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Title: Chapter%20Menu


1
Chapter Menu
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Forms of
Energy Lesson 2 Energy Transfers and
Transformations Lesson 3 Particles in
Motion Chapter Wrap-Up
2
Chapter Introduction
  • What is the difference between energy transfers
    and energy transformations?

3
Chapter Introduction
  • What do you think?

Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree
with each of these statements. As you view this
presentation, see if you change your mind about
any of the statements.
4
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. An object sitting on a high shelf has no
    energy.
  • 2. There are many forms of energy.
  • 3. In most systems, no energy is transferred to
    the environment.

5
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 4. Some forms of energy are replenished
    naturally.
  • 5. Only particles that make up moving objects are
    in motion.
  • 6. Thermal energy can be transferred in several
    ways.

6
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
Forms of Energy
  • How do potential energy and kinetic energy
    differ?
  • How are mechanical energy and thermal energy
    similar?
  • What two forms of energy are carried by waves?

7
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab
Forms of Energy
  • energy
  • potential energy
  • chemical energy
  • nuclear energy
  • kinetic energy
  • electric energy
  • mechanical energy
  • thermal energy
  • wave
  • sound energy
  • radiant energy

8
Lesson 1-1
Energy
  • Energy influences everything in your life,
    including the climate, the economy, and your
    body.
  • Scientists define energy as the ability to cause
    change.

9
Lesson 1-2
Potential Energy
  • Potential energy is stored energy due to the
    interaction between objects or particles.
  • Objects have potential energy if they have the
    potential to cause change.

10
Lesson 1-2
  • Objects have gravitational potential energy if
    they have mass and height above Earths surface.

11
Lesson 1-2
Potential Energy (cont.)
  • Chemical energy is the energy stored in and
    released from the bonds between atoms.
  • Your body breaks chemical bonds in foods and
    coverts the released energy into other forms of
    energy that your body can use.

12
Lesson 1-2
Potential Energy (cont.)
  • The energy stored in and released from the
    nucleus of an atom is called nuclear energy.
  • The Suns energy is released through the process
    of nuclear fusion, during which the nuclei of
    atoms join together and release large amounts of
    energy.

13
Lesson 1-3
Kinetic Energy
  • Kinetic energy is energy due to motion.
  • An objects kinetic energy is related to the mass
    and the speed of the object.
  • The energy in an electric current is electric
    energy.

14
Lesson 1-3
Kinetic Energy (cont.)
How do potential energy and kinetic energy differ?
15
Lesson 1-4
Combined Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
  • The sum of the potential energy and the kinetic
    energy in a system is mechanical energy.

mechanical from Greek mechane, means machine
16
Lesson 1-4
Combined Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
(cont.)
  • An objects thermal energy is the sum of the
    kinetic energy and the potential energy of the
    particles that make up the object.
  • Thermal energy of an object increases when the
    potential energy, the kinetic energy, or both
    increase.

17
Lesson 1-4
Combined Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
(cont.)
Compare mechanical energy and thermal energy.
18
Lesson 1-4
Energy Carried by Waves
  • A wave is a disturbance that transfers energy
    from one place to another without transferring
    matter.
  • Sound energy is carried by sound waves.
  • The energy carried by electromagnetic waves is
    radiant energy.

19
Lesson 1-4
  • Electromagnetic waves often are described by
    their wavelengthsthe distance from one point on
    a wave to the nearest point just like it.

20
Lesson 1-4
  • Visible light is one form of radiant energy.

21
Lesson 1-4
Energy Carried by Waves (cont.)
What two forms of energy are carried by waves?
22
Lesson 1 - VS
  • Objects can have potential energy (stored energy)
    and kinetic energy (energy due to movement).
  • Mechanical energy is due to large-scale motions
    and interactions in a system. Thermal energy is
    due to atomic-scale motions and interactions in
    particles.

