Political Parties - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Political Parties PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7388ef-MmU3M



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Political Parties

Description:

Title: Political Parties Last modified by: Warren Hills Created Date: 3/6/2006 10:26:49 AM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) Other titles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:61
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 67
Provided by: warr120
Learn more at: http://warrenhills.org
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Political Parties


1
Political Parties
  • Historical Development of the Parties

2
Historical Development
  • Historically, the two-party system has been
    characterized by long periods of dominance by one
    party followed by a long period of dominance by
    the other

3
Historical Development
  • The eras begin end with shifts in the voting
    population called realignments
  • (1) Issues change
  • (2) New divisions form between groups

4
Early Years
  • First two political parties to emerge during
    Washingtons term of office were the Federalists
    Anti-Federalists

5
Early Years
  • Major issue in the beginning was the ratification
    of the Constitution
  • Federalists supporting it
  • Anti-Federalists wanting guarantees individual
    freedoms rights not included in the original
    document

6
How was the issue resolved?
7
Early Years
  • Issue was resolved with the addition of the Bill
    of Rights, but the parties did not disappear with
    the issue

8
Federalists
  • Led by Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of Treasury)
  • Represented urban, business-oriented men who
    favored elitism a strong central government

9
Federalists
  • Supported Hamiltons establishment of the Bank of
    U.S.
  • Viewed it as forwarding their interests beliefs

10
Anti-Federalists
  • Came to be known as the Democratic-Republicans
  • Led by Thomas Jefferson
  • Favored strong state governments, rural
    interests, and a weaker central government

11
Anti-Federalists
  • Opposed the bank as an enemy of state control
    rural interests

12
Era of Good Feeling
  • With Hamiltons death John Adams unpopularity
    as president, Jefferson emerged as the most
    popular leader of the turn of the 19th century

13
Era of Good Feeling
  • As president, he gradually became more accepting
    of stronger central government
  • Two parties points of view seemed to merge most
    notably in the Era of Good Feeling presided
    over by James Monroe (one of Jeffersons protégés)

14
Era of Good Feeling
  • Democratic-Republicans emerged as the only party
  • Dominance lasted until the mid-1800s, though
    under a new name, the Democrats

15
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Two-party system re-emerged with the appearance
    of Andrew Jackson
  • Represented to many the expanding country (newer
    states found much in common with the rural
    southern states but little with the established
    northeast)

16
Jacksonian Democracy
  • New party emergedthe Whigs
  • Represented many of the interests of the old
    Federalist party

17
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Jacksons election in 1828 was accomplished with
    a coalition between South West, forming the new
    Democratic Party

18
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Jacksons Democrats were a rawer sort than
    Jeffersons (primarily gentlemen farmers from the
    South Middle Atlantic states)

19
Jacksonian Democracy
  • During the Jacksonian erauniversal manhood
    suffrage was achieved (virtually all men could
    vote)
  • Rural, anti-bank, small farmers from the South
    West formed the backbone of the Democratic Party

20
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Whigs were left with
  • Old Federalist interests
  • Wealthy, rural Southerners who had little in
    common with other Whigs

21
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Party was not ideologically coherent
  • Found some success by nominating electing war
    heroes (William Henry Harrison, Zachary Taylor)

22
North/South Tensions
  • Economic social tensions developed between
    North South by the 1840s 50
  • Whig party was threatened by splits between
    southern northern wings

23
North/South Tensions
  • As the Whigs were falling apart, a new Republican
    Party emerged from the issue of expansion of
    slavery into new territories

24
North/South Tensions
  • Election of 1860 brought the first
    RepublicanAbraham Lincolninto office
  • Setoff the secession of southern states with
    them many supporters of the Democratic Party

25
North/South Tensions
  • Civil War ended the dominance of the Democrats
    ushered in a new Republican era
  • Voters realignedaccording to regional
    differences conflicting points of view
    regarding expansion of slavery states rights

26
Republican Era 1861-1933
  • With the exception of Grover Cleveland Woodrow
    Wilson, all presidents from Abraham Lincoln
    (1861-1895) through Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)
    were Republicans

27
Republican Era 1861-1933
  • During most of the time, Republicans dominated
    the legislature as well

28
Republican Era 1861-1933
  • By 1875 all of the southern states had been
    restored to the Union, but their power, as well
    as that of the Democratic Party, was much
    diminished

29
Republican Era 1861-1933
  • Republicans came to champion the new era of the
    Industrial Revolution
  • Time when prominent businessmen, such as John
    Rockefeller Andrew Carnegie, dominated politics
    as well as business

30
Republican Era 1861-1933
  • Republican party came to represent laissez-faire
  • Policy that advocated the free market few
    government regulations on business

31
Republican Era 1861-1933
  • Republican philosophy of the late 1800s favored
    the new industrialists, not the small farmer of
    the earlier era

32
Second Democratic Era 1933-1969
  • Prosperous, business-oriented era survived
    several earlier recessions but not the Great
    Depression that gripped the country after the
    stock market crash of 1929

33
Second Democratic Era 1933-1969
  • Economic downturn of the economy caused major
    realignments of voters that swung the balance of
    power to the Democrats

