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### Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Forms of Energy Lesson 2 Energy Transfers and Transformations Lesson 3 Particles in Motion Chapter Wrap-Up Chapter Menu – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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1
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Forms of
Energy Lesson 2 Energy Transfers and
Transformations Lesson 3 Particles in
Motion Chapter Wrap-Up
2
Chapter Introduction
• What is the difference between energy transfers
and energy transformations?

3
Chapter Introduction
• What do you think?

Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree
with each of these statements. As you view this
any of the statements.
4
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
• 1. An object sitting on a high shelf has no
energy.
• 2. There are many forms of energy.
• 3. In most systems, no energy is transferred to
the environment.

5
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
• 4. Some forms of energy are replenished
naturally.
• 5. Only particles that make up moving objects are
in motion.
• 6. Thermal energy can be transferred in several
ways.

6
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
Forms of Energy
• How do potential energy and kinetic energy
differ?
• How are mechanical energy and thermal energy
similar?
• What two forms of energy are carried by waves?

7
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab
Forms of Energy
• energy
• potential energy
• chemical energy
• nuclear energy
• kinetic energy
• electric energy
• mechanical energy
• thermal energy
• wave
• sound energy

8
Lesson 1-1
Energy
• Energy influences everything in your life,
including the climate, the economy, and your
body.
• Scientists define energy as the ability to cause
change.

9
Lesson 1-2
Potential Energy
• Potential energy is stored energy due to the
interaction between objects or particles.
• Objects have potential energy if they have the
potential to cause change.

10
Lesson 1-2
• Objects have gravitational potential energy if
they have mass and height above Earths surface.

11
Lesson 1-2
Potential Energy (cont.)
• Chemical energy is the energy stored in and
released from the bonds between atoms.
• Your body breaks chemical bonds in foods and
coverts the released energy into other forms of
energy that your body can use.

12
Lesson 1-2
Potential Energy (cont.)
• The energy stored in and released from the
nucleus of an atom is called nuclear energy.
• The Suns energy is released through the process
of nuclear fusion, during which the nuclei of
atoms join together and release large amounts of
energy.

13
Lesson 1-3
Kinetic Energy
• Kinetic energy is energy due to motion.
• An objects kinetic energy is related to the mass
and the speed of the object.
• The energy in an electric current is electric
energy.

14
Lesson 1-3
Kinetic Energy (cont.)
How do potential energy and kinetic energy differ?
15
Lesson 1-4
Combined Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
• The sum of the potential energy and the kinetic
energy in a system is mechanical energy.

mechanical from Greek mechane, means machine
16
Lesson 1-4
Combined Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
(cont.)
• An objects thermal energy is the sum of the
kinetic energy and the potential energy of the
particles that make up the object.
• Thermal energy of an object increases when the
potential energy, the kinetic energy, or both
increase.

17
Lesson 1-4
Combined Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy
(cont.)
Compare mechanical energy and thermal energy.
18
Lesson 1-4
Energy Carried by Waves
• A wave is a disturbance that transfers energy
from one place to another without transferring
matter.
• Sound energy is carried by sound waves.
• The energy carried by electromagnetic waves is

19
Lesson 1-4
• Electromagnetic waves often are described by
their wavelengthsthe distance from one point on
a wave to the nearest point just like it.

20
Lesson 1-4
• Visible light is one form of radiant energy.

21
Lesson 1-4
Energy Carried by Waves (cont.)
What two forms of energy are carried by waves?
22
Lesson 1 - VS
• Objects can have potential energy (stored energy)
and kinetic energy (energy due to movement).
• Mechanical energy is due to large-scale motions
and interactions in a system. Thermal energy is
due to atomic-scale motions and interactions in
particles.

23
Lesson 1 - VS
• Two kinds of energy carried by waves are sound

24
Lesson 1 LR1
Which term describes energy stored in and
released from the bonds between atoms?
A. chemical energy B. kinetic energy C. mechanical
energy D. nuclear energy
25
Lesson 1 LR2
Which refers to a disturbance that transfers
energy from one place to another without
transferring matter?
A. wave B. wavelength C. potential energy
D. thermal energy
26
Lesson 1 LR3
What type of energy provides the warmth from the
Sun?
A. chemical energy B. nuclear energy C. potential
27
Lesson 1 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
• 1. An object sitting on a high shelf has no
energy.
• 2. There are many forms of energy.

