Loading...

PPT – Quantum Physics PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 7334f4-YzU0Z

The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Quantum Physics

Quantum PhysicsPhysics - Overview

Classical Physics

Macrocosmos (universe)

Daily life

Quantum Physics

Microcosmos (atom)

Quantum PhysicsWhat is Quantum Physics?

In physics, a quantum is the minimum of any

physical entity involved in an interaction. Fundam

ental physical property may be quantized.

Quantum Physics is a branch of physics providing

a mathematical description of microcosmos (atoms,

elementary particles, )

Microcosmos (atom)

Quantum PhysicsMicrocosmos

99.999999999999 of the atom is empty space

1000distance earth/sun

Atom Diameter 1 km

Quantum PhysicsMicrocosmos in our daily life

Quantum PhysicsMicrocosmos in our daily life -

FutureQuantum Computer

Quantum Computer

A quantum computer is a device for computation

that makes direct use of quantum physical

phenomena, such as superposition and

entanglement to perform operations on

data. Quantum computers are different from

traditional computers based on transistors. The

basic principle behind quantum computation is

that quantum properties can be used to represent

data and perform operations on these

data. Experiments have been carried out where

quantum computational operations were executed on

number of qubits (quantum bits).

Quantum PhysicsMicrocosmos in our daily life -

FutureQuantum Cryptograhpy

Cryptography

Cryptography is the practice and study of hiding

information. Modern crypthography intersects the

disciplines of mathematics, computer science and

electrical engineering. Quantum cryptography

describes the use of quantum physics

effects. Well-known examples of quantum

cryptography are the use of quantum

communication to securely exchange a key (quantum

key distribution). The advantage of quantum

cryptography lies in the fact that it allows the

completions of various cryptographic tasks that

er proven to be impossible using only classical

communications. In particular, quantum physics

guarantees that measuring quantum data disturbs

the data, this can be used to detect an

adversarys interference with a message.

Quantum PhysicsMicrocosmos in our daily life -

FutureQuantum secured bank transfer

Quantum secured bank transfer

Quantum PhysicsPhysics - History

. . . . . . .

2000

Quantum physics

Theory of relativity

1900

Microcosmos

Electromagnetism Thermophysics Planetary

motion Mechanics

.

Quantum PhysicsPlancks law of blackbody

radiation

Quantum of Energy

Quantum PhysicsPhotoelectric Effect

Light cannot be explained purely as a wave

phenomenon

Quantum PhysicsCompton scattering

Light cannot be explained purely as a wave

phenomenon

Quantum PhysicsDouble Slit Experiment

Quantum PhysicsMach-Zhender interferometer

6

4-6

0.25

6

Out2

S2

5

2-4

Out1

4

0.25

5

R2

0.5

4-5

S2

S1

3-5

0.5

0.25

5

1-3

S2

2

3

0.25

6

3-6

S1

Out1 3-5 4-5 0.25 0.25 0.5 Out2 3-6

4-6 0.25 0.25 0.5

Classical physics

R1

1

Out1 1 Out2 0

Quantum physics

In1

Quantum PhysicsEntanglement

Quantum entanglement is a physical resource (in a

way like energy) associated with the nonclassical

correlations that are possible between separated

quantum systems. A pair of quantum systems in an

entangled state can be used as a quantum

information channel to perform computational and

cryptographic tasks that are impossible for

classical systems.

Quantum Physicsx-ray

Quantum PhysicsStrange Questions

An apple is laying on a table. You measure the

position of the apple on the table. Question Whe

re was the apple just before your measurement?

Question Is it possible for a person to be at

two different places at the same

time?

Question Is it possible for two persons to

interact without any kind of communication?

Quantum PhysicsUnderstanding

The mankind has all time been thinking of beeing

in the centre of the world, the earth, the

planetary system, Milky Way,

How can we imagine we are seeing almost the whole

world, we are only seeing a little part of the

electromagnetic spectrum.

In microcosmos we have to learn again almost

everything, we almost have no models / pictures /

conceptions, common sense,

Quantum PhysicsRelativity - Addition of

velocities

Classic

Relativity

The velocity of the person relative to the earth

The velocity of the person relative to the train

The velocity of the train relative to the earth

Quantum PhysicsGPS - Relativity

Because of the high speed, the time moves more

slowly in the satellites. Because we are

closer to the center of the earth, the time moves

more slowly on the earth. The last effect is

greater, therefore the time goes more slowly on

the earth than in the satellite.

We have to use Einsteins theory of relativity to

adjust the time. If not, the GPS would give a

result several kilometers out of position.

Quantum PhysicsStrange situations in microcosmos

A measurement of a system cause a change of the

state of the system

Measuring the door makes the door smaller

A system can be in a superposition of different

states at the same time

Going through two doors at the same time

Changing spin of one of the two particles change

spin of the other though no communication

Two different systems far away from each

other can affect each other momentarily though no

communication

Quantum PhysicsClassical Physics ? Quantum

PhysicsStrange situations in daily lifethat

happens in micro cosmos 1/2

Classical Physics

Quantum Physics

You have parked your car.

If you know your car is parked (zero

velocity), its impossible to find it, it can be

anywhere.

Quantum PhysicsClassical Physics ? Quantum

PhysicsStrange situations in daily lifethat

happens in micro cosmos 2/2

Classical Physics

Quantum Physics

. . . . . . .

The laser changes the speed of the car. Its the

laser control that gives the car its speed.

Always different colors of clothes though they

dont communicate.

The cat is both dead and alive until something

controls it.

The measuring changes the high of the car so it

cannot pass the tunnel.

Quantum PhysicsQuotation

Niels Bohr If you are not confused by quantum

physics then you havent really understood it.

Richard Feynman I think I can safely say that

nobody understands quantum physics.

J.BHaldane The universe is not only more

strange than we suppose, but more strange that we

are able to suppose.

Daniel Greenberger Einstein said that if quantum

physics were correct, then the world would be

crazy. Einstein was right, the world is crazy.

William D. Phillips Entanglements, along with

the superposition states, is the strangest thing

about quantum physics.

Davied Bohm The most fundamental theory now

available is probabilistic in form, not

deterministic.

KvantefysikkInnføring

Fysikk

Matematikk

0 1 2 3 ?0 ?1

Quantum PhysicsStatistics - Discrete

Variables - Continuous Variables

Discrete Variables

Continuous Variables

Probability Probability density

Total probability

Expectation value

Variance

Standard deviation

Kvantefysikk

Kvantefysikk Størrelser som inngår i beskrivelse

av materien og dens vekselvirkning kan bare

anta bestemte, kvantiserte, verdier og ikke

forandre seg kontinuerlig fra en verdi til en

annen.

1900 Plancks strålingslov En energimengde E hf

svarende til hver frekvens f. 1905 Einstein

fotoelektrisk effekt Lys som fotoner eller

energikvanter med energi E hf h Plancks

konstant 6.626 ?10-34 Js.

Usikkerhetsrelasjon (uskarphetsrelasjon)