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INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM

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INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM I. Integumentary Structure and Function A. The integument is the largest organ of the body, and together with its epidermal structures ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM


1
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
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  • I. Integumentary Structure and Function
  •  
  • A.      The integument is the largest organ of
    the body, and together with its epidermal
    structures (hair, glands and nails) it is the
    integument system.
  •  
  • 1.  The skin is considered an organ since it
    consists of several kinds of tissues that
    function together.

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  • 2. The skin varies in thickness, the thickest
    parts of the body exposed to wear and abrasion,
    soles of feet and palms of hands.
  • 3. The thinnest is the eyelids, external
    genitalia and tympanum.
  •  
  • 4. Skin variations help to identify some
    underling problem. Example pale skin- shock,
    red skin- infection.

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  • B. Development of the Associated Structures
  •  
  • 1.  Hair, glands and nails develop from the
    germinal layer of the epidermis and are
    ectodermal in organ.
  •  
  • 2.  Before hair can form, a hair follicle must be
    present.
  •  
  • 3.  Each hair follicle begins to develop about 12
    weeks.
  •  

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  • 4. Sebaceous glands and sweat glands are both
    two important aspects of the integumentary
    system. Both develop from the germinal layer of
    the epidermis.
  •  
  • 5. Mammary glands are modified sweat glands,
    which develop like sweat glands.
  •  

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  • 6. Nails begin developing at about ten weeks.
  •  
  • 7. The thickened area of epidermis is called
    the nail field.
  •  
  • 8. The nail itself is called the nail plate.
  •  

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  • C. The integumentary system has two major
    components the cutaneous membrane and the
    accessory structures.
  •  
  • 1. Cutaneous membrane or skin is an organ
    composed of epidermis and the underlying
    connective tissues of the dermis.
  •  
  • 2. Large stem cells or germinative cells,
    culminate the stratum germinativum

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  • 3. The accessory structures include hair, nails
    and endocrine glands.
  •  
  • 4. Beneath the dermis, is the subcutaneous
    layer or the hypodermis, which attaches the
    integument to muscles or bones.

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  • 5. Five functions of the integument are
    protection, temperature maintenance, synthesis
    and storage of nutrients, sensory reception and
    excretion/secretion.
  •  

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  • D. The Epidermis
  •  
  • 1. The epidermis consists of a stratified
    squamous epithelium of several different cell
    layers.
  •  
  • 2. In thick skin (the thickest found on palms
    of your hands and soles of the feet) have five
    layers.
  •  
  • 3. Thin skin only has three layers.
  •  

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  • E. Layers of the Epidermis
  •  
  • 1. Stratum Germinativum- The deepest epidermal
    layer. Also called stratum basale. The stratum
    germinativum forms epidermal ridges.
  •  
  • 2.      Stratum granulosum consists of cells
    displaced. they make amounts of keratin.
    Keratin is water-resistant.
  •  

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  • 3. The most superficial layer of the epidermis
    is the stratum corneum, consists of 15-30 layers
    of flattened and dead epithelial cells that have
    accumulated large amounts of keratin.

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  • F. The color of your skin is caused by
    epidermal pigmentation and dermal blood supply.
  •  
  • 1. The epidermis contains two skin pigments
    carotene (orange-yellow) and Melanin (brown,
    yellow- brown or black pigmentation)
  •  
  • 2. Melanocytes make and store melanin.
  •  

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  • 3. Melanocytes activity slowly increases in
    response to sunlight.
  •  
  • 4. Freckles are areas of larger than average
    melanin production.
  •  

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  • 5. Sunlight contains significant amounts of
    Ultraviolet radiation (UV). A small amount of UV
    is necessary for the production of vitamin D.
  •  
  • 6. Vitamin D is absorbed by the liver and then
    converted by the kidneys into calcitriol, a
    hormone essential for the absorption of calcium
    and phosphorous. Low levels of Vitamin D can
    lead to abnormal bone growth

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  • 7. To much exposure to UV can cause serious
    burns or cancer
  •  
  • 8. Despite the presence of melanin, long-term
    damage can result form repeated exposure, even in
    darkly pigmented individuals.