28
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
Energy Transfers and Transformations
• What is the law of conservation of energy?
• How is energy transformed and transferred?
• What are renewable and nonrenewable energy
resources?

29
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
Energy Transfers and Transformations
• work
• open system
• closed system
• renewable energy resource
• nonrenewable energy resource
• law of conservation of energy
• energy transfer
• energy transformation

30
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy
• The law of conservation of energy says that
energy can be transformed from one form to
another, but it cannot be created or destroyed.

31
Lesson 2-1
• The law of conservation of energy indicates that
the amount of radiant energy that shines out of
the flashlight cannot be greater than the
chemical energy stored in the battery.

32
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
What is the law of conservation of energy?
33
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
• When energy moves from one object to another
without changing form, an energy transfer occurs.
• The mechanical energy of a tennis racket changing
the movement of the ball is an example of an
energy transfer.

34
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
• When one form of energy is converted to another
form of energy, an energy transformation occurs.
• The conversion of chemical energy stored in a
tennis players muscle changing to mechanical
energy when she swings her arm is an example of
an energy transformation.

35
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
Identify an energy transfer and an energy
transformation that occurs when someone plays a
guitar.
36
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
• To a scientist, work is the transfer of energy
that occurs when a force makes an object move in
the direction of the force. Work is only being
done while the force is acting on the object.
• Any time there is an energy transformation or
energy transfer, some energy is transformed into
thermal energy.

37
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
• Because energy transformations are inefficient,
some of the chemical energy transforms to
thermal energy and sound energy that are released
to the environment.
• An open system is a system that exchanges matter
or energy with the environment.

38
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
• A closed system is a system that does not
exchange matter or energy with the environment.
• In reality, there are no closed systems because
every physical system transfers some energy to or
from its environment.

39
Lesson 2-1
Law of Conservation of Energy (cont.)
system from Greek systema, means whole made of
several parts
40
Lesson 2-2
Energy Transformations and Electric Energy
• A renewable energy resource is an energy resource
that is replaced as fast as, or faster than, it
is used.
• Solar energy from the Sun is one type of
renewable energy resource that can be converted
into electric energy.

41
Lesson 2-2
Energy Transformations and Electric Energy (cont.)
• Wind moves the blades of a wind turbine to
generate electric energy.
• In hydroelectric plants, falling water is
channeled through a turbine which transforms
mechanical energy into electric energy.

42
Lesson 2-2
Energy Transformations and Electric Energy (cont.)
• Geothermal plants transfer thermal energy from
the Earth to water, creating steam that turns
turbines in electric generators.
• Biomass includes wood, plants, manure, and
garbage, all of which are sources of stored
chemical energy that can be transformed to
electric energy in energy plants.

43
Lesson 2-2
Energy Transformations and Electric Energy (cont.)
• Nonrenewable energy resources are energy
resources that are available in limited amounts
or that are used faster than they can be replaced
in nature.
• Fossil fuels include petroleum, natural gas,
propane and coal.
• In nuclear energy plants, uranium atoms are split
apart in a process called nuclear fission.

44
Lesson 2-2
• Most of the energy used in the United States
comes from nonrenewable energy resources.

45
Lesson 2-2
Energy Transformations and Electric Energy (cont.)
What are renewable and nonrenewable energy
resources?
46
Lesson 2 - VS
• Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it
cannot be created or destroyed.
• Systems are classified as open systems or closed
systems based on their interactions with their
environment.
• Energy resources are classified as renewable or
nonrenewable based on their abundance and
availability.

