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Thinking out of the Box: Using International Service Learning to Facilitate Students

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Title: Thinking out of the Box: Using International Service Learning to Facilitate Students


1
Thinking out of the Box Using International
Service Learning to Facilitate Students Personal
Academic Growth and Development.
  • Eniabitobi Kuyinu MMFT
  • Doctoral Student in Counselor Education and
    Supervision
  • Mercer University, Atlanta GA
  • h_watch_at_yahoo.com

2
Introduction
  • International service-learning combines aspects
    of conventional study abroad with aspects of
    conventional service-learning, offering an
    exceptional degree of integration into a target
    culture and an intensive experience of community
    service. (Tonkin Quiroga, p.131, 2004)

3
Objectives of ISL
  • To enhance students ability to develop
    cross-cultural, global, and diversity awareness
    and skills.
  • To encourage critically reflection.
  • To enable student build a deeper awareness of
    self, others and the world at large thereby
    enabling the formation of an informed and engaged
    citizenry (Berry Chisholm, 1999 Brown
    Roodin, 2001 Crabtree, 2008 Sherraden et al.,
    2013 Stemberger et al., 2005).
  • To enhance the development of leaders whose
    primary concern is for the welfare of others and
    for the common good.

4
Objectives of ISL (contd)
  • To facilitate the development of more complex and
    personal understandings of issues of social
    justice and poverty from a global
    perspective(Crabtree, 2008 Tonkin Quiroga,
    2004).

5
Rationale
  • ISL expands the horizons of the students
    involved. Cross-cultural appreciation and skills
    are best learned by a combination of classroom
    study and direct encounter with the people of
    another culture.
  • ISL helps student realize that problems are
    global in character, and their solutions require
    a more complex type of processing. It also helps
    balance the concept of brain drain experienced
    by rural communities.
  • ISL involves faculty expertise and enhances the
    institutions ability to draw strong students
    interested in global issues.
  • ISL is a part of a powerful Pedagogy speaking to
    the core of needed educational reform.

6
Structure of ISL
  • In order to be effective in the students
    personal and intellectual development,
    service-learning should be both sustained and
    people-centred.
  • Learning should be rigorous, appropriate to
    academic level of students, and offers wide range
    of points of view, theories and ideas.
  • There should be a clear connection between
    academic studies and the service.
  • Students would have structured opportunities for
    reflection.

7
Theoretical Underpinning
  • Crabtree, 2008 discussed several proposed models
    to explain the process of cross-cultural
    adjustment, including
  • the U-Curve model (Lysgaard, 1955),
  • W-curve model (GullahornGullahorn,1983), which
    is an extension of the U-Curve model both of
    which are stage models.
  • the process-oriented stress-adaptation-growth
    model (Kim, 1995, 2005). Which is more recent.

8
Theoretical Underpinning
  • All these models include stages or phases of
    psychological disruption, gradual adjustment and
    adaptation over time, questioning oneself and
    ones own culture, and resultant attitude and
    behavior changes.

9
Program Design
  • Good questions to ask
  • What is the long-term impact of international
    service- learning on the communities where we
    plan to work, the surrounding communities, and in
    the countries of engagement?
  • What type of intergroup and interpersonal
    dynamics may unfold during the project related to
    both project execution and to intercultural
    contact?
  • How can this work contribute to broader, deeper,
    and more lasting consequences for all
    participants?
  • (Crabtree, 2013)

10
Program Design
  • Well defined learning objectives
  • Well defined desired outcomes
  • Identified outcome measures
  • Group members to possess a minimum level of
    proficiency in the local language prior to an ISL
    trip.
  • Involve host agency in planning the ISLP. faculty
    members could physically visit the host community
    before travelling with students.

11
Program design
  • Determine in advance supplies needed by host
    community.
  • Match International service learning sites with
    the developmental level of the students.
  • Finally, there should be a next trip, academic
    programs need to sign up for the long.
  • The longer and more in-depth the service learning
  • experience, the greater impact it will have on
    all
  • participants involved. (Budny Gradoville,
    2011).