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  • G. Dermal Circulation
  •  
  • 1. Blood with abundant oxygen is bright red,
    which is apparent in lightly pigmented
    individuals.
  •  
  • 2.  Skin takes on a bluish color when it has low
    levels of oxygen or when the skin is very cold.
    This condition is called cyanosis. It can occur
    for poor circulatory disorders (blue lips, skin)
    and heart conditions.
  •  

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  • H. Skin Cancer
  •  
  • 1. Skin cancers are the most common form of
    cancer.
  •  
  • 2.  Basal cell carcinoma is a malignant cancer
    that originates in the stratum basal layer. This
    is the most common skin cancer.

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  • 3. Less common are squamous cell carcinomas.
    Metastasis (spreading) seldom occurs in either
    cancer, and most people survive these cancers.
  •  

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  • 4. Melanomas are extremely dangerous.
  •  
  • 5. Melanomas usually begins from a mole but may
    appear anywhere in the body. This type of cancer
    grows quickly and metastasizes through the
    lymphatic system.
  •  

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  • 6. The outlook for long-term survival depends
    on when the condition was detected and treated.
  •  

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II. The Dermis
  • A. Layers of the dermis
  •  
  • 1.      The papillary layer consists of loose
    connective tissue that supports ad nourishes the
    epidermis.
  •  
  • 2.      The deeper reticular layer consists of
    irregular connective tissue.
  •  
  • 3.      The dermis contains a mixed cell
    population that include small of the cells of
    connective tissue.
  •  

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  • B. The subcutaneous layer
  •  
  • 1. The subcutaneous layer (hypodermis) consists
    of loose connective tissue with many fat cells.
  •  
  • 2. These adipose (fat) cells provide infants
    and small children with a layer of baby fat,
    which helps them reduce heat loss.

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  • 4. Subcutaneous fat acts as in insulator and
    also serves as energy reserve and a shock
    absorber.
  •  
  • 5. As we grow where we store fat changes.
  •  

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  • 6.    Men tend to store it in the neck, upper
    arms and along the lower back and over the
    buttocks.

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  • 7. Women store in their breasts, buttocks,
    hips and thighs.
  •  
  • 8. Both men and women can also store adipose
    tissue in the abdominal region, pot belly.
  •  

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  • C. Assessory structures
  •  
  • 1.      Accessory structures include hair
    follicles, sebaceous glands, sweat glands and
    nails.
  •  
  • 2. Hairs project above the surface of the skin
    almost everywhere except over the sides and soles
    of the feet, palms of the hands and sides of the
    fingers and toes, lips and portions of the
    external genital organs.

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  • 3. Hairs are nonliving structures produced in
    organs called hair follicles.
  •  
  • 4. Hair follicles project deep into the dermis
    and often extend into the underlying subcutaneous
    layer.
  •  
  • 5. Hair papilla is a peg of connective tissue
    containing capillaries and nerves.

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  • 6. A hair root is the portion that anchors the
    hair into the skin.
  •  
  • 7. The hair shaft is the part we see on the
    surface

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  • 8. We have over 5 million hairs on our body and
    they all serve important functions.
  •  
  • 9. The roughly 100,000 hairs on our head
    protect our scalp from UV light, helps cushion a
    light blow to the head and provides insulation
    benefits for the skull.
  •  
  • 10. Nose hairs, ear hairs and eyelashes protect
    entry of foreign particles and insects.
  •  

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  • 11. Arrector pili muscles extend from the
    papillary dermis. When stimulated it makes the
    hairs stand up. Could be caused by emotions or
    response to cold.
  •  
  • 12. Hair color reflects differences in the
    type and amounts of pigment produced by
    melanocytes.
  •  

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  • 13. Hair color is genetically controlled by
    environmental conditions or hormones may make the
    hair lighter.
  •  
  • 14. On average about 50 hairs are lost a day
    but conditions could alter this drug use,
    dietary factors, radiation, high fever, stress or
    hormonal factors regarding pregnancy.
  •  

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  • 15. In males, changes in he level of
    circulating sex hormones can affect the scalp,
    causing a shift in production from normal hair to
    peach fuzz- male pattern baldness

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III. Sebaceous glands
  • A. The integument contains two types of
    exocrine glands sebaceous and sweat glands.
  •  
  • 1. Sebaceous glands or oil glands discharge a
    waxy, oil secretion into hair follicles or on to
    the skin.
  •  
  • 2. Sebum is oil squeezed into the hair shaft,
    which inhibits the growth of bacteria.
  •  

