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A.P. U.S. History


A.P. U.S. History The Gilded Age POLITICS: 1877-1894 Problems of the underclass ignored Instead, govt. had belief in laissez faire, and concentrated on only 3 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A.P. U.S. History

A.P. U.S. History The Gilded Age
POLITICS 1877-1894
  • Problems of the underclass ignored
  • Instead, govt. had belief in laissez faire, and
    concentrated on only 3 issues
  • (1) tariff (2) money supply (3) civil service
  • House changes majority 5 times
  • Previous President Grants presidency plagued
    with corruption scandal (Grantism)
  • Spoils system popular in the time period
  • 1873 stock market panic led to depression in
    1873-1878 which had an impact on the period

Major Parties Platforms and Bases of Support
  • Republicans
  • New England, Upper Midwest,
  • Plains
  • small towns and rural areas
  • Protestants
  • Immigrants British, Swedes,
  • Norwegians
  • African Americans
  • Grand Army of the Republic
  • (veterans of the Civil War)
  • High tariffs
  • Temperance
  • English-only compulsory education
  • Democrats
  • South Lower
  • Midwest
  • cities in the North
  • Catholics
  • Immigrants Irish,
  • Germans, New
  • Immigrants
  • Low tariffs
  • Anti-temperance
  • No English-only
  • education

Rutherford B. Hayes Republican 1877-1881
  • Won Election of 1876
  • Restores respectability to office of President
  • Attacked corrupt NYC customs house and fired
    Chester Arthur there
  • Sent in federal troops to end the BO railroad
  • Munn v. Illinois (1877) ruling supported Granger
  • Greenback Party formed (1877) supported
    expanded money supply, and benefits to farmers
    and industrial workers

During the Hayes administration the Republican
Party was split into two factions
  • Stalwarts
  • - conservative faction
  • opposed to Hayes' efforts
  • to reconcile with the South
  • opposed all forms of civil
  • service reform, preferring
  • spoils or patronage system
  • backed the protective tariff
  • supported by Radical
  • Republicans and party
  • bosses
  • Half-Breeds
  • moderate faction
  • backed Hayes'
  • lenient treatment
  • of the South
  • supported
  • moderate civil
  • service reform

James Garfield Republican 1881
  • Won Election of 1880
  • Half-Breed who won Republican nomination named
    Stalwart Chester Arthur as his running mate to
    keep party together
  • Garfield assassinated by an angry Stalwart who
    supported Garfield in hopes of gaining a govt.
    position in the spoils system
  • Arthur becomes President

Chester Arthur Republican 1881-1885
  • Became President when Garfield assassinated
  • Arthur has reputation for corruption from his
    days in NY political machine and the NYC custom
  • Partly because Arthur was president the cause of
    civil service reform became a hot issue
  • Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883) set up exams
    and standards for gaining federal govt.
    positions, and forbade workers from giving
    contributions to candidates

Grover Cleveland Democrat 1885-1889
  • Won Election of 1884 by gaining support of
    Mugwumps (republicans who switched sides as they
    felt that the Republican candidate Blaine was
    part of the corrupt spoils system)
  • Supporter of laissez faire
  • Wanted lower tariffs so federal budget surplus
    would drop, so Congress not tempted to add pork
    barrel projects to laws

Grover Cleveland Democrat 1885-1889
  • Wabash Railroad Strike (1885)
  • Haymarket Square Incident (1886)
  • vetoed a bill (1887) that gave pensions to all
    veterans even if their disability was unrelated
    to war
  • Wabash v. Illinois (1887) ruling overturned
    Munn decision and prohibited states regulation of
    interstate RR trade
  • Interstate Commerce Act (1887) overturned
    Wabash decision allowing federal govt. to
    regulate interstate transportation and trade

Benjamin Harrison Republican 1889-1893
  • gained 4 million war chest from industrialists
    upset with Clevelands low tariffs to win
    election in 1888
  • Increased Civil War pensions by 43
  • McKinley Tariff (1890) pushed them to all-time
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) first major
    attempt by federal govt. to regulate monopolies
    and trusts
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act (1890) U.S. to buy
    nations output of silver