23
Lesson 1 - VS
  • Two kinds of energy carried by waves are sound
    energy and radiant energy.

24
Lesson 1 LR1
Which term describes energy stored in and
released from the bonds between atoms?
A. chemical energy B. kinetic energy C. mechanical
energy D. nuclear energy
25
Lesson 1 LR2
Which refers to a disturbance that transfers
energy from one place to another without
transferring matter?
A. wave B. wavelength C. potential energy
D. thermal energy
26
Lesson 1 LR3
What type of energy provides the warmth from the
Sun?
A. chemical energy B. nuclear energy C. potential
energy D. radiant energy
27
Lesson 1 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. An object sitting on a high shelf has no
    energy.
  • 2. There are many forms of energy.

28
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
Energy Transfers and Transformations
  • What is the law of conservation of energy?
  • How is energy transformed and transferred?
  • What are renewable and nonrenewable energy
    resources?

29
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
Energy Transfers and Transformations
  • work
  • open system
  • closed system
  • renewable energy resource
  • nonrenewable energy resource
  • law of conservation of energy
  • energy transfer
  • energy transformation

30
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy
  • The law of conservation of energy says that
    energy can be transformed from one form to
    another, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

31
Lesson 2-1
  • The law of conservation of energy indicates that
    the amount of radiant energy that shines out of
    the flashlight cannot be greater than the
    chemical energy stored in the battery.

32
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
What is the law of conservation of energy?
33
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
  • When energy moves from one object to another
    without changing form, an energy transfer occurs.
  • The mechanical energy of a tennis racket changing
    the movement of the ball is an example of an
    energy transfer.

34
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
  • When one form of energy is converted to another
    form of energy, an energy transformation occurs.
  • The conversion of chemical energy stored in a
    tennis players muscle changing to mechanical
    energy when she swings her arm is an example of
    an energy transformation.

35
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
Identify an energy transfer and an energy
transformation that occurs when someone plays a
guitar.
36
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
  • To a scientist, work is the transfer of energy
    that occurs when a force makes an object move in
    the direction of the force. Work is only being
    done while the force is acting on the object.
  • Any time there is an energy transformation or
    energy transfer, some energy is transformed into
    thermal energy.

37
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
  • Because energy transformations are inefficient,
    some of the chemical energy transforms to
    thermal energy and sound energy that are released
    to the environment.
  • An open system is a system that exchanges matter
    or energy with the environment.

38
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
  • A closed system is a system that does not
    exchange matter or energy with the environment.
  • In reality, there are no closed systems because
    every physical system transfers some energy to or
    from its environment.

39
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
system from Greek systema, means whole made of
several parts
40
Lesson 2-2
Energy Transformations and Electric Energy
  • A renewable energy resource is an energy resource
    that is replaced as fast as, or faster than, it
    is used.
  • Solar energy from the Sun is one type of
    renewable energy resource that can be converted
    into electric energy.

41
Lesson 2-2
Energy Transformations and Electric Energy (cont.)
  • Wind moves the blades of a wind turbine to
    generate electric energy.
  • In hydroelectric plants, falling water is
    channeled through a turbine which transforms
    mechanical energy into electric energy.

42
Lesson 2-2
Energy Transformations and Electric Energy (cont.)
  • Geothermal plants transfer thermal energy from
    the Earth to water, creating steam that turns
    turbines in electric generators.
  • Biomass includes wood, plants, manure, and
    garbage, all of which are sources of stored
    chemical energy that can be transformed to
    electric energy in energy plants.

43
Lesson 2-2
Energy Transformations and Electric Energy (cont.)
  • Nonrenewable energy resources are energy
    resources that are available in limited amounts
    or that are used faster than they can be replaced
    in nature.
  • Fossil fuels include petroleum, natural gas,
    propane and coal.
  • In nuclear energy plants, uranium atoms are split
    apart in a process called nuclear fission.

44
Lesson 2-2
  • Most of the energy used in the United States
    comes from nonrenewable energy resources.

45
Lesson 2-2
Energy Transformations and Electric Energy (cont.)
What are renewable and nonrenewable energy
resources?
46
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it
    cannot be created or destroyed.
  • Systems are classified as open systems or closed
    systems based on their interactions with their
    environment.
  • Energy resources are classified as renewable or
    nonrenewable based on their abundance and
    availability.

