# Introduction to Quantum Computing Lecture 2 of 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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## Introduction to Quantum Computing Lecture 2 of 2

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### CS 497 Frontiers of Computer Science Introduction to Quantum Computing Lecture 2 of 2 Richard Cleve David R. Cheriton School of Computer Science – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Quantum Computing Lecture 2 of 2

1
Introduction to Quantum ComputingLecture 2 of 2
CS 497 Frontiers of Computer Science
• Richard Cleve
• David R. Cheriton School of Computer Science
• Institute for Quantum Computing
• University of Waterloo

2
Recap of previous lecture
quantum states
Quantum states on n qubits are 2n-dimensional
unit vectors
• The basic operations on them are
• unitary operations (rotations)
• measurements, that project on
• to the basis states

quantum circuits
• Quantum algorithms so far
• f(0) ? f(1) Deutsch
• one-out-of-four search

3
one-out-of-N search?
Natural question what about search problems in
spaces larger than four (and without uniqueness
conditions)?
For spaces of size eight (say), the previous
method breaks downthe state vectors will not be
orthogonal
Later on, well see how to search a space of size
N with O(?N ) queries ...
4
Contents of lecture 2
1. Preliminary remarks
2. Quantum states
3. Unitary operations measurements
4. Subsystem structure quantum circuit diagrams
5. Introductory remarks about quantum algorithms
6. Deutschs parity algorithm
7. One-out-of-four search algorithm
8. Shors period finding algorithm
9. Grovers search algorithm
10. Concluding remarks

5
Contents of lecture 2
1. Preliminary remarks
2. Quantum states
3. Unitary operations measurements
4. Subsystem structure quantum circuit diagrams
5. Introductory remarks about quantum algorithms
6. Deutschs parity algorithm
7. One-out-of-four search algorithm
8. Shors period finding algorithm
9. Grovers search algorithm
10. Concluding remarks

6
Period-finding
Given f 0,1n ? T such that f is
(strictly) r-periodic, with unknown period r
Classically this is very hard in the general
caseessentially it is as hard as finding a
collision, which costs 2O(n) queries
Yet Quantum algorithms can determine r very
efficiently with only O(1) queries to f
This is the basis of Shors factoring algorithm
...
7
Application of period-finding algorithm
Order-finding problem (? factoring) Input m (an
n-bit integer) and a lt m such that gcd(x, m )
1 Output the minimum r gt 0 such that ar
1 (mod m )
Example let a 4 and m 35
(note that gcd(4,35) 1)
• 41 mod 35 4
• 42 mod 35 16
• 43 mod 35 29
• 44 mod 35 11
• 45 mod 35 9
• 46 mod 35 1
• 47 mod 35 4
• 48 mod 35 16

Question what is r in this case?
The sequence is cyclic because the set Zm a ?
1,2,, m ? 1 gcd(x, m ) 1 is a group
under multiplication mod m
8
Application of period-finding algorithm
Order-finding problem (? factoring) Input m (an
n-bit integer) and a lt m such that gcd(x, m )
1 Output the minimum r gt 0 such that ar
1 (mod m )
No classical polynomial-time algorithm is known
for this problem in fact, the factoring problem
reduces to it
Order-finding reduces to finding the period of
the function f (x) a x mod m, which can be
computed in polynomial time
A circuit computing the function f is
substituted into the black-box
9
Sketch of period-finding algorithm
Construct ?x x, f (x)? and then measure second
register to get the following state
(k random)
k? k r? k 2r? k 3r? k
(s? 1)r?
Measuring this state yields just a uniformly
random value
More is needed to extract r, a global property of
f ...
10
Quantum Fourier transform
where ? e2?i/N
Its a unitary operation on n qubits (an N?N
matrix, where N 2n)
11
Period inversion property
Applying the quantum Fourier transform to the
state k? k r? k 2r? k 3r?
k (s? 1)r?
yields the state 0? ?k s? ?2k 2s? ?3k
3s? ?(r ?1)k (r? 1)s?
? e2?i / r
s r ?1
Note there is no longer an offset k (its now
part of the phase)
Measure to get multiple of s, from which r can be
deduced
12
Computing the QFT
Quantum circuit for F32
reverse order
Gates
For F2n costs O(n2) gates
13
Quantum algorithm for order-finding
Quantum Fourier transform
after measuring these qubits, can calculate r
using classical methods
?0?
H
H
?0?
H
H
4
?0?
H
4
8
H
?0?
?0?
?1?
Ua,M ?x,y? ?x,axy mod m ? (poly-size
circuit)
Number of gates for a constant success
probability is O(n2 log n loglog n)
14
Two-dimensional periodicity
Given f 0,1n ?0,1n ? T with a
two-dimensional repeating pattern
Goal find a simple description of this periodic
strucuture
Quantum algorithms can also solve this very
efficiently, and this is the basis of Shors
discrete logarithm algorithm 1994
15
Hidden subgroup problem
Let G be a known group and H be an unknown
subgroup of G
Let f G ? T have the property f (x) f ( y)
iff x y?1 ? H (i.e., x and y are in the same
right coset of H )
Problem given a method for computing f,
determine H
Example G Sn , the symmetric group
(permutations of 1,2,, n)
Interesting fact a fast algorithm for this leads
to a fast algorithm for the graph isomorphism
problem
alas no efficient quantum has been found for
this version of HSP, despite significant effort
by many people
16
Contents of lecture 2
1. Preliminary remarks
2. Quantum states
3. Unitary operations measurements
4. Subsystem structure quantum circuit diagrams
5. Introductory remarks about quantum algorithms
6. Deutschs parity algorithm
7. One-out-of-four search algorithm
8. Shors period finding algorithm
9. Grovers search algorithm
10. Concluding remarks

