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Matter

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Matter Properties and Changes Properties of Matter Changes of Matter Mixtures of Matter Elements and Compounds PROPERTIES OF MATTER Types of Properties Physical ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Matter


1
Matter Properties and Changes
  • Properties of Matter
  • Changes of Matter
  • Mixtures of Matter
  • Elements and Compounds

2
PROPERTIES OF MATTER Types of Properties
  • Physical Properties - properties that can be
    observed and measured without changing the
    composition
  • examples color, texture, hardness)
  • types of physical properties
  • 1) intensive - do not depend upon amount
    of
  • the substance
  • 2) extensive - depend upon amount of
  • the substance

3
Properties- Physical
  • Examples
  • length
  • color
  • mass
  • volume
  • density
  • phase
  • conductivity
  • texture

4
Properties Phases
  • A physical property
  • Solid
  • particles very close together
  • particles vibrate in a fixed position

5
Properties- Phases
  • Liquid
  • particles are intermediate in distance
  • particles glide past each other

6
Properties Phases
  • Gas
  • particles are far apart
  • particles are separated from eachother
  • particles move quickly

STOP
7
PROPERTIES OF MATTER Types of Properties
  • Chemical Properties - properties relating to the
    ability of substances to combine with or change
    into other substance (has a uniform and
    unchanging composition)
  • examples
  • 1) reaction with water
  • 2) ability to combine with oxygen
  • 3) reaction with acids

8
Properties- Chemical
  • Describes ability of substance to change into
    another substance
  • Examples rust, burn, bubbles, precipitate

9
Changes Physical
10
CHANGES IN MATTER Types of Changes
  • 1. physical - changes in which a substance is
    altered without changing composition
  • a. examples- phase changes, cut into pieces
  • 2. chemical - changes in which one or more
    substances change into new substances with
  • new properties
  • a. reactants substances that react
  • b. products - substances that are produced

11
Changes Chemical
  • Changes that result in a new substance
  • a.k.a chemical reaction
  • Word equation
  • hydrogen oxygen ? water
  • reactants product
  • copper silver nitrate ? silver copper
    nitrate
  • reactants product

12
Changes Chemical
  • Formula Equation
  • Cu 2AgNO3 ? Cu(NO3)2 2Ag
  • Pb(NO3)2 2KI ? PbI2 2KNO3

(be able to identify reactants and products)
13
Chemical changes
  • Examples of chemical changes
  • 1) digestion of food
  • 2) burning (combustion)
  • 3) fermentation
  • 4) rusting
  • 5) tarnishing of silver

14
CHANGES IN MATTER Evidence of Chemical Changes
  • 1. change in color and/or appearance
  • 2. change in energy
  • 3. change in odor
  • 4) formation of a precipitate or a gas


15
Energy changes related to chemical changes
(reactions)
  • exothermic - energy is released (given off in the
    form of heat or light)
  • - burning, explosion
  • endothermic - energy must be continuously added
    to keep the reaction going
  • - electrolysis of water or salt

16
MIXTURES
  • A. Definition of Mixture - combination of pure
    substances that retain their properties
  • B. Types of Mixtures
  • 1. heterogeneous - individual substances are
    distinct (composition is not uniform throughout)
  • a. examples sand, vegetable soup
  • 2. homogeneous - individual substances are not
    distinct (uniform composition throughout)
  • a. examples - solutions

17
MIXTURES Types homogeneous
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ______
  • type of solution examples
  • __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    ______
  • solid liquid sugar water,
    salt water
  • ___________________________________________
  • gas liquid carbonated
    beverages
  • __________________________________________________
    ______
  • liquid liquid alcohol, vinegar
  • __________________________________________________
    ______
  • gas gas air
  • __________________________________________________
    _____
  • solid - solid alloys (metal
    metal)
  • __________________________________________________
    ______

18
MIXTURES Separating Mixtures
  • 1. Filtration
  • 2. Distillation
  • 3. Crystallization
  • 4. Chromatography

19
ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS Element-a pure substance
that cannot be broken down by simple means
  • The periodic table organizes the 91 naturally
    occurring elements and scientifically created
    elements
  • A. Mendeleev created the original periodic table.

20
ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS Compounds
  • definition - a compound is a pure substance that
    is the combination of two or more different
    elements
  • ie NaCl table salt
  • Na- combustible solid and Cl poisonous gas
  • examples of compounds
  • a. sodium bicarbonate NaHCO3
  • b. hydrochloric acid HCl
  • c. sulfur dioxide SO2

21
ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS Compounds
  • examples of formation of compounds from elements
    (synthesis reactions)
  • a. 2 Na Cl2 -----gt 2 NaCl
  • b. 2 H2 O2 ------gt 2 H2O
  • c. N2 3H2 ------gt 2NH3

22
ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS Compounds
  • examples of decomposition of compounds to form
    elements
  • a. 2NaCl ? 2Na Cl2
  • b. 2 H2O ? 2H2 O2

23
The organization of Matter
24
Matter Flowchart
MATTER
yes
no
Can it be separated by physical means?
Homogeneous Mixture (solution)
Heterogeneous Mixture
Compound
Element
25
The Law Conservation of Mass
  • States that mass can neither be created nor
    destroyed.
  • Mass of reactants mass of products
  • 28 g of Na 28 g of Cl 56 g of NaCl

26
Law of Conservation of Mass and chemical
changes-
  • Mass reactants Mass products
  • (mass is neither created nor destroyed in
    chemical reactions)
  • Lavoisier (1743 - 1794) experiment
  • 216 g of HgO --gt 200 g Hg 16g O2
  • 216 grams of mercury oxide when heated will
    produce 200 grams of mercury and 16 grams of
    oxygen

27
Law of Definite Proportions
  • 1.Definition - a compound is always composed of
    the same elements in the same proportions by mass
  • 2. examples
  • a. water- H2O (always has a ratio of 1 gram
    of
  • hydrogen to 8 grams of oxygen)
  • b. ammonia - NH3 (always combine in a ratio
    of 14 grams of nitrogen to 3 grams of hydrogen)

28
Law of Multiple Proportions
  • 1. definition - when different compounds are
    formed by a combination of the same elements,
    different masses of one element will combine with
    the same relative mass of the other element in a
    ratio of small whole numbers

29
Law of Multiple Proportions
  • WATER (H2O)
  • 2 grams of hydrogen combine with 16 grams of
    oxygen
  • PEROXIDE (H2O2)
  • 2 grams of hydrogen combine with 32 grams of
    oxygen
  • The ratio that compares the amount of oxygen in
    water and peroxide is 12

30
Law of Multiple Proportions
  • SULFUR DIOXIDE (SO2)
  • 32 grams of sulfur combine with 32 grams of
    oxygen
  • SULFUR TRIOXIDE (SO3)
  • 32 grams of sulfur combine with 48 grams of
    oxygen
  • The ratio that compares the amount of oxygen in
    sulfur
  • dioxide and sulfur trioxide is 23
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