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Between the Wars: Roaring Twenties


Between the Wars: Roaring Twenties & Revolutions 1920s Chapter 29, part1 Pg. 672-678, 681-685 Bouncing Back? Superficial prosperity marked mid-1920s Modernity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Between the Wars: Roaring Twenties

Between the Wars Roaring Twenties Revolutions
  • Chapter 29, part1
  • Pg. 672-678, 681-685

Bouncing Back?
  • Superficial prosperity marked mid-1920s
  • Modernity ? Fine art Pop culture
  • Women gained right to vote!
  • Alarming exceptions amidst frenzy
  • Lasting economic weakness remains in Western
  • Political extremism increases

Other Industrial Centers
  • Some prewar trends continue in white dominions
  • Dominions independence, economic population
  • U.S. expansion of economic cultural influence
    BUT diplomatic isolationism

Rise of Fascism - Italy
  • Ineffective liberal democracy social unrest
    create atmosphere requiring conservative response
    for unity
  • Fascism Mussolini created new Italian
  • National identity promoted over individual
  • Corporate state w/ economic control

New Nations of Eastern Europe
  • Turn to authoritarian gov in response to
    nationalist excitement, territorial rivalry,
    economies based on aristocratic export ag
  • EX- Yugoslavia, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania

Revolution in Russia
1 of 3
  • Poor social conditions political
    ineffectiveness led to strikes, riots,
    eventually overthrowing tsarist rule
  • Western reforms liberal democracy doomed to
  • Weak liberal tradition, middle-class, public
  • Lenin Bolsheviks grab power establish
    communist state
  • Soviet Union (USSR) is born

Revolution in Russia
2 of 3
  • Communists initially faced 2 major problems
    despite soviet support
  • Humiliating treaty ending WWI
  • Lack of broad support
  • Foreign hostility Domestic resistance to loss of
    property, industrial nationalization, famine
  • Stability achieved through institutions
  • Red Army
  • New Economic Policy
  • Supreme Soviet

Revolution in Russia
3 of 3
  • Ultimately, revolution of great success that kept
    some tsarist traditions, but propelled new group
    to power
  • Societal change education based on literacy,
    science communism
  • Stalin succeeds Lenin with pragmatic,
    nationalistic brand of socialism
  • Sped industrialization collectivization

Between the Wars Depression Authoritarianism
  • Chapter 29, part2
  • Pg. 690-694, 699-703

Causes Debacle of Economic Depression
Stock market surge (based on loans)
Post-War Inflation (illusion of prosperity)
Competition Rising Efficiency
Over- production
Reduced prices profits
Lost Confidence
1929 stock market crash
Bank failures dried up Investment
Production slows
Rising unemployment
Economic collapse
Shattered social political ideals
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Economic Responses in Europe U.S.
  • W. Euro govts responded ineffectively
  • High tariffs spending cuts further slow
  • Inspired political polarization or overthrow
  • EX Popular Front
  • Scandinavia, the exception, increased spending
    which created a welfare state
  • U.S. initially duplicated European mistakes, but
    New Deal takes Scandinavian approach by
    increasing spending reforming banking
  • Restored faith in gov, preventing extreme
    political change

Germany Nazi Political Response
  • Depression Treaty of Versailles make fascism a
    clear choice
  • Fascist, totalitarian gov, led by Hitler, quickly
  • Emphasized unity, strong leadership military,
    economic planning
  • Used personal hatred of Jews to create scapegoat
    for all Germanys ills

Hitler speech before Reichstag (July 13, 1934)
addressing his elimination of political opponents.
  • "I gave the order to shoot those who were the
    ringleaders in this treason, and I further gave
    the order to burn down to the raw flesh the
    ulcers of this poisoning of the wells in our
    domestic life. I am ready to undertake the
    responsibility at the bar of history for the
    dearest thing that has been given us in this
    world--the German people and the German Reich!"

Europe Fascism Spreads in Response
  • Hitlers success led to spread of fascist ideas
    in E. Europe
  • Hungary, Romania
  • Spain experiences civil war as result of liberal
    feuds w/ authoritarian supporters
  • Not fully fascist, but new authoritarian gov
    takes root advancing conservatism
  • W. Euro U.S. respond weakly, fearing another
    war distracted by depression

Soviet Union - Stalinism
  • Buffered from depression effects by separate
    communist economy
  • Collectivization (collective farms)
  • s share expensive machines, controlled
    peasants free labor for industry
  • -s messy transition famine, central planning
    w/ little incentives
  • Industrialization (major goal)
  • Overwhelming success
  • Five-year plans

Soviet Union - Stalinism
  • Industrialization met w/ incentives, welfare
    services, problem-solving
  • Stalin exerted total control
  • Controlled arts sciences
  • Used secret police party purges ruthlessly
  • USSR gradually shift from inward focus to more
    active diplomacy