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  • 3. The skin contains two different types of
    sweat glands apocrine and merocrine sweat
    glands.
  •  
  •  
  •  

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  • B. Apocrine
  •  
  • 1.      Apocrine sweat glands secrete their
    secretions into the hair follicles in the
    armpits, around the nipples, and the groin.
  •  
  • 2.      At puberty these glands are active.
  •  

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  • C. Merocrine sweat glands
  •  
  • 1.      Merocrine sweat glands or eccrine sweat
    glands are far more numerous than apocrine.
  •  
  • 2.      The skin contains about 2-5 million
    merocrine glands.

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  • 3. Their secretion is called perspiration, cool
    the surface of the skin and reduce body
    temperature.
  •  
  • 4. The skin also contains other modified sweat
    glands- mammary glands that secrete milk.
  •  
  • 5. Ceruminous gland secretes earwax

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  •  
  • D. Nails
  •  
  • 1.      Nails form on the dorsal surface of
    fingers and toes.
  •  
  • 2.      Know the diagram of the finger fig 5.8
  •  

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IV. Local control and homeostasis
  • A. Injury and repair
  •  
  • 1.      The skin can regenerate effectively even
    after considerable damage ahs occurred.
  •  

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  • 2. There are four steps in repair.
  •  
  • a. Bleeding occurs at the injury tries to push
    out all the possible bacteria. Mast cells in the
    region trigger an inflammatory response.
  •  
  • b. A scab forms. Phagocytic cells remove the
    debris and damaged cells. Clotting around the
    edges begin.

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  • c. Phagocytic activity has ended, and the blood
    clot is disintegrating,
  •  
  • d. Scab shed, depression is left where the
    injury occurred but scar tissue is forming.

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  • 3. Burns are the most common injury that result
    from exposure of the skin to heat, radiation,
    electric shock or strong chemical agents. The
    degree of damage depends on how deep the burn
    goes.
  •  

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  • C. Aging and the Integumentary System
  •  
  • 1.      Skin injuries and infections become more
    common.
  •  
  • 2.      The sensitivity of the immune system is
    reduced.
  •  
  • 3. Muscles become weaker, and bone strength
    decreases.

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  • 4. Sensitivity to sun exposure increases.
  •  
  • 5. The skin becomes dry and often scaly.
  •  
  • 6. Hair thins and changes in color.
  •  
  • 7. Sagging and wrinkling of the skin appears.

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  • 8. The ability to lose heat decreases.
  •  
  • 9. Skin repairs proceed relatively slow.
  •  

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V. Clinical considerations
  • A. Inflammatory Conditions
  • 1.    Immunological hypersensitivity or
    infectious agents cause inflammatory skin
    disorders. (Infection)
  •  

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  • 2. Allergies is a hypersensitive
    reaction-redness, itching and swollen symptoms.
  •  
  • 3. Both benign and malignant neoplastic
    conditions are diseases of the skin- skin cancer.
  •  
  • 4. Moles are a benign neoplastic growth.

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  • B. Burns
  •  
  • 1.    First degree burns- the epidermal layer of
    the skin are damaged- redness, pain and edema
    (swelling)
  •  

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  • 2. Secondary degree burns- involves the
    epidermis and the dermis, blisters may appear and
    recovery is usually slow.

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  • 3. Third degree burns destroy the entire
    thickness of the skin and frequently some
    underlying muscle. The skin appears charred and
    is insensitive to touch.
  •  

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  • C. Frostbite
  • 1. First degree- the skin will appear cyanotic
    (bluish) and swollen.
  • 2. Second degree- vesicle formation and
    hyperemia (swollen blood)
  • 3. Third degree- Severed edema, some bleeding
    and numbness followed y intense throbbing pain
    and necrosis of the affected tissue. Gangrene
    will follow untreated third degree burns.
  •  

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  • D. Skin Grafts
  • 1.    If extensive area is damaged new skin
    cannot grow back.
  •  
  • 2.    A skin graft is a segment of skin that has
    excised from a donor site and is transplanted to
    the recipient site or graft bed.
  •  

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The end- Integumentary system skin/hair/glands/na
ils
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