12
Types of International Services
  • Teaching
  • Health care
  • Community Development

13
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vVKVuW6t1-Tg
14
Models of ISL
  • Group or Individual Study Service
  • Group study, Group service In this pattern
    students engage in the same set of studies and
    perform the same type of service
  • Group Study, Individual Service Here students
    are engaged in the same set of studies but are
    performing different type of service
  • Individual Study, Group Service Students may be
    engaged in the same service project but are using
    the experience to study different subjects
  •  

15
Models of ISL contd
  • Individual Study, Individual Service Here the
    student and teacher decide the learning goals and
    methods and the student performs the related
    service in an agency chosen by the college or,
    more frequently, selected by the student.
  • Concurrent Study, Service The student attends
    regularly scheduled classes several days a week
    and performs the service at some time during the
    same weeks.

16
Models of ISL contd
  • Sequenced Learning, Service The most frequent
    variation is a period of preparation followed by
    a period of service. Less frequently, the service
    is followed by a period of reflection.
  • Alternating Learning and Service most frequently
    a period of preparation followed by a period of
    service and concluding with a period of
    reflection on what has been learned and
    accomplished. In the final period, the academic
    work related to the service papers,
    presentations, and examinations is concluded.

17
Models of ISL contd
  • The multidiscipline village Students participate
    during the preparation period in defining and
    planning the project to be carried out. After the
    preparation, which occurs both on campus and in
    the field, the students and faculty move to the
    village to carry out the work in collaboration
    with the villagers. In the last stage, students
    pre-pare a written report, evaluating the
    progress to date and making recommendations for
    the next team to take up the project.
  • Thoughts?

18
Pre-departure preparation
  • This will include
  • Pre-trip orientation to include encounters with
    news accounts, films, and basic information about
    the country to be visited (geography, healthcare
    system, health beliefs/practices), the
    immigration and customs process, living
    facilities, cultural definitions, food
    preparation methods.
  • Participants also should read and discuss
    articles related to international
    service-learning.
  • reflections on spirituality, morality, and social
    justice
  • personal health and safety training

19
Pre-departure preparation
  • Team-building exercises, case studies, and other
    experiential learning over the course of the
    semester prior to immersion. Readings and
    exercises might explore group dynamics and models
    for collaboration and decision- making.
  • Information about the specific participants-
    university, students, faculty membersshould be
    shared in advance with the host agency and vice
    versa.
  • Use of guest speakers, videos or a local cultural
    immersion program to help prepare student.

20
Using Reflection Exercises (Reflective
Journaling)
  • Reflection is increasingly identified as the
    critical component of effective service-learning
    (Eyler, 2002). Have student focus on
  • their first impressions, dynamics on the work
    site, observations of community life, connections
    to prior readings.(Crabtree, 2013).
  • It allows students to think about the
    implications of their personal experiences, and
    encouraged a deeper level of contemplation about
    the experience as a whole. (Wilcox
    Taylor-Thompson, 2012).
  • Also include some opportunities for community
    members to reflect with the students. (Crabtree,
    2013).

21
Examples of Reflection Activities
  • Personal Journals
  • Directed Writings
  • Agency Presentations
  • Ethical Case Studies
  • Experiential Research Paper

22
Reflection in International Service Learning
  • Pre-service
  • Use class sessions and readings to orient
    students to history, culture, language of host
    site
  • Ask site partner to provide background
    information
  • Have students read/hear reports from previous
    students
  • In-service
  • Seek information from students on a consistent
    basis
  • Provide feedback and guidance as appropriate
  • Confer with site supervisor periodically
  • Post-service
  • Gather final assessment from site supervisor and
    students

23
Partner Selection
  • Establishing Effective Relationships
  • Know your objectives. Before contact, build a
    solid base.
  • Be able to articulate your goals, your service
    objectives and your learning expectations.
  • Know your students. What types, their range of
    interests, their limitations, their talents.
  • Know your resources.
  • Know agencies and their programs. Understand
    their structure, their mission, and their
    activities at least well enough to ask informed
    questions.
  • Make a strong effort to involve others in
    approaching agencies and to use them in an
    on-going way for program implementation.(National
    Service Clearing House, 2008)

