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Industrialization and Immigration

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Industrialization and Immigration Age of Steel Late 1800 s, early 1900 s huge growth in manufacturing Steel made by heating iron with other metals Bessemer ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Industrialization and Immigration


1
Industrialization and Immigration
2
Age of Steel
  • Late 1800s, early 1900s huge growth in
    manufacturing
  • Steel made by heating iron with other metals
  • Bessemer Process speeds steel production, makes
    it cheaper

3
  • Steel rails for RRs start growth
  • Steel starts being used for skyscrapers, bridges
  • Steel boom leads to other industries, air brakes,
    passenger cars Pullman
  • Increase in RR leads to growth of cities

4
New Power
  • Kerosene first used from oil cooking, heating,
    light
  • Gasoline from oil, gas engine leads the way for
    cars
  • Wright Brothers first airplane Kitty Hawk, NC

5
  • Thomas Edison uses of electricity, many patents
    including light bulb
  • Alexander Graham Bell invents telephone, cities
    linked by wires
  • Cable laid on ocean floor from US to Europe

6
Big Business
  • Free enterprise gov stays out of business
  • Entrepreneurs people who start new businesses
  • Corporations selling stock in company,
    stockholders profit if company does well

7
Business Leaders
  • Andrew Carnegie steel production, started
    vertical integration own all parts of production
  • John D. Rockefeller Standard Oil Company,
    horizontal integration all business in one area
    monopoly

8
  • R.J. Reynolds tobacco in NC, rolled tobacco for
    cigs, advertising big

9
Business Good and Bad
  • Trust multiple companies under control of one
    group board of directors
  • Critics say trusts and monopolies drive out
    competition
  • Social Darwinism survival of the fittest in
    business
  • Philanthropy giving money to the needy or public
    projects

10
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11
Industrial Workers
  • Machines replace skilled workers with unskilled
  • Low pay and poor working conditions, complain and
    get replaced easily
  • Unions form to protect workers, try to get better
    pay, hours and conditions
  • Collective bargaining workers together have more
    voice

12
  • Strikes refusal to work to get better conditions
  • Homestead strike Carnegie Steel factory locks
    out workers
  • Pullman strike Pullman train cars, strike
    spreads through RR industry

13
New Immigration
  • To this point mostly England, Ireland, Germany
  • New immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe,
    Asian
  • Unfamiliar customs Eastern Orthodox, Catholic,
    Judaism
  • Cheap passage over in steerage mechanical areas
    of ship

14
  • Immigration centers, Ellis Island and Statue of
    Liberty
  • Interviews to get into US, read/write, physical
    exams to keep out diseases
  • Form neighborhoods of common cultures, hear own
    language, foods, customs, make own newspapers,
    churches

15
Opposition to Immigration
  • Nativism favoring native born people over
    foreign born
  • Discrimination against Irish, Italian, Jews and
    Chinese
  • Chinese Exclusion Act bans Chinese from coming
    to US
  • Immigration Restriction Act had to read/write in
    some language to get into US

16
Populist Party
  • Farmers suffer during time period, blame
    businesses, especially RRs
  • Organizations form to help farmers- National
    Grange
  • Populist Party want gov to control RR, trade,
    coinage of money
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