begins with a man. In his later years,
    when India was afire with his message, people
    came to him asking what he was. Not Who are
    you? but What are you?
  • Are you a god? they asked.
  • No.
  • An angel?
  • No.
  • A saint?
  • No.
  • Then what are you?
  • Buddha answered, I am awake.

50
Essential Questions
  • What are the basic tenets of Buddhism?
  • What are similarities and differences between
    Buddhism, Hinduism, and Judaism?

51
Beginnings
  • Founder-Siddartha Gautama, or Buddha, which means
    "enlightened one.
  • In 6th c. B.C.E., Brahmin caste was very
    powerful. Reformers tried to limit their power.
  • Gautama was a prince who had a luxurious life.
  • Seers predicted he would be a great ruler OR a
    world redeemer? father wanted the former
  • Very shielded from unpleasantness of life

52
  • Married a princess at age 16 had a son
  • In time he witnessed an old man, a man suffering
    with disease, and a corpse outside of his palace.
  • He left his wife and son and wandered for years
    until he achieved Enlightenment.

53
  • The Buddha said that it didnt matter what a
    persons status in the world was, their gender,
    or what their background or wealth or nationality
    might be.  All were capable of enlightenment, and
    all were welcome.
  • This was radically different from what society
    was like.

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  • Upon reflection, Gautama deduced that desire was
    the root cause of all suffering. This idea has
    been recorded as the Four Noble Truths.

56
Four Noble Truths
  • Life is full of pain and suffering suffering is
    universal
  • Human desire causes this suffering.
  • By putting an end to desire, humans can end
    suffering
  • Humans can end desire by following the Eightfold
    Path

57
  • The Three Fires
  • Greed and desire ? rooster
  • Ignorance or delusion ? pig
  • Hatred and destructive urges ? snake

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Impact of Buddhism
  • Geographic Origin-Developed in India and spread
    through Asia and especially Southeast Asia.
  • Today- Most common in Southeast Asia and Japan.
  • Significant Writings-Tripitka, or Three Baskets
    of Wisdom.

60
Main Sects of Buddhism
  • Theravada Buddhism
  • Stresses the monastic life
  • Respects Buddha as teacher, but not a god
  • Spread to Southeast Asia
  • Mahayana Buddhism
  • Worships Buddha as a god
  • Spread to China, Tibet, Japan, Korea

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Tenets
  • Buddhism is more of a guide on how to morally and
    ethically live ones life away from suffering.
    Many become monks or nuns, living an ascetic
    lifestyle.

63
  • There is no belief in a personal God. It is not
    centered on the relationship between humanity and
    God
  • Buddhists believe that nothing is fixed or
    permanent - change is always possible
  • Buddhists can worship both at home or at a temple

64
Buddha preached a religion
  • Devoid of authority
  • Devoid of ritual
  • Devoid of tradition
  • Devoid of the supernatural
  • Of intense self-effort

65
Christianity
  • For God so loved the world, that He gave His
    only begotten Son

66
Essential Questions
  • What are the basic tenets of Christianity?
  • How is Christianity similar to and different from
    Judaism, Hinduism, and Buddhism?

67
General Information
  • Founder-Jesus of Nazareth and his disciples who
    helped spread his teachings.
  • Geographic Origin-Developed in Judea (now
    Israel), around the year 30 C.E., under control
    of Roman Empire
  • Monotheistic
  • Significant Writings-The Holy Bible, consisting
    of both the Old Testament and the New Testament.

68
Roman Reaction to Jesus
  • Jesus stated publicly that he spoke with the
    authority of God.
  • This claim angered the Jewish religious
    authorities in Palestine, and they handed Jesus
    over to the Roman authorities as a revolutionary.
  • He was tried for heresy, condemned, and put to
    death by means of crucifixion.

69
Who were the Christians?
  • Jews who believed Jesus was the messiah promised
    in the Torah
  • Followed Jesus teachings

70
Activity
  • Continent partner work on Gospel According to
    Luke

71
Early Christianity
  • One supreme God who loved humankind
  • Acceptance
  • Offers hope and eternal life
  • Paul moves Christianity away from Judaism
  • Persecuted for centuries
  • Strong organization and following by 400 C.E.
  • Roman Emperor Constantine converts to
    Christianity in 330 C.E.

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  • Exclusive ? idea of one truth
  • Jesus of Nazareth
  • Message of salvation
  • Disciples spread message

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  • Christians are expected to attend church services
    regularly, usually on Sundays and holy days such
    as Christmas and Easter. On these occasions
    Christians take part in sacraments, which are
    religious practices.

74
The Great Schism
  • The differences between Eastern (Constantinople)
    and Western (Rome) Christianity culminated in
    what has been called the Great Schism, in 1054,
    when the patriarchs of the Eastern and Western
    division were unable to resolve their
    differences.
  • The split led to the Orthodox church and the
    Roman Catholic church.

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  • The Orthodox Church does not recognize the
    authority of the Roman papacy and claims a
    Christian heritage in direct descent from the
    Christian church of Christ's believers

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  • There are multiple branches of Christianity with
    slightly differing doctrines.
  • Roman Catholic
  • Orthodox
  • Protestant
  • broke from Catholicism
  • Martin Luthers 95 Theses in 1517

77
Beliefs
  • Christians believe that Jesus was the Messiah
    promised in the Old Testament.
  • Christians believe that Jesus Christ is the Son
    of God.
  • Christians believe that God sent His Son to earth
    to save humanity from the consequences of its
    sins.