24
Discussion starters
  • What experiences has your agency had working with
    students?
  • Why are you interested in this partnership?
  • What do you think is the most important reason
    for involving students in service-learning?
  • What is one thing you hope students would learn
    about the community or society?
  • What are the major challenges to providing
    services to community?
  • (National Service Clearing house, 2008)

25
Steps to Successful Partnerships
  • Identify Potential Partners
  • Schools, Youth Service Organizations, Nonprofit
    Organizations, Businesses
  • Identify Needs Which are of Mutual Concern
  • Do a needs assessment of the community with
    students and agency representatives.Determine
    Individuals Who Will Serve as Primary Liaisons in
    the Planning and Implementation Process
  • Assign student coordinators.
  • Visit agencies ahead of time.

26
Steps to Successful Partnerships contd
  • Negotiate and agree upon desired outcomes for all
    participants.
  • Negotiate and agree upon expectations for all
    participants.
  • Determine best method for on-going community and
    evaluation.
  • Periodically, redesign relationships based on
    changing needs and circumstances.
  • (National Service Clearing house, 2008)

27
Examples of Partner agencies
  • http//www.crossculturalsolutions.org/
  • http//www.ipsl.org/
  • http//www.greenbeltmovement.org/
  • http//www.songhai.org/en/
  • http//www.wholisticoutreachonline.org/
  • http//theeducatorng.org/
  • http//www.sheayeleen.org/
  • http//prohealthinternational.info/

28
Funding
  • Funding sources include
  • private foundations and trusts like the Ford
    Foundation and British Petroleum
  • Personal Fund Raising
  • Civic Organization Support
  • Scholarships
  • University Development Office

29
Outcome Measures
  • One specific service learning outcome measure
    that has been recommended is the End of Program
    Service Learning Survey developed by Shinnamon et
    al., 1999 to assess students, faculty and
    community partners.
  • These measures should be analyzed, with
    modifications for future trips made, as
    appropriate. (Reisch, 2011)
  • Good resources for outcome measures can be found
    at
  • http//www.towson.edu/studentaffairs/civicengageme
    nt/servicelearning/faculty/tools.aspStudentLearni
    ngOutcomes

30
Re-entry plan and challenges
  • Re-entry can result in psychological risks such
    as the feeling of rootlessness and disaffection
    with ones own culture, and long-term effects on
    cultural identity and psychological equilibrium.
  • Interventions
  • Encourage team to unite to engage in local
    community service
  • Encourage members to use the school counseling
    services to help re-integration
  • Create campus and community speaking
    opportunities about ISLP
  • Encourage follow-up research and conference
    presentations on ISL experience

31
 Ethical Issues
  • Reisch 2011, highlighted some ethical issues
    with ISL
  • It is unethical for programs to use the community
    where services are provided as simply a vector
    for student education. the academic institution
    need to make sure the relationship is mutually
    beneficial.
  • There is a need to collaborate with local
    provider of care and not make them look
    inefficient.
  • ethical issues exist regarding the continuity of
    care provided after the ISLP group departs.
  • Students and faculty must be aware of different
    perspectives on informed consent in different
    cultures.

32
Critic
  • students often have difficulty translating their
    transformations into action in the different
    settings to which they return. (Gracia Longo,
    2013)
  • ISL and other experiential educational encounters
    can reinforce prejudices (Williams McKenna,
    2002). Related concerns are that experiential
    learning focuses largely on individual students
    transformation rather than on social
    transformation.
  • students and university often benefit more than
    the communities where service takes place (Cruz
    Giles, 2000).

33
ResCritic contdponsto Critics
  • As a result, Kiely (2004) suggests a series of
    strategies for faculty to help students turn
    their emerging global consciousness . . . into
    meaningful action (p. 17). These include asking
    students to develop a contract specifying actions
    they hope to take when they come back home.
    (Gracia Longo, 2013)

34
Summary
  • To summarize, these are the recommendations for
  • international service learning activities
  • Require pre-trip knowledge of cultural,
    historical and social issues,
  • Recipient community identifies its own needs,
  • Define clear objectives and use established
    outcomes measures,
  • Require at least minimum proficiency in the local
    language,
  • Manageable group size,
  • Faculty supervision during the provision of care,
  • Allow limited tourism activities,
  • Establish clear standards for student behaviour,
  • Emphasis on sustainability and continuity of
    program.