Benjamin Harrison Republican 1889-1893
  • Southern and Northwestern Alliances merged in
    1889 and ran candidates in 1890 midterm elections
  • wanted govt. action on behalf of farmers and
    workers, such as tariff reduction, graduated
    income tax, public ownership of RRs, unlimited
    coinage of silver
  • Party split over whether it could operate within
    the Democratic Party (which Southerners wanted)

Benjamin Harrison Republican 1889-1893
  • Democrats won back control of Congress in the
    1890 midterm elections as people were upset about
    Republican ties to big industry
  • Peoples Party or Populist Party (1892) took
    alliances platform and added political reforms
    like direct election of US Senators, initiative,
    recall, and referendum, and called for govt.
    warehouses for crops so they could be stored
    until prices rose
  • Homestead Strike (1892)

Grover Cleveland Democrat 1893-1897
  • Won Election of 1892 due to these factors
  • Populists hurt by lack of Southern support as
    they kept traditional loyalties to Democratic
    Party and because the Populists ran a former
    Union general James Weaver
  • Republicans hurt by public reaction to labor
    violence (Homestead Strike) and McKinley Tariff
  • Cleveland grew more conservative and won back
    support of businessmen by opposing populism and
    by supporting the gold standard

Grover Cleveland Democrat 1893-1897
  • Panic of 1893 caused by agricultural
    stagnation, slumping RR growth which led to
    crisis in the iron and steel industries,
    depletion of the gold supply, and depletion of
    govt. surplus due to veterans pensions and pork
    barrel projects
  • banks and RRs failed and stock prices dropped
  • led to the depression from 1893-1897
  • Industrial unemployment 20-25
  • Agricultural prices dropped 20

Grover Cleveland Democrat 1893-1897
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act repealed in (1893) to
    save the gold supply
  • Pullman Strike (1894)
  • In re Debs case (1895)
  • Bankers like J.P. Morgan loaned the govt.
    millions in exchange for discounted US bonds
    (which stopped the gold drain)

Lower classes perceived a govt. and money class
alliance that they couldnt break
  • Morgan loan for huge profits
  • Inability to pass lower tariff by Congress
  • Clevelands using force to end Pullman Strike
  • End of Sherman Silver Purchase Act angered
    farmers as it meant money supply would not grow

Grover Cleveland Democrat 1893-1897
  • Republicans gained seats in 1894 midterm
    elections winning both houses
  • Immigrants battered by depression throughout
    Clevelands presidency left the Democratic Party
  • Progressive movement within the Republican Party
    emerges and takes votes from the Populists
  • Democratic Party split over gold standard and
    silver advocates take control of the partys

William McKinley Republican 1897-1901
  • Won Election of 1896
  • William Jennings Bryans Cross of Gold Speech
    made adding silver to the money standard the
    major issue for the Democrats
  • Populists joined the Democrats giving up many of
    their platform goals to try to gain free silver
  • Republican McKinleys victory meant end to the
    Populist Party

William McKinley Republican 1897-1901
  • By stressing one issue in the 1896 election the
    Democrats couldnt appeal to factory workers and
    the urban middle class
  • Protestant revivalist preacher Bryan turned off
    immigrants who were Jews Catholics and against
    his temperance stance
  • Defeat of Populism led to Republican reign of
    power (with exception of Wilsons two terms) that
    lasted until FDR in 1932

William McKinley Republican 1897-1901
  • Dingley Tariff (1897) pushed rates to a new
    all-time high
  • Currency Act (1900) officially committed the US
    to the gold standard
  • Populist movement ended, but a new reform
    movement called progressivism would emerge
  • Thorstein Veblens Theory of the Leisure Class
  • conspicuous consumption of the rich

Progressive Reforms in the Gilded Age
  • Only three major pieces of progressive
    legislation were passed during the period
  • Pendleton Civil Service Act
  • Interstate Commerce Act
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act
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