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Freight transport trends GHG emissions Overview and key issues Philippe Crist, OECD Environment Directorate Logistics costs = 7.5% of sales revenue Road transport ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aucun%20titre%20de%20diapositive


1

Freight transport trends
GHG emissions
Overview and key issues Philippe Crist, OECD
Environment Directorate
2
CO2 Emissions from Freight Context
3
CO2 from Freight
Drivers
Activity/Volume
Structure/Mode Share
Intensity/Energy Efficiency
Fuel
4
Activity
Micro level Derived Demand Siting, transport
links (rationalisation of supply base increase
in transport distances of 1.5-2 in EU)
Macro Level GDP, freight transport (3.4/yr,
5.4/yr road), geography economy
5
Total Freight Volume and GDP Correlation and
variability
20
15
10
5
Source IEA
0
5000
6
Mode
Share
Road
Rail
Shipping
Air
7
Road Freight
Transport
44 of OECD t/km (higher value/shorter distances)
Gaining share everywhere
8
Road Freight Growth tonne/km
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
million tonne/kilometres
750
Source OECD, EEA, USDOT
500
250
0
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
9
Road Freight
Transport
Benefiting from shifts in production patterns and
product cycles
Congestion
Role of transport market liberalisation
10
Rail Freight
Transport
36 of OECD t/km (lower value/longer distances)
Absolute gains, relative losses
11
Rail Freight Growth tonne/km
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
million tonne/kilometres
750
Source OECD, EEA, USDOT
500
250
0
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
12
Rail Freight
Transport
Increase in intermodal systems
Market deregulation
Infrastructure issues
13
Inland (and Coastal)
Shipping
Inland shipping 20 OECD tn/km (low value/long
distances)
Absolute gains, relative losses
Globalisation benefits shipping
14
Shipping Freight Growth tonne/km
2000
1750
1500
1250
1000
million tonne/kilometres
750
Source OECD, EEA, USDOT
500
250
0
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
15
Airborne Freight
Transport
Low absolute levels, highest growth (medium to
high value goods, long distances)
Rel. low costs (for high value goods), short
product and production cycles drivers
Globalisation benefits air
16
Energy
Intensity
Function of mode share, technical efficiency, and
load factors
17
Lifecycle GHG Emissions European Freight
Transport Modes
Source INFRAS, Zurich
18
Energy
Intensity
Technical efficiency improvements ambiguous--
Lorry 20-30 improvements not translated into
energy intensity improvements per t/km
Improvements in other areas Driver training,
logistics chain management, vehicle utilisation,
etc.
19
Road Freight Loading UK Survey Results
54 of trips were
24 of trips to more than 1.7m
loaded to between
17 to between 1.5m and 0.8m
1.5m and 1.7m
and 5 under 0.8m
2.4m
Source A. McKinnon, Heriot-Watt Univ.
Tonne-out vs. Square out vs. Cube-out
20
Variability in Fleet Energy Intensity 1998 UK
Lorry Fleet Survey
Source A. McKinnon, Heriot-Watt Univ.
21
Potential Fuel Savings from Best Practice 1998 UK
Lorry Fleet Survey
if fleets below mean
if fleets below mean
of top 1/3, achieve
performance achieve
mean performance
mean performance
of top 1/3
motive fuel savings
4,670,336
14,726,121
litres
reduction on current
9
29

level of fuel use
reduction in CO
2
12,423
39,171
tonnes
emissions
cost saving per
2,255
7,109

vehicle
Source A. McKinnon, Heriot-Watt Univ.
22
Fuels
Petroleum-based fuels dominate
Ambiguity of fuel prices for firm-level strategic
decision-making
Little use of alternative fuels, stock turn-over,
questions re. Fuel cells
23
Road Fuel Costs in Perspective EU data
  • Logistics costs 7.5 of sales revenue
  • Road transport costs 30 of logistics costs
  • Fuel 25-30 of road transport costs
  • Fuel 0.6 - 0.7 of sales revenue

Source A. McKinnon, Heriot-Watt Univ.
24
Policy
Issues
Unit gains vs. Volume effects
Technology vs. Practices
Different discourses/different agendas
Instruments Relevant? Fuel prices? Congestion?
Action now, impacts later
De-coupling Economic Activity and Freight
transport volume
25
Voluntary reduction of CO2 emissions - 45 from
1993 to 2005
Source Arretz, Otto-Versand
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