78
Beliefs
  • One of the most important concepts in
    Christianity is that of Jesus giving his life on
    the Cross (the Crucifixion) and rising from the
    dead on the third day (the Resurrection).
  • Trinity Christians believe that there is only
    one God, but that there are three elements to
    this one God
  • God the Father
  • God the Son
  • The Holy Spirit

79
Islam
  • There is a means of polishing all things
  • Whereby rust may be removed.
  • That which polishes the heart
  • Is the invocation of Allah.

80
Essential Questions
  • What are the basic tenets of Islam?
  • How is Islam similar to and different from
    Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Christianity?

81
Background Info
  • Islam, which when translated from Arabic, means
    "to submit to the will of Allah," is the youngest
    of the world's major religions.
  • Islam comes from the word salam which means
    peace and surrender
  • Worshippers of this monotheistic religion are
    known as Muslims, which means "one who submits to
    the will of Allah." 
  • Islam is currently the second most practiced
    religion in the world.

82
  • Founder-Islam was founded by the prophet
    Mohammed.
  • Geographic Origin-Developed on the Arabian
    Peninsula in the year 622 CE, and quickly spread
    to other regions

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  • Currently Practiced- Islam is most dominant
    throughout the Middle East (Southwest Asia and
    Northern Africa) and parts of Southeast Asia
  • Significant Writings-The teachings of Islam are
    collected in the Qur'an (Koran)

84
History
  • Founder Mohammed, born in Mecca around 570 C.E.
    to a leading tribe
  • Both parents died uncle adopted him and he took
    up the caravan business
  • Married Khadija at age 25
  • During meditation, was visited by Gabriel, who
    told him to go out and proclaim Gods word, to
    tell others of the belief in 1 God
  • Slow start 40 followers in first 3 years

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  • 622C.E. After Khadijas death, Muhammad had to
    flee from Mecca went to Medina.
  • This flight was instrumental to the founding of
    the religion of Islam and is known as the Hegira.
  • Marks beginning of spread of Islam
  • 622 is the first year of the Muslim calendar

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  • 630C.E. Muhammad returned to Mecca with an army
    and took over the city destroyed images of
    polytheistic gods
  • Muhammad died in 632C.E.

87
Beliefs
  • According to Muslims, God sent a number of
    prophets to mankind to teach them how to live
    according to His law.
  • Story of Creation follows Judaism and
    Christianity to a point
  • Ishmaels descendents become the Muslims
  • Isaacs descendents become the Hebrews
  • Adam, Jesus, Moses, David, and Abraham are
    respected as prophets of God. Muslims believe
    that the final prophet was Muhammad.

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  • Muslims believe that Islam has always existed
    but, for practical purposes, date their religion
    from the time of the migration of Muhammad.
  • Rules of Living Muslims believe that the Koran
    gives information to live by concerning religion,
    politics, law, and social life

89
Five Pillars of Islam
  • Shahadah or Confession of Faith There is no God
    but Allah, and Mohammed is His prophet.
  • Salat or Prayer Muslims must pray five times a
    day, facing towards Mecca.
  • Zakat or Charity Muslims give alms to the poor,
    and support the local Mosque by donating a
    portion of their income.
  • Saum or Fasting During the Ramadan, the ninth
    month of the Muslim calendar, all Muslims must
    fast during daylight hours, except the very young
    or sick.
  • Hajj or Pilgrimage If possible financially, each
    Muslim must make a hajj, or holy pilgrimage, to
    the city of Mecca once a lifetime.

90
Prayer Times (in Lititz on 10/23/12)
  • Salat al-fajr dawn, before sunrise (610am)
  • Salat al-zuhr midday, after the sun passes its
    highest (1249pm)
  • Salat al-'asr the late part of the afternoon
    (1632/432pm)
  • Salat al-maghrib just after sunset
    (1813/613pm)
  • Salat al-'isha between sunset and midnight
    (1929/729pm)

91
Basic Articles of Faith
  • Muslims have 6 main beliefs
  • Belief in Allah as the one and only God
  • Belief in angels
  • Belief in holy books
  • Belief in the prophets
  • Belief in the Day of Judgment
  • Belief in Predestination (with human choice)

92
Impact of Muslim Civilization
  • Through conquest and trade, cultures of Greek,
    Persian, Egyptian, and Arabic blended
  • Established banking centers and started using
    lines of credit
  • Many advances in medicine, algebra, development
    of an accurate calendar

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Divisions
  • Sunni Muslims
  • Any devote Muslims can be caliph
  • Shiite Muslims
  • Only descendents of Muhammad (or brother-in-law
    Ali) can be caliph

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Similarities to Judaism and Christianity
  • Belief in one God
  • Descendant from Abraham
  • Live a moral life in accordance to Gods law
  • Follow the holy texts
  • God is immortal, omniscient, and omnipresent

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Jerusalem
  • The Holy city is shared between the three The
    Temple Mount (site of the destroyed Temple), the
    site of Jesus crucifixion and burial, and the
    place where Mohammed rose to heaven.
  • All three religions believe that the last days of
    the earth and the final coming will occur in
    Jerusalem.

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