47
Lesson 2 LR1
Which term refers the transfer of energy that
occurs when a force makes an object move in the
direction of the force?
A. conservation B. work C. closed system D. open
system
48
Lesson 2 LR2
A cars engine is an example of which of these?
A. closed system B. energy resource C. geothermal
energy D. open system
49
Lesson 2 LR3
Which is an example of biomass?
A. open system B. solar energy C. nonrenewable
energy resource D. renewable energy resource
50
Lesson 2 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
3. In most systems, no energy is transferred to
the environment. 4. Some forms of energy are
replenished naturally.
51
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
Particles in Motion
  • What is the kinetic molecular theory?
  • In what three ways is thermal energy transferred?
  • How are thermal conductors and insulators
    different?

52
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
Particles in Motion
  • temperature
  • heat
  • conduction
  • radiation
  • convection
  • vaporization
  • thermal conductor
  • thermal insulator

53
Lesson 3-1
Kinetic Molecular Theory
  • The kinetic molecular theory explains how
    particles move and has three major points
  • All matter is made of particles.
  • Particles are in constant, random motion.
  • Particles constantly collide with each other and
    with the walls of their container.

54
Lesson 3-1
  • Particles that make up all matter are in constant
    motion. On average, solid particles move slowest,
    liquid particles move faster, and gas particles
    move the fastest.

55
Lesson 3-1
Kinetic Molecular Theory (cont.)
What are the three points of the kinetic
molecular theory?
56
Lesson 3-1
Kinetic Molecular Theory (cont.)
  • The measure of the average kinetic energy of the
    particles in a material is temperature.
  • When the particles that make up a material move
    slowly, they occupy less volume than they do at a
    higher temperature.
  • Thermal expansion is the increase in volume of a
    material due to a temperature increase.

57
Lesson 3-1
Kinetic Molecular Theory (cont.)
  • When water is cooled to near its freezing point,
    interactions between water molecules push the
    molecules apart.

58
Lesson 3-1
Kinetic Molecular Theory (cont.)
  • As the kinetic energy of the particles that make
    up a material increases, the thermal energy of
    the particles increases.
  • As the kinetic energy of the particles that make
    up a material decreases, the thermal energy of
    the particles decreases.

59
Lesson 3-1
  • When you put a warm bottle of water in a cold
    refrigerator, thermal energy is transferred.

60
Lesson 3-1
Kinetic Molecular Theory (cont.)
  • The movement of thermal energy from a region of
    higher temperature to a region of lower
    temperature is called heat.
  • When the temperatures of materials that are in
    contact are the same, the materials are said to
    be in thermal equilibrium.

61
Lesson 3-1
Kinetic Molecular Theory (cont.)
equilibrium from Latin aequus, means equal and
libra, means a balance or scale
62
Lesson 3-2
Heat Transfer
  • Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy by
    collisions between particles in matter.
  • Radiation is the transfer of thermal energy by
    electromagnetic waves.
  • Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by
    the movement of the particles from one part of a
    material to another.

63
Lesson 3-2
  • Conduction, radiation, and convection are ways
    in which thermal energy is transferred.

64
Lesson 3-2
Heat Transfer (cont.)
In what three ways is thermal energy transferred?
65
Lesson 3-3
Heat and Changes of State
  • Melting is the change of state from a solid to a
    liquid.
  • Freezing is the change of state from a liquid to
    a solid.

66
Lesson 3-3
Heat and Changes of State (cont.)
  • Vaporization is the change of state from a liquid
    to a gas.
  • Vaporization that occurs within a liquid is
    called boiling.
  • Vaporization that occurs at the surface of a
    liquid is called evaporation.

67
Lesson 3-3
Heat and Changes of State (cont.)
  • Sublimation is the change of state that occurs
    when a solid changes to a gas without passing
    through the liquid state.
  • Deposition is the change of state from a gas
    directly to a solid without passing through the
    liquid state.
  • Water vapor undergoes deposition when it freezes
    and forms frost.

68
Lesson 3-3
Heat and Changes of State (cont.)
sublime Science Use to change from a solid state
to a gas state without passing through the liquid
state Common Use inspiring awe supreme,
outstanding, or lofty in thought or language
69
Lesson 3-4
Conductors and Insulators
  • A thermal conductor is a material in which
    thermal energy moves quickly.
  • A thermal insulator is a material in which
    thermal energy moves slowly.

