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Human Geography By James Rubenstein

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Title: Human Geography By James Rubenstein


1
Human Geography By James Rubenstein
  • Chapter 6
  • Key Issue 4
  • Why do territorial conflicts arise among
    religious groups?

2
Fundamentalism
  • The literal interpretation and a strict and
    intense adherence to basic principles of a
    religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or
    sect).

3
Religion vs. Government Policies
  • In recent years, religious principles have become
    increasingly important in the political
    organization of countries, especially where a
    branch of Christianity or Islam is the prevailing
    religion.

4
Religion vs. Social Change
  • Many religious adherents in LDCs view economic
    development as incompatible with religious values
    . . .
  • especially where Christianity is not the
    predominant religion.

5
Taliban vs. Western Values
  • Gained power in Afghanistan in 1996.
  • The U.S. welcomed them as a strong impediment to
    future invasion by the Russians.
  • Imposed strict laws inspired by Islamic values.

6
Taliban Laws
  • Men were beaten for shaving their beards.
  • Homosexuals were buried alive.
  • Prostitutes were hanged in front of large
    audiences.
  • Thieves had their hands cut off.
  • Women wearing nail polish had their fingers cut
    off.

7
Banned Western Leisure Activities such as . . .
  • playing music,
  • flying kites,
  • watching television, and
  • surfing the internet.

8
Hinduism vs. Social Equality
  • Hinduism has been strongly challenged since the
    1800s by the British.
  • The most vulnerable aspect of Indian culture was
    the Caste System.

9
Caste
  • A system in which the class or distinct
    hereditary order into which a Hindu was assigned
    according to religious law.
  • Originated with the Aryans in 1500 B.C.E.

10
Caste System
  • Brahmans were the priests and top
    administrators.
  • Kshatriyas were warriors.
  • Vaisyas were merchants.
  • Shudras were agricultural workers or artisans.
  • The Outcasts, or Untouchables did the work too
    dirty for the other classes.

11
Caste System Today
  • Although the Caste System was outlawed by the
    Indian Government . . .
  • socially the system is still very much alive.

12
Communism vs. Religion
  • Karl Marx had called religion the opium of the
    people.
  • The Communist government of the Soviet Union
    pursued antireligious programs.
  • The role of organized religion in Soviet life
    could be reduced and was.

13
Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Islam vs. the
Soviet Union
  • The end of Communist rule brought a religious
    revival in Eastern Europe.
  • Central Asian countries are struggling to
    determine the extent to which laws should conform
    to Islamic custom.

14
Buddhism vs. Southeast Asian Countries
  • The French, the United States and the Communist
    were not particularly sympathetic to the
    Buddhists.
  • Buddhists immolated themselves in protest to
    policies of South Vietnam.

15
  • Buddhist Monk burning himself in protest of the
    South Vietnam Government

16
Religion vs. Religion
  • Conflicts are most likely to occur at boundaries
    between two religious groups.
  • Two long-standing conflicts involving religious
    groups are
  • 1. The Middle East
  • 2. Northern Ireland

17
Religion Wars in the Middle East
  • Jews, Christians, and Muslims have fought for
    2000 years to control the same strip of land.
  • All three groups trace their origins to Abraham
    in the Old Testament narrative.

18
Claims on Palestine
  • Judaism call Palestine the Promised Land.
  • Christians consider Palestine the Holy Land.
  • Muslims regard Jerusalem as their third holiest
    city. It is the place from which Muhammad is
    thought to have ascended to heaven.

19
Old City of Jerusalem
20
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21
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22
Spread of Islam
  • The Arab army diffused Islam throughout the
    Middle East and North Africa.
  • In C.E. 710, Muslim armies conquered Spain and
    occupied much of France.
  • In 1453 Muslim armies captured Constantinople
    and later advanced up to Bosnia and Herzegovina.

23
European Response to Islam
  • In C.E. 735, Charles Martel of the Franks halted
    the Muslim advance into Western Europe and
    insured that Christianity would be Europes
    dominant religion.
  • Europe launched a series of Crusades to capture
    Jerusalem and finally lost in 1244.

24
Control of Palestine
  • The Ottoman Empire controlled Palestine between
    1516 and 1917.
  • Great Britain took over Palestine from the
    League of Nations mandate after World War I but
    withdrew in 1948.
  • The United Nations voted to partition Palestine
    into two states in 1947.

25
Israels New Beginning
  • In 1948, Jews declared an independent state of
    Israel.
  • Arab neighbors declared War.
  • A 1949 Armistice divided the control of
    Jerusalem, but denied Jews access to the Old
    City.
  • Israel won 3 more wars with their neighbors in
    1956, 1967, and 1973.

26
Jews Captured Territory from Neighbors
  • Israel captured the West Bank and the entire
    city of Jerusalem from Jordan.
  • Israel acquired the Golan Heights from Syria.
  • Israel gained the Gaza Strip and the Sinai
    Peninsula from Egypt.

27
Partition Plan of 1947
28
Boundary Changes After 1948-1949 War
29
Boundary Changes after 1967 (Six Day War)
30
  • Israel returned the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, and
    in return Egypt recognized Israels right to
    exist.
  • The status of the other territories has not been
    settled.

31
  • After the 1973 war, Egypt and Jordan recognized
    the Palestinians as legitimate rulers of the Gaza
    Strip and the West Bank.
  • The Palestinians saw themselves as the rulers of
    Israel.

32
The West Bank
  • A section of the western bank of the Jordan
    river.
  • U.N. petitioned for a Palestinian state.
  • After 1967 war, Israel allowed Jewish
    settlements in the region.
  • Palestinians see immigration as a hostile act.

33
With 100 settlements, the Jews represent only 7
of the population of the West Bank.
34
Palestinian Question
  • The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)
    led fight against Israel.
  • Israel allowed limited authority over West Bank
    and Gaza by the Palestinian Authority.
  • Some Palestinians want to continue fighting for
    all the land.

35
  • The U.N. partition allocated the highlands to the
    Palestinians.
  • Jordan and Syria used the highlands from which to
    attack the Jews.

36
The Palestinians occupied most of the high ground.
37
  • The ultimate obstacle to peace in the region is
    the status of Jerusalem.
  • Israel has no intention of giving up control of
    the Old City.
  • Palestinians refuse to give up their claim to it.

38
Religious Wars in Ireland
  • The most troublesome boundary in Western Europe.
  • Northern Ireland occupies 1/6th of the island of
    Eire (Ireland).

39
The Irish Republic
  • Island became a part of the United Kingdom in
    1801.
  • After a succession of bloody confrontations,
    Ireland became a republic in 1949.
  • Protestant northern counties voted to stay in
    the United Kingdom.

40
Distribution of Protestants in Ireland
41
Northern Ireland
  • Majority protestant.
  • Due to discrimination, Roman Catholics began
    protesting in 1968.
  • Extremist groups formed to promote their views.
  • A 1999 peace agreement frequently must be
    suspended.

42
Conflict
  • The majority of Catholics and Protestants want
    to live in peace.
  • The Irish Republican Army (IRA) are dedicated to
    Irish Unity.
  • The Ulster Defense Force (UDF) is one of the
    protestant extremist who are willing to fight the
    IRA.
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