47
Lesson 2 LR1
Which term refers the transfer of energy that
occurs when a force makes an object move in the
direction of the force?
A. conservation B. work C. closed system D. open
system
48
Lesson 2 LR2
A cars engine is an example of which of these?
A. closed system B. energy resource C. geothermal
energy D. open system
49
Lesson 2 LR3
Which is an example of biomass?
A. open system B. solar energy C. nonrenewable
energy resource D. renewable energy resource
50
Lesson 2 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
3. In most systems, no energy is transferred to
the environment. 4. Some forms of energy are
replenished naturally.
51
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
Particles in Motion
• What is the kinetic molecular theory?
• In what three ways is thermal energy transferred?
• How are thermal conductors and insulators
different?

52
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
Particles in Motion
• temperature
• heat
• conduction
• convection
• vaporization
• thermal conductor
• thermal insulator

53
Lesson 3-1
Kinetic Molecular Theory
• The kinetic molecular theory explains how
particles move and has three major points
• All matter is made of particles.
• Particles are in constant, random motion.
• Particles constantly collide with each other and
with the walls of their container.

54
Lesson 3-1
• Particles that make up all matter are in constant
motion. On average, solid particles move slowest,
liquid particles move faster, and gas particles
move the fastest.

55
Lesson 3-1
Kinetic Molecular Theory (cont.)
What are the three points of the kinetic
molecular theory?
56
Lesson 3-1
Kinetic Molecular Theory (cont.)
• The measure of the average kinetic energy of the
particles in a material is temperature.
• When the particles that make up a material move
slowly, they occupy less volume than they do at a
higher temperature.
• Thermal expansion is the increase in volume of a
material due to a temperature increase.

57
Lesson 3-1
Kinetic Molecular Theory (cont.)
• When water is cooled to near its freezing point,
interactions between water molecules push the
molecules apart.

58
Lesson 3-1
Kinetic Molecular Theory (cont.)
• As the kinetic energy of the particles that make
up a material increases, the thermal energy of
the particles increases.
• As the kinetic energy of the particles that make
up a material decreases, the thermal energy of
the particles decreases.

59
Lesson 3-1
• When you put a warm bottle of water in a cold
refrigerator, thermal energy is transferred.

60
Lesson 3-1
Kinetic Molecular Theory (cont.)
• The movement of thermal energy from a region of
higher temperature to a region of lower
temperature is called heat.
• When the temperatures of materials that are in
contact are the same, the materials are said to
be in thermal equilibrium.

61
Lesson 3-1
Kinetic Molecular Theory (cont.)
equilibrium from Latin aequus, means equal and
libra, means a balance or scale
62
Lesson 3-2
Heat Transfer
• Conduction is the transfer of thermal energy by
collisions between particles in matter.
• Radiation is the transfer of thermal energy by
electromagnetic waves.
• Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by
the movement of the particles from one part of a
material to another.

63
Lesson 3-2
• Conduction, radiation, and convection are ways
in which thermal energy is transferred.

64
Lesson 3-2
Heat Transfer (cont.)
In what three ways is thermal energy transferred?
65
Lesson 3-3
Heat and Changes of State
• Melting is the change of state from a solid to a
liquid.
• Freezing is the change of state from a liquid to
a solid.

66
Lesson 3-3
Heat and Changes of State (cont.)
• Vaporization is the change of state from a liquid
to a gas.
• Vaporization that occurs within a liquid is
called boiling.
• Vaporization that occurs at the surface of a
liquid is called evaporation.

67
Lesson 3-3
Heat and Changes of State (cont.)
• Sublimation is the change of state that occurs
when a solid changes to a gas without passing
through the liquid state.
• Deposition is the change of state from a gas
directly to a solid without passing through the
liquid state.
• Water vapor undergoes deposition when it freezes
and forms frost.

68
Lesson 3-3
Heat and Changes of State (cont.)
sublime Science Use to change from a solid state
to a gas state without passing through the liquid
state Common Use inspiring awe supreme,
outstanding, or lofty in thought or language
69
Lesson 3-4
Conductors and Insulators
• A thermal conductor is a material in which
thermal energy moves quickly.
• A thermal insulator is a material in which
thermal energy moves slowly.