17
Prelude factoring vs. NP
Is factoring an NP-hard problem?
If so, then every problem in NP is solvable by a
poly-time quantum algorithm!
But factoring hasnt been shown to be NP-hard
Moreover, there is evidence that it is not
NP-hard factoring ? NP?co-NP
If factoring is NP-hard then NP co-NP
18
Quantum search problem
Given a black box computing f 0,1n ? 0,1
Goal find x ? 0,1n such that f (x) 1
Classically, using probabilistic procedures,
order 2n queries are necessary to succeed even
with probability ¾ (say)
Query
Grover 96
19
Applications of quantum search
The function f could be realized as a 3-CNF
formula
In fact, the search could be for a certificate
for any problem in NP
The resulting quantum algorithms appear to be
quadratically more efficient than the best
classical algorithms known
20
Prelude to Grovers algorithm
two reflections a rotation
Consider two lines with intersection angle ?
?2
?2
?1
?1
Net effect rotation by angle 2?, regardless of
starting vector
21
Grovers algorithm I
Basic operations used
Query
Uf ?x?(?0? ? ?1?) (?1) f(x) ?x?(?0? ? ?1?)
Diffusion
Costs only O(n) gates
22
Grovers algorithm II
?0?
H
?0?
???
• construct state H ?0...0????
• repeat k times
• apply D Uf to state
• 3. measure state, to get x?0,1n, and check if
f (x) 1

23
Grovers algorithm III
Algorithm (D Uf )k H ?0...0?
2?
2?
2?
H?0...0? ?x ?x?
2?
?
24
Contents of lecture 2
1. Preliminary remarks
2. Quantum states
3. Unitary operations measurements
4. Subsystem structure quantum circuit diagrams
5. Introductory remarks about quantum algorithms
6. Deutschs parity algorithm
7. One-out-of-four search algorithm
8. Shors period finding algorithm and factoring
9. Grovers search algorithm
10. Concluding remarks

25
Conclusion
Extended Chruch-Turing Thesis any
polynomial-time algorithm can be simulated by a
probabilistic polynomial-time Turing machine
Quantum computing challenges this thesis
Either
• The Extended Chruch-Turing Thesis is false
• Quantum mechanics as we understand it is false
• There is a classical poly-time factoring
algorithm

There are many curious properties of quantum
information in the context of computation,
communication, and cryptography
Waterloo has many people in the faculties of
Mathematics, Science, and Engineering working in
quantum computing (please see www.iqc.ca more
information)
26
Some possible project topics
• Efficient quantum proofs an example is the
group non-membership problem
• Nonlocal effects apparently paradoxical tricks
that can be performed with entangled states
• Quantum error-correcting codes important for
physical implementations of quantum information
processing
• Alternate models of quantum computation an
example is the measurement-based model
• Quantum walks the quantum analogues of random
walks, and their algorithmic applications
• Quantum cryptography information-theoretical
security in a public-key setting

27
THE END