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Revolutionary Ideologies


Title: From Classical to Contemporary Author: Lisa K. Perdigao Last modified by: lperdiga Created Date: 5/16/2006 1:26:44 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Revolutionary Ideologies

Revolutionary Ideologies
  • HUM 2052 Civilization II
  • Spring 2012
  • Dr. Perdigao
  • February 27-March 2, 2012

Contextualizing Texts
  • 1760sWatts steam engine
  • 1768Hargreaves spinning jenny
  • 1787Cartwrights power loom
  • 1793Whitneys cotton gin
  • 1808John Dalton formulated modern atomic theory
  • 1831Michael Farady discovered principle of
    electromagnetic induction
  • 1840Penny post
  • 1844First telegraphic message sent from
    Baltimore to Washington, D.C.
  • 1847Hermann von Helmholtz formulate law of
    conservation of energy

Contextualizing Texts
  • 1848Marx and Engels, Communist Manifesto
  • 1859Darwin, The Origin of Species
  • 1861Emancipation of Serfs in Russia Louis
    Pasteurs vaccines
  • 1861-1865American Civil War
  • 1864Dostoevsky, Notes from Underground
  • 1866Transatlantic cable
  • 1869Dmitri Mendeleev constructed periodic table
    for the elements
  • 1871Darwin, The Descent of Man
  • 1874Impressionism launched with Monets painting
  • 1876Telephone

Contextualizing Texts
  • 1884-1885European Acquisition of African
    territory (by 1914 all Africa except Ethiopia
    and Liberia succumbs to European rule)
  • 1887Heinrich Hertz discovered electromagnetic
    waves (radio, television, radar) Eiffel Tower
    built for 1889 Paris Worlds Fair Daimlers
    internal combustion engine for automobile
  • 1895X rays discovered
  • 1898Radium discovered by Marie and Pierre Curie
    Spanish-American War erupts

  • Industrial Revolutionshift from agrarian,
    labor-intensive economy to economy dominated by
    machine manufacture, specialization of tasks or
    division of labor, factories and cities, and a
    worldwide market for goods, services, and
    capital (Perry 500)
  • Conceiving the Industrial Revolution, multiple
  • 1750-1850 western Europe
  • Mid-nineteenth century that included the United
  • Another in first half of twentieth century called
  • Within last fifty years as globalization
  • Industrial Revolution modernizing Europe like the
    French Revolution
  • Rural Europeisolated from developments as a
    result of the Enlightenment religious faith,
    clerical authority, ancient superstition
  • Changes begin in England in the mid 1700s delay
    in France due to political and social conflict
    after French Revolution (Perry 500) resistance
    to change traditional methods peasants small
    plots of land difficult to use new methods
    Netherlandshad wealth, transportation system,
    navy, technical knowledge but lacking natural
    resources (coal) Britainlabor pool, coal and
    iron, private enterprise, stable environment of
    law, order, and protection of private property

Redefining Classes
  • Social and economic changes
  • Transportation systemsrailroads and steamships
    communication systems
  • Urbanizationbefore 1800, ten percent of European
    population living in cities (20 percent in Great
    Britain and Netherlands) halfway through
    nineteenth century, 52 percent of the English
    lived in cities, 25 percent of the French, 36
    percent of the Germans, 7 percent of Russians, 10
    percent of U.S. inhabitants (Perry 508)
  • Development of commercebourgeoisie of middle
    class people to replace old division of society
    into clergy, nobility, and commoners (511)
  • Idea of middle classes due to divisionswealthiest
    as bankers, factory and mine owners but included
    merchants, shopkeepers, managers, lawyers,
    doctors (Perry 511)
  • Growth of middle class
  • Increased distinction between middle and laboring
    classes (themselves distinct as rural laborers,
    miners, city workers)
  • Political action, call for reform, with
    development of trade unions, mutual aid
    societies, cooperatives, political organizations
    (Perry 513)