70
Lesson 3-4
Conductors and Insulators (cont.)
How do thermal conductors differ from thermal
insulator?
71
Lesson 3 - VS
  • The kinetic molecular theory explains how
    particles move in matter.

72
Lesson 3 - VS
  • Thermal energy is transferred in various ways by
    particles and waves.
  • Materials vary in how well they conduct thermal
    energy.

73
Lesson 3 LR1
Which term refers to the transfer of thermal
energy between particles in matter?
A. conduction B. convection C. heat D. radiation
74
Lesson 3 LR2
Which describes the transfer of thermal energy by
the movement of particles from one part of a
material to another?
A. conduction B. convection C. radiation
D. vaporization
75
Lesson 3 LR3
What is the change of state from a gas directly
to a solid without passing through the liquid
state?
A. deposition B. melting C. sublimation
D. vaporization
76
Lesson 3 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
5. Only particles that make up moving objects are
in motion. 6. Thermal energy can be transferred
in several ways.
77
Chapter Review Menu
Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept
Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
78
The BIG Idea
  • Energy is involved in all physical processes it
    is transferred when it moves from object to
    object without changing form. Energy is
    transformed when it is converted to another form.
    Energy is conserved during transfers and
    transformations.

79
Key Concepts 1
Lesson 1 Forms of Energy
  • Potential energy is stored energy, and kinetic
    energy is energy of motion.
  • Both mechanical energy and thermal energy
    involve kinetic energy and potential energy.
    Mechanical energy is the sum of the kinetic
    energy and the potential energy in a system of
    objects. Thermal energy is the sum of the kinetic
    energy and the potential energy in a system of
    particles.
  • Sound energy and radiant energy are carried by
    waves.

80
Key Concepts 2
Lesson 2 Energy Transfers and Transformations
  • The law of conservation of energy says that
    energy can be transformed from one form to
    another, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
  • Energy is transformed when it is converted from
    one form to another. It is transferred when it
    moves from one object to another.
  • Renewable energy resources are resources that
    are replaced as fast as, or faster than they are
    used. Nonrenewable energy resources are resources
    that are available in limited quantities or are
    used faster than they can be replaced.

81
Key Concepts 3
Lesson 3 Particles in Motion
  • The kinetic molecular theory says that all
    objects are made of particles all particles are
    in constant, random motion and the particles
    collide with each other and with the walls of
    their container.
  • Thermal energy is transferred by conduction,
    radiation, and convection.
  • A thermal conductor transfers thermal energy
    easily and a thermal insulator does not transfer
    thermal energy easily.

82
Chapter Review MC1
Which describes the sum of the potential energy
and the kinetic energy in a system?
A. mechanical energy B. nuclear energy C. sound
energy D. thermal energy
83
Chapter Review MC2
Which refers to energy due to motion?
A. electric energy B. kinetic energy
C. potential energy D. radiant energy
84
Chapter Review MC3
Which term refers to an energy resource that is
replaced as fast as, or faster than, it is used?
A. fossil fuel B. natural gas C. nonrenewable
energy resource D. renewable energy resource
85
Chapter Review MC4
Which term refers to a system that exchanges
matter or energy with the environment?
A. closed system B. energy resource C. open
system D. solar energy
86
Chapter Review MC5
Which refers to the movement of thermal energy
from a region of higher temperature to a region
of lower temperature?
A. conduction B. deposition C. heat D. vaporizatio
n
87
Chapter Review STP1
Which term refers to the ability to cause change?
A. energy B. heat C. wave D. work
88
Chapter Review STP2
If an object has mass and height above Earths
surface, what type of energy does it have?
A. gravitational potential energy B. kinetic
energy C. nuclear energy D. radiant energy
89
Chapter Review STP3
What type of energy is stored in and released
from the nucleus of an atom?
A. chemical energy B. nuclear energy C. radiant
energy D. thermal energy
90
Chapter Review STP4
Which term refers to energy resources that are
available in limited amounts or that are used
faster than they can be replaced in nature?
A. energy transfer B. solar energy C. nonrenewable
energy resources D. renewable energy resources
91
Chapter Review STP5
Which is a material in which thermal energy moves
slowly?
A. radiation B. kinetic energy C. thermal
conductor D. thermal insulator
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