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INTRODUCTION Biochemistry

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INTRODUCTION BIOCHEMISTRY An Introduction to the Chemistry of Life for Biology Students * DR SEEMAL JELANI Everything is made up of atoms. Living things are made up ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INTRODUCTION Biochemistry


1
INTRODUCTION Biochemistry
An Introduction to the Chemistry of Life for
Biology Students
2
What is Life Made of?
  • Everything is made up of atoms.
  • Living things are made up of cells.
  • Cells are made up of atoms.

3
Atoms
  • Six different elements (atoms) make up 98 of all
    living things
  • Hydrogen
  • Oxygen
  • Carbon
  • Nitrogen
  • Phosphorous
  • Calcium

4
(No Transcript)
5
Molecules
  • Definition A molecule is two or more atoms
    combined.

CO2
C6H12O6
C8H10N4O2
H2O
6
Organic Chemistry
  • What makes Carbon Special?
  • Carbon atoms can bond together to form long
    chains and complex rings.

7
Carbon can form immensely diverse compounds, from
simple to complex.
Complex Molecule
Simple Molecule
DNA with tens of Billions of Carbon atoms
Methane with 1 Carbon atom
8
Biomolecules
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic Acids

4 main molecules involved in life
9
Polymers and Monomers
  • Biomolecules are macromolecules.
  • Macromolecules are Polymers made up of Monomers.

10
Monomers
  • Monomer
  • Monosaccharide (sugar)
  • Hydrocarbon chains
  • Amino acids
  • Nucleotides
  • Macromolecule
  • Carbohydrates
  • Lipids
  • Proteins
  • Nucleic acids

11
Carbohydrates
  • Made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms
  • Job provide living things with energy
  • Examples sugars and starches (corn, rice,
    potato, bread)

12
Lipids
  • Made of long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms
    (with some oxygen).
  • Job store energy, repel water
  • Examples fats and oils (butter, cheese, oil)

13
Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fat

14
Proteins
  • Made of Nitrogen, Carbon,
  • Hydrogen, and other atoms
  • Job Many different jobs in our bodies
  • Examples Enzymes, muscles, hair

15
Nucleic Acids
  • Made of Phosphorous, Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen,
    and Hydrogen atoms
  • Job Store genetic information
  • Examples DNA, RNA
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