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Network Protocols


Network Protocols Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) NWLink NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Network Protocols

Network Protocols
  • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
  • Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
  • NWLink
  • NetBIOS Enhanced User Interface (NetBEUI)
  • AppleTalk
  • Data Link Control (DLC)
  • Infrared Data Association (IrDA)

Introduction to Network Protocols
  • A protocol is a set of rules and conventions for
    sending information over a network.
  • Protocols can be added or deleted at will and
    selectively bound to all network interfaces.
  • Binding order is determined by the order in which
    the protocols were initially installed.
  • Binding order can be changed at any time on a
    per-interface basis.
  • Network services can be selectively enabled or
    disabled on a per-adapter or per-protocol basis.

  • The TCP/IP suite has been adopted by Microsoft as
    the strategic enterprise transport protocol for
    Microsoft Windows 2000.
  • The Windows 2000 TCP/IP suite is designed to make
    it easy to integrate Microsoft enterprise
    networks into large-scale corporate, government,
    and public networks.

  • NWLink is Microsofts implementation of the
    Novell NetWare IPX/SPX protocol.
  • NWLink supports a number of topologies and frame

  • NetBEUI is broadcast-based and is not routable.
  • NetBEUI provides compatibility with existing LANs
    that use the NetBEUI protocol.
  • NetBEUI provides computers running Windows 2000
    with several capabilities.

  • Windows 2000 includes support for AppleTalk.
  • AppleTalk allows Windows 2000 to be a router and
    a dial-up server.
  • For the AppleTalk protocol to function properly,
    a Windows 2000 Server computer must be configured
    with Services for Macintosh and must be available
    on the network.

  • IrDA is a group of short-range, high-speed,
    bidirectional wireless infrared protocols.
  • IrDA allows a variety of devices to communicate
    with one another.
  • The IrDA protocol stack is accessed by using
    Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS)
    connectionless drivers.

Overview of the TCP/IP Suite
Configuring TCP/IP to Use a Static IP Address
Configuring TCP/IP to Obtain an IP Address
  • Using DHCP
  • Using the Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Properties
    dialog box to configure a DHCP client

Using Automatic Private IP Addressing
  • Windows 2000 implementation of TCP/IP.
  • Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) follows
    specific steps in assigning an IP address.
  • After the computer generates the address, it
    broadcasts to this address and then assigns the
    address to itself if no other computer responds.
  • Although APIPA can assign a TCP/IP address to
    Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
    clients, it does not generate all the information
    that is provided by DHCP.
  • Disabling automatic private IP addressing.

Troubleshooting TCP/IP
  • Windows 2000 offers several utilities to assist
    you in troubleshooting TCP/IP.

TCP/IP Utilities
  • File Transport Protocol (FTP)
  • Trivial File Transport Protocol (TFTP)
  • Telnet
  • Remote Copy Protocol (RCP)
  • Remote shell (RSH)
  • Remote execution (REXEC)
  • Finger

Using Ipconfig
  • Use ipconfig to verify the TCP/IP configuration
    parameters on a host.
  • Executing the ipconfig /all command provides
    several results.

Using Ping
  • To test connectivity
  • To test TCP/IP configurations and diagnose
    connection failures
  • To determine whether a particular TCP/IP host is
    available and functioning

Using Ipconfig and Ping
  • The ipconfig command is used to verify that the
    TCP/IP configuration has been initialized.
  • The ping command is used against the loopback
    address ( to verify that TCP/IP is
    correctly installed and bound to your network
    adapter card.
  • The ping command is used with the IP address of
    the local computer to verify that the computer is
    not a duplicate of another IP address on the
  • The ping command is used with the IP address of
    the default gateway to verify that the default
    gateway is operational and that the computer can
    communicate with the local network.
  • The ping command is used with the IP address of a
    remote host to verify that the computer can
    communicate through a router.

Overview of DHCP
  • DHCP is a TCP/IP standard for simplifying the
    management of IP configuration.
  • Each time a DHCP client starts, it requests IP
    addressing information from a DHCP server.
  • When a DHCP server receives a request for an IP
    address, it selects IP addressing information
    from a pool of addresses defined in its database
    and offers the IP addressing information to the
    DHCP client.

The DHCP Lease Process
Installing the DHCP Service
  • The first step in implementing DHCP is to install
    the DHCP Service.
  • To install the DHCP Service, use the Add/Remove
    Programs utility in Control Panel.

The DHCP Snap-In
Creating a DHCP Scope
  • After you have installed the DHCP Service and it
    is running, the next step is to create a scope.
  • When creating a DHCP scope, consider several
  • Use the DHCP snap-in to create a scope.
  • You can specify a number of parameters when
    creating a new scope.
  • Once you have created the scope, you must
    activate it to make it available for lease

Configuring a Client Reservation
Authorizing the DHCP Server
  • A DHCP server must be authorized in Active
    Directory services before it can assign IP
  • Authorization is a security precaution that
    ensures that only authorized DHCP servers run on
    your network.
  • Use the DHCP snap-in to authorize the DHCP server.

