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LEARNING

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LEARNING How do we learn? Most learning is associative learning Learning that certain events occur together. Learning is a relatively permanent change in an organism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LEARNING


1
LEARNING
2
How do we learn?
  • Most learning is associative learning
  • Learning that certain events occur together.
  • Learning is a relatively permanent change in an
    organisms behavior due to experience.
  • Learning is more flexible in comparison to the
    genetically-programmed behaviors of Chinooks, for
    example.

3
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4
Three Main Types of Learning
Classical Conditioning
Operant Conditioning
  • Observational Learning

Latent Learning
Abstract Learning
Insight Learning
5
Classical Conditioning
  • Ideas of classical conditioning originated with
    the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. His work
    provided a basis for later behaviorists like John
    Watson.

6
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Classical Conditioning, Explained
  • The most important thing to remember is that
    classical conditioning involves automatic or
    reflexive physical responses, and not voluntary
    behavior (thats operant conditioning)

8
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) a stimulus that
naturally and automatically triggers a response.
Unconditional Response (UCR) the unlearned,
naturally occurring response to the UCS.
9
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) an originally
irrelevant stimulus that, after association with
the UCS, comes to trigger a response.
Conditioned Response (CR) the learned response
to a previously neutral stimulus.
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11
What are some examples of Classical Conditioning
in your life
12
Pavlov spent the rest of his life outlining his
ideas. He came up with 5 critical terms that
together make up classical conditioning.
  • Acquisition
  • Generalization
  • Extinction
  • Spontaneous Recovery
  • Discrimination

13
Acquisition
  • The initial stage of learning.
  • The phase where the neutral stimulus is
    associated with the UCS so that the neutral
    stimulus comes to elicit the CR (thus becoming
    the CS).

Does timing matter?
  • The CS should come before the UCS
  • They should be very close together in timing.

14
Generalization
  • The tendency, once a response has been
    conditioned, for stimuli similar to the CS to
    elicit similar responses.
  • Watsons experiment with Little Albert- you
    could associate the same response to a similar
    stimuli.
  • In little Alberts case his fear (UCR) of rats
    based on loud noises (UCS) by Watson.

15
Extinction
  • The diminishing of a conditioned response.
  • Will eventually happen when the UCS does not
    follow the CS.

Is extinction permanent?
16
Spontaneous Recovery
  • The reappearance. After a rest period, of an
    extinguished conditioned response.
  • The previously lost or forgotten response is
    recovered without doing anything.

17
Discrimination
  • The learned ability to distinguish between a CS
    and other stimuli that does not signal UCS.

18
Operant Classical Conditioning
  • Classical conditioning involves automatic or
    reflexive physical responses Operant
    conditioning, on the other hand is a voluntary
    response
  • Operant conditioning involves operant behavior, a
    behavior that operates on the environment,
    producing rewards or punishment.
  • Consequences lead to changes in voluntary
    behavior

19
Types of Reinforcement- Reinforcement Any event
that strengthens the behavior it follows.
20
Article questions
  • Do you believe that paying students for good
    grades impacts is a positive or negative
    reinforcement? How so?
  • What are the consequences of over praising
    children? What maybe some of the unforeseen
    ramifications?

21
Punishment-An aversive event that decreases the
behavior it follows.
22
Marine Boot Camp and Classical and Operant
conditioning Footage
23
  • What types of operant conditioning did you
    witness through out the video?
  • Remember Operant Conditioning is divided into
    Reinforcements both positive and negative to
    increase behavior
  • and Punishments to decrease behavior.
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