34
Second Democratic Era 1933-1969
  • Republican president, Herbert Hoover, was
    rejected in the election of 1932 in favor of the
    Democrats Franklin Roosevelt
  • FDRs victory was accomplished because of the
    Roosevelt Coalition of voters

35
FDRs Coalition
  • Consisted of a combination of many different
    groups of voters that wished to see Hoover
    defeated

36
FDRs Coalition
  • Composed of
  • Eastern workers
  • Recent immigrants
  • Southern western farmers
  • Blacks
  • Ideologically liberal

37
Roosevelts Democrats
  • Established a government more actively involved
    in promoting social welfare

38
FDRs Presidency
  • Ironically, the formerly states rights oriented
    Democrats now advocated a strong central
    government, but one dedicated to promoting the
    interests of ordinary people

39
FDRs Presidency
  • Democrats dominated both legislative executive
    branches

40
FDRs Presidency
  • Even the Supreme Court reined in its conservative
    leanings
  • Although it did check FDRs power with the famous
    court packing threat

41
FDRs Court-Packing Threat
  • In an effort to get more support for his New Deal
    programs form the Supreme Court, FDR encouraged
    Congress to increase the number of justices form
    9 to 15
  • FDR eventually withdrew his plan

42
Second Democratic Era 1933-1969
  • FDR was elected to unprecedented four terms was
    followed by another Democrat, Harry Truman
  • Even though a Republican, Dwight Eisenhower, was
    elected president in 1952, Congress remained
    Democrat

43
Second Democratic Era 1933-1969
  • Democrats regained the White House in 1960
    retained it throughout the presidencies of John
    F. Kennedy Lyndon Johnson

44
Era of Divided Government 1969-2000
  • Richard Nixons election in 1968 did not usher in
    a new era of Republican dominated government
  • Instead a new balance of power between the
    Democrats Republicans came into being

45
Era of Divided Government 1969-2000
  • With few exceptions, control of the legislature
    the presidency has been divided between the two
    major parties since the late 1940s

46
Era of Divided Government 1969-2000
  • When one party holds the presidency, the other
    has dominated Congress, or at least the Senate

47
Era of Divided Government 1969-2000
  • Division brings with it the problem of gridlock
  • Tendency to paralyze decision making, with one
    branch advocating one policy the other another
    contradictory policy

48
Era of Divided Government 1969-2000
  • Scholars have various theories about the causes
    of the new division of power
  • One cause might be the declining power of
    political parties in general

49
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • From 1969 through 1993, and 2000-2008, the
    Republicans held the presidency except during
  • Carter presidency 1977-1981
  • Clinton presidency 1993-2001

50
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • Starting in the 1960s, Republicans began to pay
    more attention to the power of electronic media
    to the importance of paid professional consultants

51
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • Evolved into a well-financed, efficient
    organization
  • Depended heavily on professionals to help locate
    promote the best candidate for office

52
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • Some experts believe that these changes were
    largely responsible for Richard Nixons victory
    in 1968
  • Nixon was carefully coached his campaign was
    carefully managed to take advantage of electronic
    media

53
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • Campaign made extensive use of public opinion
    polls to determine strategy
  • New emphasis also influenced partys choice of
    candidates in 1980 1984
  • Former TV film actor Ronald Reagan was master
    of the media

54
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • Party also took advantage of new technology
    generated computerized mailings to raise large
    sums of money for campaigns
  • By the mid-1980s, Republicans were raising much
    more money than the Democrats were

55
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • During the same period, Democrats were changing
    in many opposite ways than the Republicans

56
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • Democrats became more concerned with grass roots,
    or common man representation

57
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • Democrats were reacting at least partly to the
    break-up of the old Roosevelt Coalition, but also
    to the disastrous 1968 convention in Chicago that
    showed the party as highly factionalized
    lacking leadership

58
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • As a result, they gained a reputation as being
  • disorganized
  • disunited

59
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • In 1969, the Democratic party appointed a special
    McGovern-Fraser Commission to review the partys
    structure delegate selection procedures

60
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • Commission determined that minorities, women,
    youth, and the poor were not adequately
    represented at the party convention

61
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • Party adopted guidelines that increased the
    representation participation of these groups

62
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • Number of super-delegates (governors, members
    Congress other party leaders) was reduced
    substantially

63
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • 1972 convention selected as their candidate
    George McGovern
  • Liberal who lost a landslide to Republican
    Richard Nixon

64
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • Although Democrat Jimmy Carter won the presidency
    in 1976, he was defeated by Ronald Reagan in 1980
  • Republican Party held the presidency since, with
    the exception of the Clinton presidency
    (1992-2000)

65
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • During the Reagan presidency, the Democrats began
    to adopt some of the Republican strategies
  • Computerized mailing lists
  • Opinion polls
  • Paid consultants

66
Republican Hold on the Presidency
  • Using newly adopted Republican party strategies,
    the Democratic party managed to get their
    candidate, Bill Clinton to the White House in
    1993, a position that he held for two terms
About PowerShow.com