The WINS Name Resolution Process
  • Every time a WINS client starts, it registers its
    NetBIOS name/IP address mapping with a designated
    WINS server. It then queries the WINS server for
    the computer name resolution.
  • When a WINS client initiates a NetBIOS command to
    communicate with another network resource, it
    sends the name query request directly to the
    WINS server instead of broadcasting the request
    on the local network.
  • The WINS server finds a NetBIOS name/IP address
    mapping for the destination resource in this
    database, and it returns the IP address to the
    WINS client.

Name Renewal
  • A WINS server registers all NetBIOS names on a
    temporary basis so that other computers can use
    the same name later if the original owner stops
    using it.
  • To continue using the same NetBIOS name, a client
    must renew its lease before the lease expires.
  • A WINS client first attempts to refresh its lease
    after one-eighth of the Time to Live (TTL)
    interval has expired.
  • When half the TTL interval has expired, the WINS
    client attempts to refresh its lease with a
    secondary WINS server.
  • When a WINS server receives the name refresh
    request, it sends the client a name refresh
    response with a new TTL interval.

Name Release
  • When a WINS clients name is no longer in use,
    the client sends a message to the WINS server to
    release the name.
  • When the WINS server receives the name release
    request, it checks its database for the specified

Name Query
  • After a WINS client has registered its NetBIOS
    name and IP address with a WINS server, it can
    communicate with other hosts by obtaining the IP
    address of other NetBIOS-based computers from the
    WINS server.
  • By default, a WINS client attempts to resolve
    another hosts NetBIOS name to an IP address.

WINS Server Configuration
  • A WINS server requires a computer running Windows
    2000 Server however, the server does not have to
    be a domain controller.
  • A WINS server can include additional

WINS Client Configuration
  • A WINS client must be running one of the
    supported operating systems.
  • A WINS client also requires the IP address of a
    primary WINS server and optionally, the IP
    address of a secondary WINS server.

WINS Installation
  • The WINS service is not installed as part of the
    default Windows 2000 Server installation.
  • After you install the WINS Service, you should
    configure its TCP/IP properties so that the
    computer points to itself.

WINS Snap-In
DHCP Server Configuration
Overview of DNS
  • WINS resolves NetBIOS names to IP addresses,
    while DNS resolves IP host names to IP addresses.
  • IP host names resolved by using DNS or other
    means provide a number of benefits.

Domain Namespace
Host Names
  • Host names refer to specific computers on the
    Internet or a private network.
  • A host name is the leftmost portion of the fully
    qualified domain name (FQDN), which describes the
    exact position of a host within the domain
  • DNS uses a hosts FQDN to resolve a name to an IP

Domain Naming Guidelines
  • Limit the number of domain levels.
  • Use unique names.
  • Use simple names.
  • Avoid lengthy domain names.
  • Use standard DNS characters and Unicode

Name Servers
  • A DNS name server stores the zone database file.
  • Name servers can store data for one zone or
    multiple zones.
  • There must be at least one name server for a
  • A zone can have multiple name servers associated
    with it.
  • Multiple name servers provide several advantages.

Introduction to the Name Resolution Process
  • Name resolution is the process of resolving names
    to IP addresses.
  • DNS name servers resolve forward and reverse
    lookup queries.

Forward Lookup Query
Name Server Caching
  • When a name server is processing a query, it
    might be required to send out several queries to
    find the answer.
  • When a name server receives a query request,
    several events occur.
  • Caching query results enables the name server to
    quickly resolve other queries to the same portion
    of the domain namespace.

Reverse Lookup Query
  • A reverse lookup query maps an IP address to a
  • Because the DNS distributed database is indexed
    by name and not by IP address, a reverse lookup
    query would require an exhaustive search of every
    domain name.
  • The domain is based on IP addresses,
    not domain names.

Installing the DNS Service
  • To implement DNS, you must configure the server
    and then install the DNS service.
  • The DNS server must be configured with a static
    IP address.
  • The DNS installation process accomplishes a
    number of tasks.

The DNS Snap-In
Creating Forward Lookup Zones
  • A forward lookup zone enables forward lookup
  • You can configure three types of zones.
  • Typically, a zone is named after the highest
    domain in the hierarchy that the zone encompasses.

Creating Reverse Lookup Zones
  • A reverse lookup zone enables reverse lookup
  • Reverse lookup zones are not required however, a
    reverse lookup zone is required to run
    troubleshooting tools and to record a name
    instead of an IP address in log files.
  • The zone types are the same as the zone type
    options available in creating a forward lookup
  • Enter your network ID or the name of the reverse
    lookup zone.

Adding Resource Records
  • Once you create your zones, you can use the DNS
    snap-in to add resource records.
  • When a zone is created, DNS automatically adds
    two resource records.
  • For a list of other types of resource records
    along with a description of each type, open the
    Resource Record Type dialog box.

Configuring Dynamic DNS
  • Dynamic updates
  • DDNS and DHCP

Configuring a DNS Client
Troubleshooting the DNS Service
  • You can troubleshoot name servers by using the
    monitoring and logging options in the DNS snap-in
    or by using the nslookup command-line utility.
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