Industry, Empire, Revolution
  • Age of industry and empire, transforming Europe
    and the world, leads to social questionconcern
    about social and economic changes as a result of
    industrialization and urbanization
  • Global expansion of European cultureto new
  • Humanitarian commitmentgiving way to the
    heart of darkness?
  • Attempts by workers for improved conditions yet
    new divisions and breaks within society
  • Liberty, science, progress, and evolution
    as nineteenth century concepts
  • Intellectual currentsRealism, positivism,
    Darwinism, Marxism, and liberalism reacting
    against romantic, religious, and metaphysical
    interpretations of nature and society and focused
    on the empirical world movements deriving from
    and expanding the Enlightenment tradition (Perry
  • Liberalism, nationalism, socialism
  • Racism, anti-Semitism, ethnic chauvinism

  • Roots in John Locke (17th century) and
    Enlightenment philosophy (18th century)
    continuation of democratic practices and rational
    outlook of ancient Greece work of French
    philosophes (Montesquieus separations of powers
    and checks and balances, religious toleration and
    freedom of thought) American and French
    Revolutions Bill of Rights French National
    Assembly of 1789 (Perry 534)
  • Constitutional guarantees of personal liberty and
    free trade in economics, leading to social
    improvement and economic growth Adam Smiths
    laissez-faire theory
  • Support of Industrial Revolution but opposing
    violence and state power promoted by French
    Revolution, repudiated Jacobin radicalism called
    for end to legacy of Middle Ages and aristocracy
  • Middle classmanufacturers, merchants,
    professionals support liberalism

  • Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859), Democracy in
    America (1835-1840), advocated destruction of
    aristocracy (Perry 537)
  • Thomas Paine (1748-1832), The Rights of Man
    (1791-1792) following Burkes Reflections on the
    Revolution in France
  • Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), utility as reform,
    pain and pleasure, philosophical radicals (Perry

  • Following liberalism
  • liberties advocated by liberals benefited only
    the middle classthe owners of factories and
    businessesnot the workers (MW 675)
  • Sought to reorganize society
  • Critique of Industrial Revolution for creating
    two classes new middle class (capitalists who
    own the wealth) and working class
  • Early socialists as romantics, dreaming of a
    New social order, a future utopia, where each
    individual could find happiness and
    self-fulfillment (Perry 540), did not advocate
    class warfare
  • Charles Fourier (1772-1837), phalansteries,
    communities Robert Owen (1771-1858)Welshfactory
    town in Scotland, then Indiana (New Harmony,
    1920s) (Florida?) (Perry 540-541)
  • Emancipation of women
  • New collectivism emphasizing equality Christian
    or romantic motivations, scientific and
    revolutionary (Marx) (998)

Realism and Naturalism
  • Realismart and literature in mid 1800s
    opposition to Romanticism, privileging of passion
    and intuition, inner life
  • Realists focused on external world, social
    conditions, contemporary manners, everyday life
    (Perry 573)
  • Romantic poetry vs. realist novel depicting human
    behavior and social conditions
  • Honoré de Balzac (1799-1950) Gustave Flaubert
    (1821-1880 Madame Bovary (1856)) Charles
    Dickens (1812-1870) Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910 War
    and Peace (1863-1869), Anna Karenina
  • Naturalism demonstrating causal relationship
    between human character and social environment
    law of cause and effect influence of scientific
    method (Perry 576)
  • Émile Zola (1840-1902), the experimental novel
  • Accurate portrayals of human behavior and social
    conditions in both realism and naturalism,
    showing effects of science, industrialism, and
  • Developments in philosophy mirror these ideas in
    art and literature

Realism and Naturalism
  • Realism as accepted literary and artistic slogan
    in the 1850s but uses date to turn of the
    nineteenth century (999)
  • As objective methodology
  • Author disappears into background, world seen as
    it is (999)
  • Rejection of Romantic creed