70
Lesson 3-4
Conductors and Insulators (cont.)
How do thermal conductors differ from thermal
insulator?
71
Lesson 3 - VS
• The kinetic molecular theory explains how
particles move in matter.

72
Lesson 3 - VS
• Thermal energy is transferred in various ways by
particles and waves.
• Materials vary in how well they conduct thermal
energy.

73
Lesson 3 LR1
Which term refers to the transfer of thermal
energy between particles in matter?
A. conduction B. convection C. heat D. radiation
74
Lesson 3 LR2
Which describes the transfer of thermal energy by
the movement of particles from one part of a
material to another?
A. conduction B. convection C. radiation
D. vaporization
75
Lesson 3 LR3
What is the change of state from a gas directly
to a solid without passing through the liquid
state?
A. deposition B. melting C. sublimation
D. vaporization
76
Lesson 3 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
5. Only particles that make up moving objects are
in motion. 6. Thermal energy can be transferred
in several ways.
77
Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept
Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
78
The BIG Idea
• Energy is involved in all physical processes it
is transferred when it moves from object to
object without changing form. Energy is
transformed when it is converted to another form.
Energy is conserved during transfers and
transformations.

79
Key Concepts 1
Lesson 1 Forms of Energy
• Potential energy is stored energy, and kinetic
energy is energy of motion.
• Both mechanical energy and thermal energy
involve kinetic energy and potential energy.
Mechanical energy is the sum of the kinetic
energy and the potential energy in a system of
objects. Thermal energy is the sum of the kinetic
energy and the potential energy in a system of
particles.
• Sound energy and radiant energy are carried by
waves.

80
Key Concepts 2
Lesson 2 Energy Transfers and Transformations
• The law of conservation of energy says that
energy can be transformed from one form to
another, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
• Energy is transformed when it is converted from
one form to another. It is transferred when it
moves from one object to another.
• Renewable energy resources are resources that
are replaced as fast as, or faster than they are
used. Nonrenewable energy resources are resources
that are available in limited quantities or are
used faster than they can be replaced.

81
Key Concepts 3
Lesson 3 Particles in Motion
• The kinetic molecular theory says that all
objects are made of particles all particles are
in constant, random motion and the particles
collide with each other and with the walls of
their container.
• Thermal energy is transferred by conduction,
• A thermal conductor transfers thermal energy
easily and a thermal insulator does not transfer
thermal energy easily.

82
Chapter Review MC1
Which describes the sum of the potential energy
and the kinetic energy in a system?
A. mechanical energy B. nuclear energy C. sound
energy D. thermal energy
83
Chapter Review MC2
Which refers to energy due to motion?
A. electric energy B. kinetic energy
C. potential energy D. radiant energy
84
Chapter Review MC3
Which term refers to an energy resource that is
replaced as fast as, or faster than, it is used?
A. fossil fuel B. natural gas C. nonrenewable
energy resource D. renewable energy resource
85
Chapter Review MC4
Which term refers to a system that exchanges
matter or energy with the environment?
A. closed system B. energy resource C. open
system D. solar energy
86
Chapter Review MC5
Which refers to the movement of thermal energy
from a region of higher temperature to a region
of lower temperature?
A. conduction B. deposition C. heat D. vaporizatio
n
87
Chapter Review STP1
Which term refers to the ability to cause change?
A. energy B. heat C. wave D. work
88
Chapter Review STP2
If an object has mass and height above Earths
surface, what type of energy does it have?
A. gravitational potential energy B. kinetic
energy C. nuclear energy D. radiant energy
89
Chapter Review STP3
What type of energy is stored in and released
from the nucleus of an atom?
A. chemical energy B. nuclear energy C. radiant
energy D. thermal energy
90
Chapter Review STP4
Which term refers to energy resources that are
available in limited amounts or that are used
faster than they can be replaced in nature?
A. energy transfer B. solar energy C. nonrenewable
energy resources D. renewable energy resources
91
Chapter Review STP5
Which is a material in which thermal energy moves
slowly?
A. radiation B. kinetic energy C. thermal
conductor D. thermal insulator