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Between the Wars: Roaring Twenties

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Between the Wars: Roaring Twenties & Revolutions 1920s Chapter 29, part1 Pg. 672-678, 681-685 Bouncing Back? Superficial prosperity marked mid-1920s Modernity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Between the Wars: Roaring Twenties


1
Between the Wars Roaring Twenties Revolutions
1920s
  • Chapter 29, part1
  • Pg. 672-678, 681-685

2
Bouncing Back?
  • Superficial prosperity marked mid-1920s
  • Modernity ? Fine art Pop culture
  • Women gained right to vote!
  • Alarming exceptions amidst frenzy
  • Lasting economic weakness remains in Western
    Europe
  • Political extremism increases

3
Other Industrial Centers
  • Some prewar trends continue in white dominions
    U.S.
  • Dominions independence, economic population
    growth
  • U.S. expansion of economic cultural influence
    BUT diplomatic isolationism

4
Rise of Fascism - Italy
  • Ineffective liberal democracy social unrest
    create atmosphere requiring conservative response
    for unity
  • Fascism Mussolini created new Italian
    government
  • National identity promoted over individual
  • Corporate state w/ economic control

5
New Nations of Eastern Europe
  • Turn to authoritarian gov in response to
    nationalist excitement, territorial rivalry,
    economies based on aristocratic export ag
  • EX- Yugoslavia, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania

6
Revolution in Russia
1 of 3
  • Poor social conditions political
    ineffectiveness led to strikes, riots,
    eventually overthrowing tsarist rule
  • Western reforms liberal democracy doomed to
    fail
  • Weak liberal tradition, middle-class, public
    support
  • Lenin Bolsheviks grab power establish
    communist state
  • Soviet Union (USSR) is born

7
Revolution in Russia
2 of 3
  • Communists initially faced 2 major problems
    despite soviet support
  • Humiliating treaty ending WWI
  • Lack of broad support
  • Foreign hostility Domestic resistance to loss of
    property, industrial nationalization, famine
  • Stability achieved through institutions
  • Red Army
  • New Economic Policy
  • Supreme Soviet

8
Revolution in Russia
3 of 3
  • Ultimately, revolution of great success that kept
    some tsarist traditions, but propelled new group
    to power
  • Societal change education based on literacy,
    science communism
  • Stalin succeeds Lenin with pragmatic,
    nationalistic brand of socialism
  • Sped industrialization collectivization

9
Between the Wars Depression Authoritarianism
1930s
  • Chapter 29, part2
  • Pg. 690-694, 699-703

10
Causes Debacle of Economic Depression
Stock market surge (based on loans)
Post-War Inflation (illusion of prosperity)
Competition Rising Efficiency
Over- production
Reduced prices profits
Lost Confidence
1929 stock market crash
Bank failures dried up Investment
Production slows
Rising unemployment
Economic collapse
Shattered social political ideals
11
(No Transcript)
12
Economic Responses in Europe U.S.
  • W. Euro govts responded ineffectively
  • High tariffs spending cuts further slow
    economies
  • Inspired political polarization or overthrow
  • EX Popular Front
  • Scandinavia, the exception, increased spending
    which created a welfare state
  • U.S. initially duplicated European mistakes, but
    New Deal takes Scandinavian approach by
    increasing spending reforming banking
  • Restored faith in gov, preventing extreme
    political change

13
Germany Nazi Political Response
  • Depression Treaty of Versailles make fascism a
    clear choice
  • Fascist, totalitarian gov, led by Hitler, quickly
    crafted
  • Emphasized unity, strong leadership military,
    economic planning
  • Used personal hatred of Jews to create scapegoat
    for all Germanys ills

14
Hitler speech before Reichstag (July 13, 1934)
addressing his elimination of political opponents.
  • "I gave the order to shoot those who were the
    ringleaders in this treason, and I further gave
    the order to burn down to the raw flesh the
    ulcers of this poisoning of the wells in our
    domestic life. I am ready to undertake the
    responsibility at the bar of history for the
    dearest thing that has been given us in this
    world--the German people and the German Reich!"

15
Europe Fascism Spreads in Response
  • Hitlers success led to spread of fascist ideas
    in E. Europe
  • Hungary, Romania
  • Spain experiences civil war as result of liberal
    feuds w/ authoritarian supporters
  • Not fully fascist, but new authoritarian gov
    takes root advancing conservatism
  • W. Euro U.S. respond weakly, fearing another
    war distracted by depression

16
Soviet Union - Stalinism
  • Buffered from depression effects by separate
    communist economy
  • Collectivization (collective farms)
  • s share expensive machines, controlled
    peasants free labor for industry
  • -s messy transition famine, central planning
    w/ little incentives
  • Industrialization (major goal)
  • Overwhelming success
  • Five-year plans

17
Soviet Union - Stalinism
  • Industrialization met w/ incentives, welfare
    services, problem-solving
  • Stalin exerted total control
  • Controlled arts sciences
  • Used secret police party purges ruthlessly
  • USSR gradually shift from inward focus to more
    active diplomacy
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