35
Resources
  • Charting a Heros Journey, by Linda A. Chisholm
  • http//www.compact.org/

36
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37
References
  • Berry, H. A., Chisholm, L. A. (1999).
    Service-Learning in Higher Education Around
  • the World. New York International Partnership
    for Service-Learning.
  • Brown, L. H., Roodin, P. A. (2001). Service
    learning in gerontology An out-of- classroom
    experience. Educational Gerontology, 27, 89-103.
  • Budny, D., Gradoville, R. T. (2011).
    International service learning design projects
    Educating tomorrows engineers, serving the
    global community, and helping to meet ABET
    Criterion. International Journal for service
    Learning in Engineering, 6(2), 98-117.
  • Crabtree, R. D. (2008). Theoretical foundations
    for international service learning. Michigan
    Journal of Community Service Learning, 15(1),
    1836.
  • Crabtree, R. D. (2013). The intended and
    unintended consequences of international service
    learning. Journal of Higher Education Outreach
    and Engagement, 17(2) 43-65.
  • Cruz, N. I., Giles, D. E. (2000). Wheres the
    community in service-learning
  • research? Michigan Journal of Community Service
    Learning, 7, 28-34
  • Eyler, J. (2002). Reflection Linking service and
    learning linking students and communities.
    Journal of Social Issues, 58(3), 517-534.

38
References
  • Gracia, N. A., Longo, N. V. (2013). Going
    Global Reframing Service-Learning in an
    Interconnected World. Journal of Higher Education
    Outreach and Engagement,17(2), 111-135.
  • Gullahorn, J. T., Gullahorn, J. E. (1983).An
    extension of the U-curve hypothesis. Journal of
    Social Issues, 14, 33-47.
  • Kiely, R. (2004). A chameleon with a complex
    Searching for transformationin international
    service-learning. Michigan Journal of Community
    Service Learning, 10(2), 520.
  • Kim, Y. Y. (1995).Cross-cultural adaptation An
    integrative theory. In R. L. Wiseman (Ed.),
    Intercultural Communication Theory (pp. 170-193).
    Thousand Oaks, CA Sage.
  • Kim, Y. Y. (2005).Adapting to a new culture An
    integrative communication theory. In W. B.
    Gudykunst (Ed.), Theorizing about intercultural
    communication (pp. 375-400). Thousand Oaks, CA
    Sage.
  • Lysgaard, S. (1955). Adjustment in a foreign
    society Norwegian Fullbright grantees visiting
    the United States. International Social Sciences
    Bulletin, 7, 45-51.
  • Reisch, R. A. (2011). International service
    learning programs Ethical Issues and
    recommendations. Developing World Bioethics,
    11(2), 93-98

39
References
  • Sherraden, M., Lough, B. J, Bopp, A. (2013).
    Students serving abroad A framework for
    inquiry. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and
    Engagement, 17(2), 7-41
  • Shinnamon A, Gelmon S, Holland B. Methods and
    Strategies for Student Assessment. Methods and
    Strategies for Assessing Service-Learning in the
    Health Professions. San Francisco
    Community-Campus Partnerships for Health 1999.
  • Stemberger, L. G., Ford, K. A., Hale, D. C.
    (2005). International service-learning
    Integrating academics and active learning in the
    world. Journal of Public Affairs, 8, 75-96.
  • Tonkin, H., Quiroga, D. (2004). A qualitative
    approach to the assessment of international
    service-learning. The Interdisciplinary Journal
    of Study Abroad,10,131-149
  • Wilcox, J., Taylor-Thompson, K. (2012). Lived
    experiences of nursing students engaged in an
    international service learning project. Online
    Journal of Cultural Competence in Nursing and
    Healthcare, 2(3), 1-10.
  • Williams, T., McKenna, E. (2002). Negotiating
    subject positions in a service-learning context
    Toward a feminist critique of experiential
    learning. In A. A. Macdonald S. Sánchez-Casal
    (Eds.). Twenty-first-century feminist classrooms
    Pedagogies of identity and difference (135-154).
    New York Palgrave-Macmillan.
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